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THE 

SACRED BOOKS OF THE BUDDHISTS 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/bookofdiscipline03hornuoft 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE BUDDHISTS 

TRANSLATED 

BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 

AND EDITED BY 

T. W. RHYS DAVIDS 

LL.D., Ph.D., D.Sc, F.B.A. 

PROFESSOR OF COMPARATIV'E RELIGION AT THE 
UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATRONAGE OF 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF SIAM 



VOL. Ill 



London 
HENRY FROVVDE 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 
AMEN CORNER, E.C. 

I91O 




TO 

THE MEMORY OF 

F. MAX MiJLLER 

WHO FOUNDED THIS SERIES OF THE SACRED 

BOOKS OF THE BUDDHISTS AND WHO DID IN 

SO MANY OTHER WAYS SO MUCH FOR THE 

CAUSE OF ORIENTAL LEARNING 

THIS VOLUME 

IS GRATEFULLY DEDICATED 

BY THE TRANSLATORS 



6L 
KIO 

v. 3 



DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA 



TRANSLATED FROM THE PALI 
OF THE DJGHA NIK A YA 



T. W. AND C. A. F. RHYS DAVIDS 



PART II 



Bonion 

HENRY FROWDE 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 
AMEN CORNER, E.G. 

19IO 



CONTENTS. 

14. Mahapadana Suttanta page 

Introduction (Buddhas, Bodhisats, and Arahants) . i 
Text . 4 

15. Maha Nidana Suttanta 

Introduction (The doctrine of natural causation) . 42 
Text .... ...... 50 

16. Maha Parinibbana Suttanta 

Introduction (Passages in this Suttanta compared with 
others) . . . . . . • "i 

Text .......... 78 

17. Maha Sudassana Suttanta 

Introduction (Comparison with other versions) . .192 
Text. . . . . . -199 

18. Jana-vasabha Suttanta 

Introduction (Buddhist irony. Two expressions dis- 
cussed) 233 

Text. ......... 237 

19. Maha-Govinda Suttanta 

Introduction (More irony. Other versions compared) 253 
Text 259 

20. Maha-Samaya Suttanta 

Introduction (A glimpse of the evolution of gods) . 282 
Text 284 

21. Sakka-Panha Suttanta 

Introduction (The conversion of a god. The Sakka 

myth) 294 

Text 299 



Vlll DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA. 

2 2. MaHA SATIPAT-r^ANA SuTTANTA PAGE 

Introduction (Discussion of the title) . . . .322 
Text 327 

23. Payasi Suttanta 

Introduction (Teaching of the Community after the 

Buddha's death. Doctrine of Dana) . . . 347 
Text 349 

Index of Principal Subjects and Proper Names . . -375 

Index of Pali Words 381 



INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

mahApadAna suttanta. 

We find in this tract the root of that Bira/za-weed which, 
growing up along with the rest of Buddhism, went on spread- 
ing so luxuriantly that it gradually covered up much that was 
of value in the earlier teaching, and finally led to the down- 
fall, in its home in India, of the ancient faith. The doctrine 
of the Bodhisatta, of the Wisdom-Being, drove out the 
doctrine of the Aryan Path. A gorgeous hierarchy of 
mythological wonder-workers filled men's minds, and the older 
system of self-training and self-control became forgotten. 

Even at its first appearance here the weed is not attractive. 
The craving for edification is more manifest in it than the 
desire for truth. We have legends of six forerunners of the 
historical Buddha, each constructed with wearisome iteration, 
in imitation of the then accepted beliefs as to the life 
of Gotama. So exactly do these six legends follow one 
pattern that it has been possible, without the omission of any 
detail, to arrange them in parallel columns. 

The main motive of this parallelism is revealed in the con- 
stantly repeated refrain Ayam ettha dhammata: 'That, in 
such a case, is the rule,' the Norm, the natural order of things, 
according to the reign of law in the moral and physical world. 
Precisely the same idea is emphasized in the doctrine of depen- 
dent origination, the Pa/icca-samuppada, placed here in the 
mouth of Vipassi, the most ancient of these six teachers of 
old. The fact that it is so placed shows that the early 
Buddhists, when our Suttanta was composed, believed this 
doctrine to have been pre-Buddhistic. 

It is probable that all the great religious teachers of 
antiquity a.ppealed, in support of their views, to the wise men 
of still older times. It is so recorded of most of them ; and 
where it is not recorded, as in the cases of Lao Tsu and Zara- 
thustra, that is probably due to the meagreness of the extant 
records. In every country where the level of intelligence 
was sufficient to produce a great leader of men in matters of 
religion, it was sufficient also to bear in remembrance the 
names at least, and a vague notion as to some of the doctrines, 
of former, if perhaps less successful and famous, reformers. 

III. B 



INTRODUCTION. 



But a Wisdom-Being, appearing from aeon to aeon under 
similar circumstances to propound a similar faith ! This is 
an exclusively Indian conception ; in Indian literature it is 
mainly Buddhist ; and in Buddhist literature its first ap- 
pearance is in documents of the date of our Suttanta. Did 
the Buddha himself know anything of this theory ? Possibly 
not. The theory of a number of successive Buddhas pre- 
supposes the conception of a Buddha as a different and more 
exalted personage than an Arahant. Now in our oldest 
documents these two conceptions are still in a state of fusion. 
The word Buddha does not occur in its later, special, technical 
sense. It occurs often enough in ambiguous phrases, where 
it may be translated by 'Converted One, Awakened One.' 
Thus at Sutta Nipata 48 it is said, of Gotama, 'The 
Awakened One (Buddho) came to Rajagaha'; but the time 
referred to is some years before he had become a Buddha 
m the later technical sense. And at Sutta Nipata 1 67 it is 
said : ' Let us ask Gotama, the awakened one who has passed 
beyond anger and fear ' ; but the very same adjectives are 
used at Itivuttaka, No. 68, of any ordinary Arahant. So the 
phrases used to describe the mental crises in Gotama's career 
are invariably precisely the same as those used under similar 
circumstances of his disciples ; and this holds good both of 
his going forth, and of his victory and attainment of Nirvana 
under the Tree of Wisdom. Further than that, in long descrip- 
tions of Gotama — such for instance as that in Sutta Nipata, 
verses 153 to 167 — all the epithets used are found elsewhere 
applied to one or other of his disciples. The teacher never 
called himself a Buddha (as distinct from an Arahant). When 
addressed as Buddha, or spoken of as such, by his followers, 
it is always doubtful whether anything more is meant than an 
enlightened Arahant. 

It is needless to state that this does not in the least imply 
any sense of equality between the teacher and his disciples. 
The very oldest documents represent the difference as im- 
measurable ; but as a difference of degree, not of kind. The 
question is as to the manner of the growth and hardening 
of this sense of difference ; and as to the consequent gradual 
change in the connotation of words. 

In the episode of the events between the Wisdom Tree and 
the First Discourse, in which — for the first time perhaps — we 
twice have the epithet Sammasambuddha^, it is in a similar 
way associated both times on equal terms with Araha. So 

' Majjhimal, 171; Vinaya I, 8, 9; Katha Vatthu 289; compare 
Divy. 393; Mahdvastu III, 326; JStaka II, 284. 



INTRODUCTION. 



the word Bodhisatta has gradually changed its meaning and 
implication. First used of Gotama between the Going Forth 
and the Nirvana, it is then used of him from the moment 
of conception ; then of all the Buddhas from conception 
to Arahantship ; then of those beings on earth — men or 
animals — who were eventually to become Buddhas ; then 
of gods ; and finally it became a sort of degree in theology, 
and was used as a term of respect for any learned and able 
Mahayanist doctor. 

The word Apadana. used in the title of this Suttanta for 
the legend or life-story of a Buddha, is also used as a title of 
a book in the supplementary Nikaya. There it has come 
generally to mean the legend or life-story of an Arahant, 
male or female, though the older connotation is also found. 
In later books it is never used, I think, for the legend of a 
Buddha. The full title may mean the Story of the Great 
Ones — that is the Seven Buddhas — or the Great (the important) 
Story — that is the Story of the Dhamma, and its bearers and 
promulgators. The last is probably what is meant, as in the 
corresponding title of the Mahavastu. 



B 2 



[XIV. mahApadAna suttanta. 

THE SUBLIME STORY.] 

1. [i] Thus have I heard. The Exalted One was 
once staying at Savatthi, in Anatha Pi;z^ka's pleasaunce 
in the J eta Wood, at the Kareri-tree cottage ^ Now 
among many bhikkhus who had returned from their 
alms-tour and were assembled, sitting together after 
their meal, in the pavilion in the Kareri grounds ^, 
a religious conversation bearing on previous births 
arose, to the effect that thus and thus were previous 
births ^ 

2. And the Exalted One, with clear and Heavenly 
Ear surpassing the hearing of men, overheard this 
conversation among the bhikkhus *. And arising from 

^ Kareri, according to Childers, is Capparts trifoliata. The Cy. 
states that this tree which stood by the entrance to the cottage was 
a Varu«a-tree, suggestive, if true, of the superseded tree-cult into which 
Varuwa-worship had declined. See Rhys Davids's 'Buddhist India,' 
p. 235 ; Jat, IV, 8. There were four principal buildings in the Jeta 
Wood : the cottage or chamber in question, the Kosamba-tree cottage, 
a perfumed chamber, and the fir-tree house (sala/a = sarala-ghara). 
According to the commentator each cost 100,000 [? kahapawas] to 
build, but the ancient bas-relief on the Bharahat Tope shows clearly 
cottages, and apparently cottages of only one room each. In § 12 
below this cottage is called a vihara; and the latter word, in the 
ancient texts, always means a single room or lodging-place. Anatha- 
pi«<fika had built the first three, King Pasenadi the last. 

"^ Ma/o. Buddhaghosa describes this as a nistdana-sala, or sitting- 
room, built near the cottage. At the time when this Suttanta was 
composed it meant a thatched roof supported by wooden pillars. 
There were no walls to it. 

* According to the Cy. only religious teachers, religious disciples, 
Pacceka-Buddhas, and the Saviour Buddhas could recall their own or 
other previous lives, and, of the first, only those who taught Karma. 
Except the memories of the great Buddhas, which have no limit what- 
ever, a limit is given in the case of each of these classes, past which 
they could not recall. This systematizing of a popular belief seems to 
indicate that, when Buddhaghosa lived, no claim to such transcendent 
memory was actually made among his contemporaries. 

* Buddhaghosa distinguishes between the ' omniscient knowledge ' 
by which the Buddha realizes the drift of the talk in the Brahmajala 



D. ii. 2. THE SUBLIME STORY. 5 

his seat he came to the pavilion in the Kareri grounds, 
and took his seat on the mat spread out for him. And 
when he had sat down he said to the brethren : — 
'What is the talk on which you are engaged sitting 
here, and what is the subject of conversation between 
you ? ' [And they told him all.] 

3. [2] Then he said : — ' Do you not wish, brethren, 
to hear some religious talk on the subject of former 
lives ? ' 

* Now is the time, O Exalted One, now is the time, 

Welcome One, for the Exalted One to give us a 
religious discourse on the subject of former lives. 
When the brethren have heard it from the Exalted 
One they will bear it in mind.' 

'Wherefore then, brethren, hearken well to me, and 

1 will speak.' 

' So be it, lord,' replied the brethren. And the 
Exalted One said : — 

4. ' It is now ninety-one aeons ago, brethren, since 
Vipassi, the Exalted One, Arahant, Buddha Supreme, 
arose in the world. It is now thirty-one aeons ago, 
brethren, since Sikhi, the Exalted One, Arahant, 
Buddha Supreme, arose in the world. It was in that 
same thirty-first aeon, brethren, that Vessabhu, the 
Exalted One, Arahant, Buddha Supreme, arose in the 
world. It was in this present auspicious aeon, brethren, 
that Kakusandha, the Exalted One, Arahant, Buddha 
Supreme, arose in the world. It was in this auspicious 
aeon, brethren, that Konagamana, the Exalted One, 
Arahant, Buddha Supreme, arose in the world. It was 
in this auspicious aeon, brethren, that Kassapa, the 
Exalted One, Arahant, Buddha Supreme, arose in 
the world. It is in this auspicious aeon, brethren, 
that now I, an Arahant, Buddha Supreme, have arisen 
in the world.' 

5-12. [And in like manner the rest of the statements 
in the following table are given in similar paragraphs.] 

Suttanta (' Dialogues,' I, 2), and the divine hearing, as by a finer sense, 
operating here. 



XIV. MAHAPADANA SUTTANTA. 



D. ii. 2. 





Kappa, Aeon. 


Jati, Social 
rank. 


Gotta, 
Family. 


Length 
of life 
at that 
epoch. 


Tree under 

which he 

became 

enlightened. 










Years 




I. Vipassi 


91st from now 


Noble 


Kondaniia 


80000 


PaMi 


2. Sikhi 


31st from now 


do. 


do. 


70000 


PuM(/artka 


3. Vessabhu 


do. 


do. 


do. 


60000 


Sala 


4. Kakusandha 


In this aeon 


Brahmin 


Kassapa 


40000 


Sirisa 


5. Konagamana 


do. 


do. 


do. 


30000 


Udumbara 


6. Kassapa 


do. 


do. 


do. 


20000 


Nigrodha 


7. Gotama 


do. 


Noble 


Gotama 


100 


Assattha 



13. [s] Now not long after he had gone out, this 
talk arose among the brethren : — ' How wonderful a 
thing, brethren, and how strange is the great genius, 
the master mind of the Tathagata, that he should 
remember the Buddhas of old, who attained final 
completion, who cut off obstacles, who cut down bar- 
riers, who have ended the cycle, who have escaped 
from all sorrow — that he should remember of these 
that such was their rank, such were their personal names, 
such were their family names, such the span of their 
lives, such their pair of disciples, and such the number 
of the congregations of their disciples, telling us : — " Of 
such was the birth of those Exalted Ones, such were 
their names, and their clans ; such were their morals, 
their doctrines, their wisdom ; thus did they live, and 
thus they gained emancipation." Now, what think you, 
brother ? Has this principle of truth been clearly 
discerned by the Tathagata, so that by his discernment 
of it he remembers [all those facts] about the Buddhas 
of the past ? Or have gods revealed this matter to 
the Tathdgata, so that thereby he remembers ? ' 



D. ii. II. 



THE SUBLIME STORY. 



Names of 
two chief 
disciples. 


Number of 
Arahants 
present at 

assemblies. 


Name 
of usual 
attendant 
Bhikkhu. 


Father. 


Mother. 


Birth-place. 


I Kha«^a 
( Tissa 

Abhibhu 
Sambhava 

I So«a 
1 Uttara 

i Vidhura 
I Sanjiva 

Bhiyyosa 
Uttara 

1 Tissa 
Bharadvaja 

i Sariputta 
\ Moggallana 


68 lacs 

looooo 

Soooo 

lOOOOO 

80000 
( 70000 
I 80000 
. 70000 
( 60000 

40000 

30000 

20000 

1250 


Asoka 

Khemankura 

Upasannaka 

Buddhija 

Sotthija 

Sabbamitta 

Ananda 


Bandhuma 

Anuia 

Snppatita 

Aggidatta 

Yaniiadatta 

Brahmadatta 

Saddhodana 


Bandhumatt 

PabhSvati 

Yasavati 

Visakha 

Uttara 

Dhanavati 

Maya 


Bandhumati 

Pabhavati 

Anopama 

KhemavatI 

Sobhavati 

Bara^asi 

Kapilavatthu 



14. [9] Now such was the trend of the talk that 
was o^oinor on amongr the brethren when the Exahed 
One, rousing himself at eventide from meditation, 
went to the pavilion in the Kareri grounds, and took 
his seat on the mat spread out for him. And when 
he had sat down, he said to the brethren : — ' What is 
the talk on which you are engaged, brethren, as ye sit 
here, and what was the subject of conversation between 
you ? ' [And they told him all.] 

15. [10] 'It is through his clear discernment of 
a principle of the truth, brethren, that the Tathagata 
is able to remember [all those facts about the Buddhas 
of old ^]. And gods also have revealed these matters 
to him, enabling him to remember [all those things]. 
Do ye not wish, brethren, to hear yet further religious 
discourse bearing on former lives ? ' 

[u] ' Now, O Exalted One, is the time, now, O 
Welcome One, is the time ! Whatsoever the Exalted 



' In the text is a full repetition of the reminiscence given in § 13. 



XIV. MAHAPADANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. ii. 

One may tell us further bearing on former lives, the 
brethren will listen to it and bear it in mind.' 

' Wherefore, brethren, hearken and attend well, and 

1 will speak.' 

' So be it, lord,' replied the brethren. The Exalted 
One said : — 

i6. ' I have told you, brethren, when Vipassi, the 
Exalted One, Arahant, Buddha Supreme, arose in the 
world, into what rank and family he was born, how 
long he lived, where he became a Buddha, the names 
of his leading disciples, the number of his disciples, 
the name of his ministering bhikkhu, of his father, 
his mother, and of their place of residence^. 

1 7. [12] ' Now Vipassi, brethren, when, as Bodhisat, 
he ceased to belong to the hosts of the heaven of 
Delight, descended into his mother's womb mindful 
and self-possessed 2. That, in such a case, is the 
rule ■''. 

* The text repeats verbatim all that was said above of Vipassi. 

"^ This and following paragraphs (to § 30 inclusive) recur in the 
Acchariyabbhutadhamma Sutta (M. Ill, pp. 119-24). The notes 
appended by Dr. Neumann to his translation of that Sutta, giving 
parallels from Christian archaeology, are of great interest. (JReden 
Gotamo Buddho's Majjhimanikayo, III, pp. 253 ff.) How the Birth- 
legend had developed in the fifth century a. d. may be seen in the 
Nidanakatha, translated in Rhys Davids's ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' 
pp. 62 fF. 

This state of mind in Rule the first, according to a voluminous 
comment by Buddhaghosa, refers more to the termination of the 
Bodhisat's life in the Tusita heaven, than to any miraculous embryonic 
commencement. He is depicted as being fully aware, with his angelic 
neighbours, of the imminent culminating career awaiting him, and to 
have selected country, region, town, father and mother, on the eve of 
his ' fall ' from heaven. He is further said to be conscious that he 
was qua god deceased : — ' Thus fallen (or deceased) he knows ' I fall.' 
But he is not aware of his cuti-cittam, or dying thought. As to when 
there is awareness of re-conception, the Buddhist fathers were not 
agreed. But they admit that, in its content, the dawning idea was 
either the first, or the fifth of the eight types of 'good thought' 
enumerated in Dhamma-Sangawi (pp. i, 39 of the translation). But 
we learn, under § 21, that there was no consciousness by way of the 
five senses before birth. 

^ Dhammata, i.e. says the Cy. in the nature, or order of things. 
The five old-world order of things is the Order of Karma, of the 



D. ii. 12. THE SUBLIME STORY. 9 

' It is the rule, brethren, that, when the Bodhisat 
ceases to belong to the hosts of the heaven of Delight, 
and enters a mother's womb, there is made manifest 
throughout the universe — including the worlds above 
of the gods, the Maras and the Brahmis, and the world 
below with its recluses and brahmins, its princes and 
peoples — an infinite and splendid radiance, passing the 
glory of the gods. Even in those spaces which are 
between the worlds, baseless \ murky and dark, and 
where even moon and sun, so wondrous and mighty, 
cannot prevail to give light, even there is made mani- 
fest this infinite and splendid radiance, passing the 
glory of the gods. And those beings who happen to 
be existing there -, perceiving each other by that 
radiance, say : — " Verily there be other beings living 
here ! " And the ten thousand worlds of the universe 
tremble and shudder and quake. And that this infinite 
splendid radiance is made manifest in the world, pass- 
ing the glory of the gods — that, in such a case, is the 
rule. 

1 7^*. ' It is the rule, brethren, that, when the Bodhisat 
is descending into a mother's womb, four sons of the 
gods go toward the four quarters to protect him, say- 
ing : — " Let no one, be he human, or non-human, or 
whatsoever he be, work harm to the Bodhisat or to the 
mother of the Bodhisat ! " That, in such a case, is the 
rule. 

t8. 'It is the rule, brethren, that, when the Bodhisat 
is descending into a mother's womb, the mother of 
the Bodhisat is a woman virtuous through her own 
nature : — averse from taking life, averse from taking 
what is not given, averse from unchastity, averse from 

Seasons, of Life-germs, of Mind, and of the Dhamma. The last 
named is here implicated, 

^ Asaihvuta. Cy. — not supported from beneath. 

^ In the Great Inter-world Hell. They would be undergoing 
purgatory for karma of grievous offences against parents and the 
religious world, and of cruelty to animals. Very long in body and 
with bats' nails, they were condemned to crawl up the Cakkava/a rock, 
till finding no food, they turned back and fell into the river of brine 
flowing round the world. Cy. 



lO XIV. MAHAPADANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 12. 

lying speech, averse from indulgence in strong drinks. 
That, in such a case, is the rule. 

19. [13] ' It is the rule, brethren, that, when the 
Bodhisat is descending into a mother's womb, that 
mother has no mind for indulgence in the pleasures of 
sense with men, and is incapable of transgression with 
any man whatever who may be enamoured of her. 
That, in such a case, is the rule. 

20. 'It is the rule, brethren, that, when the Bodhisat 
is descending into a mother's womb, that mother is 
living in the enjoyment yielded by the five senses, is 
addicted to it, possessed of it, surrounded by it. That, 
in such a case, is the rule. 

21. * It is the rule, brethren, that, when the Bodhisat 
is descending into a mother's womb, no ailment what- 
soever befalls that mother ; at ease is she and un- 
afflicted in body ; and within her womb she sees the 
Bodhisat complete in the endowment of all his organs 
and his limbs. Just as if, brethren, there were a beau- 
tiful cat's-eye gem \ of purest water, octangular, cut 
with supreme skill, translucent and flawless, excellent 
in every way. And through it were strung a thread, 
blue or orange, red, white, or yellow. If a man who 
had eyes to see were to take it into his hand, he would 
clearly perceive how the one was strung on the other. 
Even so, brethren, when the Bodhisat is descending 
into a mother's womb, no ailment whatever befalls that 
mother ; at ease is she and unaffected in body ; and 
within her womb she sees the Bodhisat complete in the 
endowment of all his organs and his limbs. That, in 
such a case, is the rule. 

22. [14] ' It is the rule, brethren, that, on the seventh 
day after the birth of a Bodhisat, the mother of the 



^ This simile, occurring in a similar connexion in M. Ill, 121, is 
elsewhere (' Dialogues,' I, 87 ; M. II, 17) applied to self-knowledge, i. e. 
of one's body and mind and their interdependence. The point of the 
simile is not the perfection of the jewel, but the clarity of vision. The 
myth of the visible embryo recurs in mediaeval Christian art. See 
Neumann, op. cit. ; and ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 65 n. 



D. ii. 15- THE SUBLIME STORY. II 

Bodhisat dies, and rises again in the heaven of DeHght. 
That, in such a case, is the rule. 

23. ' It is the rule, brethren, that, whereas other 
women brino- forth after bearingr either nine or ten 
months \ the mother of a Bodhisat brings not forth 
till she has borne the child ten months. That, in such 
a case, is the rule. 

24. ' It is the rule, brethren, that, whereas other 
women bring forth sitting or reclining, the mother of 
a Bodhisat brings forth not so, but standing. That, in 
such a case, is the rule.' 

25. ' It is the rule, brethren, that, when a Bodhisat 
issues from his mother's womb, gods receive him first, 
afterw^ards men -. That, in such a case, is the rule. 

26. ' It is the rule, brethren, that, when a Bodhisat 
issues from his mother's womb, and has not yet touched 
the earth, for four sons of the gods to receive him, and 
present him to the mother, saying : — " Rejoice, lady, for 
Might}' is the son that is born to thee ! " That, in such 
a case, is the rule. 

27. ' It is the rule, brethren, that, when a Bodhisat 
issues from his mother's womb, he comes forth stain- 
less, undefiled by watery matter, undefiled by mucus, 
undefiled by blood, undefiled by any uncleanness what- 
ever, pure, spotless. Just as if, brethren, a jewel were 
laid down on Benares muslin ; the jewel is not stained 
by the muslin, nor is the muslin stained by it ; and why 
is that ? Because of the purity of both. Even so, 
brethren, is it at the birth of a Bodhisat. That, in such 
a case, is the rule. 

28. [15] ' It is the rule, brethren, that, when a Bodhi- 
sat issues from his mother's womb, two showers of 



' The Cy. holds that these disjunctives may be understood to 
include a term of from seven to twelve months. Seven months' 
embryos, it adds, live, but cannot endure heat or cold ; eight months' 
babes do not live — a midwife tradition that, we fancy, is still current 
here and now. 

* Cf the account of the birth of Gotama, ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' 
p. 66, and of ihe/our, not Ihree, adoring kings in some early Christian 
bas-reliefs, Neumann, op. cit. 



12 XIV. MAHAPADANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 15. 

water appear from the sky, one of cold, the other of 
warm water, wherewith they do the needful bathing 
of the Bodhisat and of his mother. That, in such 
a case, is the rule. 

29. ' It is the rule, brethren, that, when a Bodhisat 
has come to birth, he stands firm on both feet and, 
with his face to the north, takes seven strides, the 
while a white canopy is held over him ^, and, looking 
around on every side, he utters as with the voice of 
a bull : — " Chief am I in the world, Eldest am I in the 
world, Foremost am I in the world ! This is the last 
birth ! There is now no more coming to be '^ ! " That, 
in such a case, is the rule. 

30. 'It is the rule, brethren, that, when a Bodhisat 
issues from his mother's womb, there is made manifest 
throughout the universe — including the worlds above 
of the gods, the Maras and the Brahmas, and the 
world below with its recluses and brahmins, its princes 
and peoples, — an infinite and splendid radiance passing 
the glory of the gods. Even in those spaces which 
are between the worlds, baseless, murky and dark, and 
where even moon and sun, so wondrous and mighty, 
cannot prevail to give light, even there is manifest this 
infinite and splendid radiance, passing the glory of the 
gods. And those beings who happen to be existing 
there, perceiving each other by that radiance, say : — 
*' Verily there be other beings living here ! " And 
the ten thousand worlds of the universe tremble and 
shudder and quake. And this infinite and splendid 



^ As an emblem of sovereignty, says the Cy., in which case the 
emblem is usually named, not its bearers. But these were devata, 
angels or fairies or gods. 

^ Each action of the babe had for the later Buddhists its symbolical 
meaning. Standing on the earth meant obtaining the Four Iddhipadas. 
Facing the north meant the spiritual conquest of multitudes. The 
seven strides were the Seven Bojjhangas. The canopy was the 
umbrella of emancipation. Looking around meant unveiled know- 
ledge. The bull-cry meant the irrevocable turning of the wheel of 
the Truth or Law. The 'lion-roar' of 'the last birth' meant the 
arahantship he would attain in this life. 



D. ii. l6. THE SUBLIME STORY. 1 3 

radiance is made manifest in the world, passing the 
glory of the gods. This, in such a case, is the rule.' 

31. [le] 'When the boy Vipassi, brethren, was born, 
they brought word to Bandhuman the raja saying : — 
" A son, my lord, is born to you ! May it please you to 
see him?" Now when Bandhuman the raja had seen the 
babe, he sent for the brahmin soothsayers^ saying : — 
" Let the reverend brahmin soothsayers see the child." 
Then, brethren, when the brahmin soothsayers had 
seen the child, they said to Bandhuman the raja : — 
" Rejoice, lord, for one of the ?^Iighty Ones is born thy 
son ! Fortune is thine, my lord, good fortune is thine, 
in that in thy family such a son has come to birth ! 
For this babe, my lord, is endowed with the thirty-two 
marks of the Great Man ; and to one so endowed two 
careers lie open, and none other. If he live the life of 
the House, he becomes Lord of the Wheel 2, a righteous 
Lord of the Right 2, ruler of the four quarters, con- 
queror, guardian of the people's good, owner of the 
Seven Treasures. H is do those seven treasures become, 
to wit, the Wheel treasure, the Elephant treasure, the 
Horse treasure, the Gem treasure, the Woman treasure, 
the Steward treasure, the Eldest Son treasure making 
seven *. More than a thousand sons will be his, heroes, 
vigorous of frame, crushers of the hosts of the enemy. 
He, when he has conquered this earth to its ocean 
bounds, is established not by the scourge, not by the 
sword, but by righteousness. But if such a boy go 
forth from the life of the House into the Homeless 
stated he becomes an Arahant, a Buddha Supreme, 
rolling back the veil from the world. 



^ Literally, mark-men, or augurs. See 'Dialogues,' I, 16, «. i. 

^ Turner of the Wheel, the now well-known Indian s}Tnbol of empire. 

' Dhamma-raja. 

* For details of each of these see below in the Maha-Sudassana 
Suttanta, No. XVII. 

^ This vigorous and picturesque idiom — agarasma anagariyaih 
pabbajati — has been here and elsewhere rendered as literally as 
possible. 



14 XIV. MAHAPADANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. i6. 

32. ' " And what, my lord, are the thirty-two marks 
of the ' Great Man ^,' wherewith endowed this child 
hath two careers open to him, and only two : — that of 
the Lord of the Wheel . . . that of Buddha Supreme ? 

[17] ' " This babe, my lord, has feet with level tread 2. 
That this is so counts to him as one of the marks of 
a Great Man. 

'"On the soles of the babe's feet wheels appear with 
a thousand spokes, with tyre and hub, in every way 
complete. That this is so counts to him as one of the 
marks of a Great Man. 

' " This babe has projecting heels ^ 

He is long in the fingers and long in the toes*, 

Soft and tender in hands and feet, 

With hands and feet like a net ^ 

His ankles are like rounded shells ^ ; 

His legs are like an antelopes'. 

Standing and without bending he can touch and rub 
his knees with either hand. 

His male organs are concealed in a sheath. 

His complexion is like bronze, the colour of gold. 

[is] His skin is so delicately smooth that no dust 
cleaves to his body ^ 

^ Given also at M. II, 136, 137. Comp. the note above Vol. I, 
p. no. The whole theory is pre-Buddhistic. 

* Suppa/Z/nta-pado: literally, 'well-planted feet.' The tra- 
ditional meaning is, that the whole under-surface touched the ground 
at once. The Great Man was ' flat-footed,' and did not toe or heel 
the ground in walking. 

^ If the foot of a ' Great Man ' be measured in four parts, two are 
taken up by the sole and toes, one is under the leg, and one is the 
heel projecting rearward. 

* And all four, fingers and toes, are of equal length, like a monkey's. 
Cy. 

^ Like a lattice, says the Cy., and explains this to mean that there 
is no 'webbing' between fingers and toes, but that these are set in 
right lines, like the meshes of a net. 

* Ensuring the maximum of flexibility. Cy. This is desirable in 
sitting cross-legged. 

■^ With protuberant well-modelled joints, like an ear of rice or 
barley. Cy. 

* Hence the Buddhas only wash as an example to their fol- 
lowers. Cy. 



D. ii. 1 8. THE SUBLIME STORY. I 5 

The down on it grows in single hairs, one to each 
pore, 

The small hairs on his body turn upward, every hair 
of it, blue-black in colour like eye-paint, in little curling 
rings, curling to the right. 

' " This babe has a frame divinely straight ^ 

He has the seven convex surfaces-. 

The front half of his body is like a lion's ^. 

There is no furrow between his shoulders *. 

His proportions have the symmetry of the banyan- 
tree ■' : — The length of his body is equal to the compass 
of his arms, and the compass of his arms is equal to 
his height. 

His bust is equally rounded ^ 

His taste is supremely acute". 

His jaw is as a lion's ^ 

He has forty teeth ^, 

Regular teeth. 

Continuous, 

The eye-teeth very lustrous. His tongue is very 
long ^°. 

^ He will not stoop, nor lean backward, as if catching at the stars, 
nor have a crooked spine, but tower up S}Tn metrically like a golden 
tower-gate in a city of the gods. Cy. 

^ The backs of the four limbs, the shoulders and the trunk are well 
fleshed. Cy. 

' i. e. proportionately broad and full. 

* Citantarathso, lit. he has the shoulder-interval filled up. The 
Cy. explains, the two sides of the. back have no depression in the 
middle, nor look separated, but from the small of the back upwards 
the fleshy covering is as a level golden slab. 

* Literally, he has the banyan circumference. It was believed that 
a banyan always measured the same, like the diameter of a circle, in 
height as in width. 

" Samavattakkhandho. According to the Cy. the exterior of 
the whole vocal apparatus is here meant, rather than the trunk or 
shoulders only. 

" Rasaggasaggi. 

* That is, with the lower jaw relatively fuller than the upper. Cy. 

' That is, the Great Man at a more adult stage has eight more 
than the normal thirty-two. How the learned brahmins saw these 
signs in the babe is not explained. 

" See 'Dialogues,' I, 131. 



1 6 XIV. MAHAPADANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. i8. 

He has a divine voice like the karavika-bird's ^ 

His eyes are intensely blue 2, 

He has the eyelashes of a cow ". 

Between the eyebrows appears a hairy mole, white 
and like soft cotton down. 

His [19] head is like a royal turban *. 

This too counts to him as one of the marks of a Great 
Man^ 

2,3. '" Endowed, my lord, as is this babe with these 
two-and-thirty marks of the Great Man, two careers and 
none other are open to him . . ." [as above, J 31] . . . 

' Thereupon Bandhuman the raja, brethren, let the 
brahmin soothsayers be invested with new robes and 
gratified their every desire. 

34. ' And Bandhuman the raja, brethren, engaged 
nurses for the babe Vipassi. Some suckled him, some 
washed him, some nursed him, some carried him about 
on their hip. And a white canopy was held over him 
day and night, for it was commanded : — " Let not cold 
or heat or straws or dust or dew annoy him ! " And 
the boy Vipassi, brethren, became the darling and the 
beloved of the people, [20] even as a blue or red or 
white lotus is dear to and beloved of all, so that he was 
literally carried about from lap to lap ^. 

35. ' And when the boy Vipassi was born, brethren, 
he had a lovely voice, well modulated and sweet and 



^ According to Childers, the Indian cuckoo. The Great Man's 
voice is very clear and pure-toned, neither worn nor broken nor 
harsh. Cy. Yoga-culture is to-day held to yield, as one result, 
a pleasant musical voice. 

' Like flax-blossom. Cy. Perhaps a tradition of Aryan origin. 

' Completely surrounding the eyes, thick like a black cow's ; bright 
and soft like a new-born red calf s. Cy. 

* U«hisa-siso. This expression, says the Cy., refers to the 
fullness either of the forehead or of the cranium. In either case the 
rounded highly-developed appearance is meant, giving to the unadorned 
head the decorative dignified effect of a crested turban, and the smooth 
symmetry of a water-bubble. 

^ In the text this refrain occurs after the naming of each mark. 

^ Literally by hip to hip ; women passing him from arm to arm, 
men from one shoulder to another, explains the Cy. 



D. ii. 21. THE SUBLIME STORY. 1 7 

charming, just as the voice of the karavika-bird in the 
mountains of Himalaya is lovely and sweetly modulated 
and charming ^ 

36. ' And when the boy Vipassi was born, brethren. 
there was manifested in him the Heavenly Eye born 
of the result of his karma-, by the which verily he 
could see as far as a league by day and eke by night. 

^^j. ' And when the boy Vipassi was born, brethren, 
he looked forward with unblinking eyes, like the gods 
in the heaven of Delight. Now it was because of this, 
people exclaiming "Vipassi, Vipassi" — a Seer, a Seer! 
— that this became his name ^. And again, brethren, 
while Bandhuman raja was sitting as judge, he would 
take the boy on his hip and so lay down the law as to 
the cases arising till verily the boy, thus [21] seated on 
his father's hip, and continually considering, would also 
determine the points of the matter according to justice*. 
Then at the thought " It is the babe who is judging 
cases ariofht " ever more and more did that word " a 
Seer, a Seer" become used as his name. 

38. 'Now Bandhuman raja, brethren, had three 
palaces built for the boy Vipassi, one for the rains, 
one for the winter and one for the summer, and he 
had them fitted with every kind of gratification for the 
five senses. Thus it came to pass that Vipassi spent 



' The Cy. relates of the bird that it sings a flute-Uke song after 
pecking at honey and mangoes, and that the song exercises a sort 
of Orpheus- spell over every beast that hears it. Asandhimitta, the 
consort of Asoka, was converted by it. She had inquired of the 
Order, if it were known what the Buddha's voice was like ; and on 
its being compared to the karavika's song, wished to hear that. Asoka 
sent for one, which would not sing in its cage, till a mirror was placed 
by it. Fancying it saw a kinsman, it sang, throwing every one into 
ecstasies, and so exalting the queen's idea of the Buddha's voice, that 
she attained 'the fruit of sotapatti.' 

' That is, not by special practice, but as the result of action in 
former births, as with the fairies' power of vision. Cy. 

' Vipassi refers rather to the inward \-ision of the seer. Vipassana 
is insight or intuition. 

* Namely by giving signs of dissatisfaction when a decision was 
wrong. 

III. C 



1 8 XIV. MAHAPADANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 21. 

the four months of the rainy season in the rains-palace, 
ministered to by bands of female musicians ^ ; and not 
once did he come down (from the upper terrace) into 
the mansion.' 

Here endeth the Birth chapter. 



II. 

1 . * Now the young lord Vipassi, brethren, when many 
years, many centuries, many thousands of years had 
passed by ^, bade his charioteer make ready the state 
carriages, saying: — "Get ready the carriages, good 
charioteer, and let us go through the park to inspect 
the pleasaunce." " Yea, my lord," replied the charioteer, 
and harnessed the state carriages and sent word to 
Vipassi : — " The carriages are ready, my lord ; do now 
what you deem to be fit." Then Vipassi mounted a 
state carriage, and drove out in state into the park. 

2. ' Now the young lord Vipassi saw, brethren, as he 
was driving to the park, [22] an aged man as bent as 
a roof gable, decrepit, leaning on a staff, tottering as he 
walked, afflicted and long past his prime. And seeing 
him Vipassi said : — " That man, good charioteer, what 
has he done, that his hair is not like that of other men, 
nor his body ? " 

' " He is what is called an aged man, my lord." 

^ Nippurisehi turiyehi. Both words are ambiguous. Childers, 
following B. R., who follow Wilson, renders turiya by musical 
instrument. It is very doubtful whether it ever means that. Music, 
or orchestra, seems to be required in such passages as I have noted. 
Nippur is a (only found as yet in this connexion) may be non-human 
(that is, fairy), or not male. See D. II, 171 ; M. I, 571 ; A. I, 145; 
Vin. 1,15; II, 1 80 ; J, I, 58, and Senart's note at Mahavastu III, 486. 
The alternative rendering would therefore be * fairy music' But the 
commentator evidently takes the words in the meaning given above. 

^ The legendary age of humans at the time of Vipassi was 80,000 
years, so that we may reckon 1000 of his years as one of ours. 
When this legend is afterwards related of Gotama Buddha (in the 
Nidanakatha), he is said to have reached his majority (sixteen years) 
when the drives begin. 



D. ii. 24- THE SUBLIME STORY. 1 9 

' " But why is he called aged ? " 

* " He is called aged, my lord, because he has not much 
lonofer to live." 

' " But then, good charioteer, am I too subject to old 
age, one who has not got past old age ? " 

* " You, my lord, and we too, we all are of a kind to 
grow old, we have not got past old age." 

' " Why then, good charioteer, enough of the park 
for to-day ! Drive me back hence to my rooms ^" 

' " Yea, my lord," answered the charioteer, and drove 
him back. And he, brethren, going to his rooms sat 
brooding sorrowful and depressed, thinking : — " Shame 
then verily be upon this thing called birth, since to one 
born old acre shows itself like that ! " 

3. * Thereupon Bandhuman raja, brethren, sent 
for the charioteer and asked him : — " Well, good 
charioteer, did the boy take pleasure in the park ? 
was he pleased with it ? " 

* " No, my lord, he was not." 

' " What then did he see on his drive ? " 
[23] ' [And the charioteer told the raja all] 

4. ' Then the raja, brethren, thought thus : — " We 
must not have Vipassi declining to rule. We must not 
have him going forth from the House into the Homeless 
state. We must not let what the brahmin soothsayers 
spoke of come true." 

' So, that these things might not come to pass, he 
let the youth be still more surrounded by sensuous 
pleasures. And thus Vipassi continued to live amidst 
the pleasures of sense. 

5. ' Now after many years, many centuries, many 
thousands of years had passed by, the young lord 
Vipassi, brethren, again bade his charioteer make ready, 
and drove forth as once before ^ 

6. [24] ' And Vipassi, brethren, saw as he was driving 

' Antepuram, or harem. Tradition adds that he 'dismissed his 
womenfolk, and sat alone in his bedchamber, pierced in heart by 
this first dart.' 

^ Text repeats in full as m § i. 

C 2 



20 XIV. MAHAPADANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 24. 

to the park, a sick man, suffering and very ill, fallen 
and weltering in his own water, by some being lifted 
up, by others being dressed. Seeing this, Vipassi asked, 
** That man, good charioteer, what has he done that 
his eyes are not like others' eyes, nor his voice like the 
voice of other men ? " 

' " He is what is called ill, my lord." 

* " But what is meant by ' ill' ? " 

' " It means, my lord, that he will hardly recover from 
his illness." 

* " But am I too then, good charioteer, subject to 
fall ill ; have not I got out of reach of illness ? " 

' " You, my lord, and we too, we all are subject to fall 
ill, we have not got beyond the reach of illness." 

' " Why then, good charioteer, enough of the park 
for to-day ! Drive me back hence to my rooms." 
" Yea, my lord," answered the charioteer, and drove 
him back. And he, brethren, going to his rooms sat 
brooding sorrowful and depressed, thinking : — " Shame 
then verily be upon this thing called birth, since to 
one born decay shows itself like that, disease shows 
itself like that." 

7. 'Thereupon Bandhuman raja, brethren, sent for the 
charioteer and asked him : — " Well, good charioteer, 
did the young lord take pleasure in the park and was 
he pleased with it ? " 

' " No, my lord, he was not." 

' " What did he see then on his drive ? " 

'[And the charioteer told the raja all.] 

8. [25] ' Then the raja, brethren, thought thus : — 
" We must not have Vipassi declining to rule ; we 
must not have him going forth from the House to 
the Homeless state ; we must not let what the brahmin 
soothsayers spoke of come true." 

' So, that these things might not come to pass, he 
let the young man be still more abundantly surrounded 
by sensuous pleasures. And thus Vipassi continued to 
live amidst the pleasures of sense. 

9. ' Now once again after many years . . . the young 
lord Vipassi . . . drove forth. 



D. ii. 27- THE SUBLIME STORY. 21 

lo. * And he saw, brethren, as he was driving to the 
park, a great concourse of people clad in garments of 
different colours constructing a funeral pyre. And 
seeing them he asked his charioteer : — " Why now are 
all those people come together in garments of different 
colours, and making that pile ? " 

[26] ' " It is because some one, my lord, has ended 
his days." 

' " Then drive the carriage close to him who has 
ended his days." 

* " Yea, my lord,' answered the charioteer, and did so. 
And Vipassi saw the corpse of him who had ended his 
days and asked : — " What, good charioteer, is ending 
one's days ? " 

' " It means, my lord, that neither mother, nor father, 
nor other kinsfolk will see him any more, nor will he 
ever again see them." 

'"But am I too then subject to death, have I not 
got beyond the reach of death ? Will neither the raja, 
nor the ranee, nor any other of my kin see me more, or 
I ever again see them ? " 

' " You, my lord and we too, we all are subject to 
death, we have not passed beyond the reach of death. 
Neither the raja, nor the ranee, nor any other of your 
kin would see you any more, nor would you ever again 
see them." 

' " Why then, good charioteer, enough of the park 
for to-day ! Drive me back hence to my rooms." 

' " Yea, my lord," replied the charioteer, and drove 
him back. 

' And he, brethren, going to his rooms, sat brooding 
sorrowful and depressed, thinking : — " Shame then 
verily be upon this thing called birth, since to one 
born the decay of life, since disease, since death shows 
itself like that ! " 

II-I2. 'Thereupon Bandhuman raja, brethren, 
[questioned the charioteer as before [27], and as before 
let Vipassi be still more surrounded by sensuous 
enjoyments]. And thus Vipassi continued to live 
amidst the pleasures of sense. 



22 XIV. MAHAPADANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 28. 

13. [28] * Now once again after many years . . . the 
lord Vipassi . . . drove forth. 

14. 'And he saw, brethren, as he was driving to 
the park, a shaven-headed man, a Wanderer, wearing 
the yellow robe. And seeing him he asked the 
charioteer : — " That man, good charioteer, what has 
he done, that his head is unlike other men's heads and 
his clothes too are unlike those of others ? " 

' " That is what they call a Wanderer, because, my 
lord, he is one who has gone forth." 

' "What is that, to have gone forth ? " 

' " To have gone forth, my lord, means being 
thorough in the religious life, thorough in the peaceful 
life, thorough in good actions, thorough in meritorious 
conduct, thorough in harmlessness, thorough in kind- 
ness to all creatures." 

' " Excellent indeed [29], friend charioteer, is what 
they call a Wanderer, since so thorough is his conduct 
in all those respects. Wherefore drive up to that 
forthgone man." 

' " Yea, my lord," replied the charioteer, and drove 
up to the Wanderer. Then Vipassi addressed him, 
saying : — " You, master, what have you done that 
your head is not as other men's heads, nor your 
clothes as those of other men ? " 

'"I, my lord, am one who has gone forth." 

* " What, master, does that mean ? " 

' " It means, my lord, being thorough in the religious 
life, thorough in the peaceful life, thorough in good 
actions, thorough in meritorious conduct, thorough in 
harmlessness, thorough in kindness to all creatures." 

' " Excellently indeed, master, are you said to have 
gone forth, since so thorough is your conduct in all 
those respects." 

15. 'Then the lord Vipassi, brethren, bade his 
charioteer, saying : — " Come then, good charioteer, 
do you take the carriage and drive it hence back to 
my rooms. But I will even here cut off my hair, and 
don the yellow robe, and go forth from the House 
into the Homeless state." 



D.ii. 30. THE SUBLIME STORY. 23 

* " Yea, my lord," replied the charioteer, and drove 
back. But the lord Vipassi, there and then, cutting 
off his hair and donning the yellow robe, went forth 
from the House into the Homeless state. 

16. 'Now at Bandhumati, brethren, the raja's seat, 
a great number of persons — some eighty-four thousand 
souls ^ — heard of what lord Vipassi had done, [3o] and 
thought : — " Surely this is no ordinary religious rule, 
this is no common going forth, in that the lord Vipassi 
himself has had his head shaved and has donned the 
yellow robe and has gone forth from the House into 
the Homeless state. If the lord Vipassi has done 
this, why then should not we also ? " And they all 
had their heads shaved, and donned the yellow robes, 
and in imitation of Vipassi the Bodhisat they went 
forth from the House into the Homeless state. So 
Vipassi the Bodhisat went on his rounds through the 
villages, towns, and cities accompanied by that multi- 
tude. 

17. 'Now there arose, brethren, in the mind of 
Vipassi the Bodhisat, when he was meditating in 
seclusion, the following consideration : — " That indeed 
is not suitable for me that I should live beset. 'Twere 
better were I to dwell alone, far from the crowd ! " 

' So after a time he dwelt alone, away from the 
crowd. These eighty-four thousand Wanderers went 
one way, and Vipassi the Bodhisat went another way. 

18. 'Now there arose, brethren, in the mind of 
Vipassi the Bodhisat, when he had gone to his place -, 
and was meditating in seclusion, the following con- 
sideration: — "Verily this world has fallen upon trouble ; 
one is bom, and grows old, and dies, and falls from 
one state, and springs up in another." 

' Pa«a, 'living creatxires.' The number is the usual idiom for 
a multitude, no more pretending to accuracy than our ' a thousand 
thanks.' 

* Vasupagato. The commentary explains this as meaning ' when 
seated under his Wisdom-Tree.' But the word in the text is quite 
vague ; and it is only the later tradition which thought it edifpng to 
limit all such deep questions as the one discussed in the following 
sections to one time and place. 



24" XIV. MAHAPADANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 31. 

[31] ' " And from this suffering, moreover, no one 
knows of any v^ray of escape, even from decay and death. 
O when shall a way of escape from this suffering be 
made known, from decay and from death ! " 

' Then to Vipassi the Bodhisat, brethren, this thought 
occurred : — " What now being present, is decay and 
dying also present ; what conditions decay and dying ? " 
Then, brethren, from attention to the cause ^ arose 
the conviction through reason : — " Where birth is, 
there is decay and dying ; birth is the condition of 
decay and dying." 

' Then to Vipassi the Bodhisat, brethren, this 
occurred : — " What now being present, is birth also 
present ; what conditions birth ? " Then, brethren, 
from attention to the cause arose the conviction 
through reason : — " When becoming is, birth also is 
present ; becoming is the condition of birth." 

' Then to Vipassi the Bodhisat, brethren, this 
occurred : — " What now being present, is becoming 
also present ; what conditions becoming ? " Then, 
brethren, from attention to the cause arose the convic- 
tion through reason : — " Where grasping ^ is, there is 
becoming ; grasping is the condition of becoming." 



^ Yoniso manasikara. TheCy. paraphrases thus that interesting 
idiom: 'i.e. from attention to expedients (upaya, that is, expedients 
in analysis, comp. S. II, 17 ; HI, 135; III, 53; III, 161 ; A. V, iii), 
from attention to the course [of things] (patha); the attention of 
one who is attending to impermanence and the rest [dukkha, anatta] 
as such ; the attention of one who is observing the continuity, that is 
to say the rising and passing away, of the phenomena in question 
under either their positive or negative aspect.' There is here no 
attempt to substitute, as an equivalent for yon i, a term for origin or 
basis — nidana, e.g. or mula. The observation that is yoniso 
appears to Buddhaghosa to be of causation viewed as phenomenal 
only, as process of invariable antecedent and consequent, with applica- 
tion of the methods of induction known since J. S. Mill as the Methods 
of Agreement and Difference. 

'^ The translating of upadana7;z must always be inadequate; we 
having no word to fill its dual sense of something-to-hand, S/oJ^, fuel, 
and a laying hold of something. If ' data,' which is etymologically 
akin, had chanced to be dan da, there would have been an approxi- 
mation in implication. That the term, in the commentarial tradition, 



D. ii. 32. THE SUBLIME STORY. 25 

' Then to Vipassi the Bodhisat, brethren, this 
occurred : — "What now being present, is grasping also 
present ; what conditions grasping ? " Then, brethren, 
from attention to the cause arose the conviction 
through reason : — " Where craving is, there is grasp- 
ing ; craving is the condition of grasping." 

* Then to Vipassi the Bodhisat, brethren, this 
occurred : — '' What now being present, is craving also 
present ; what conditions craving ? " Then, brethren, 
from attention to the cause arose the conviction 
through reason : — '' Where feeling is, there is craving; ; 
feelingr is the condition of cravings." 

' Then to Vipassi the Bodhisat, brethren, this 
occurred: — "What now being present, is feeling also 
present ; what conditions feeling ? " Then, brethren, 
from attention to the cause arose the conviction 
through reason : — [32] '' Where contact is, there is 
feeling; contact is the condition of feeling," 

' Then to Vipassi the Bodhisat, brethren, this 
occurred : — " What now being present, is contact also 
present ; what conditions contact ? " Then, brethren, 
from attention to the cause arose the conviction 
through reason : — '"Where is the sixfold field, there is 
contact ; the sixfold field is the condition of contact \" 

' Then to Vipassi the Bodhisat, brethren, this 
occurred: — "What now being present, is the sixfold 
field also present ; what conditions the sixfold field ? " 
Then, brethren, from attention to the cause arose the 
conviction through reason : — " Where name-and-form 
is, there is the sixfold field : name-and-form is the 
condition of the sixfold field-." 

' Then to \'^ipassi the Bodhisat, brethren, this 
occurred: — "What now being present, is name-and- 
form also present ; what conditions name-and-form ? ' 

held this active force is clear from anupadaya, "void of grasping/ 
being paraphrased by agahetva, not having laid hold of. See also 
'Psychological Ethics,' p. 322, n. i ; ' Asl.' pp. 385, 450. 

* The sixfold field is the sphere of action of the six senses ; that is. 
our five senses, and the representative faculty, 

- Name-and-form is what we should call mind and body. 



fv 



26 XIV. MAHAPADANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 32. 

Then, brethren, from attention to the cause arose the 
conviction through reason : — " Where cognition is 
there is name-and-form ; cognition is the condition 
of name-and-form ^" 

' Then to Vipassi the Bodhisat, brethren, this 
occurred : — " What now being present, is cognition 
also present ; what conditions cognition ? " Then, 
brethren, from attention to the cause arose the convic- 
tion through reason : — " Where name-and-form is, there 
is cognition ; name-and-form conditions cognition." 

19. 'Then to Vipassi the Bodhisat, brethren, this 
occurred : — " Cognition turns back from name-and- 
form; it goes not beyond. Only as follows can one 
be born or grow old or die or fall from one condition 
or reappear in another; that is, in that cognition is 
conditioned by name-and-form, and name-and-form by 
cognition ^, the sixfold field by name-and-form, contact 
by the sixfold field, feeling by contact, [33] craving by 
feeling, grasping by craving, becoming by grasping, 
birth by becoming, decay and dying by birth, and 
so too grief, lamentation, ill, sorrow and despair come 
to pass. Such is the coming to be of this entire body 
of 111." 

' " Coming to be, coming to be ! " — at that thought, 
brethren, there arose to Vipassi the Bodhisat a vision 
into things not called before to mind, and knowledge 
arose, reason arose, wisdom arose, light arose. 

^ The Cy.here inquires into the omission of the two ultimate links in the 

' Chain of Causation ' that are given in most of the passages where the 

Ibrmula occurs — notably in the Nidana Samyutta and in the Majjhima 

Nikaya (I, pp. 49-52, 261, &c.) ; also in Dh. S., p. 348, and Vibh., 

pp. 135 ff. It judges that, whereas avijja and sankhara relate to 

existence /n'<?r to that in which the remainder of the terms from viRfia- 

«arh to jaramara;/am, for any given individual, hold true, Vipassi's 

vipassana was confining itself to any given /r^j^w/ life. Mr. Loveday, 

in his essay on the ' Chain,' also came to the conclusion that, to apply 

*^)^^ ^ the links in succession to any individual life, ' ignorance ' and ' the 

^^ sahkharas' must be referred to prior existence. (J. A. O. S,, 1894.) 

"^ In S. II, 144 their independence is compared to two sheaves of reeds 

leaning one against the other. Elsewhere — in definitions of nama- 

rupaw — nama is sometimes made to include vififiawam, Dh. S., 

pp. 341, 342, sometimes not, M. I, 53; Vibh. 136. 



i^ 






_^^ 



D. ii. 35- THE SUBLIME STORY. 27 

20. ' Then to Vipassi the Bodhisat, brethren, this 
occurred : — " What now being absent, is decay and 
dying also absent ; by the ceasing of what does decay 
and dying cease ? " Then, brethren, from attention 
to the cause arose the conviction through reason : — 
" Where birth is absent, decay and dying are absent ; 
when birth ceases, decay and dying cease . . . Where 
becoming is absent, birth is absent ; when becoming 
ceases, birth ceases . . . Where grasping is absent, 
becoming is absent; when grasping ceases, becoming 
ceases . . . Where craving is absent, grasping is absent ; 
when craving ceases, grasping ceases . . . [34] Where 
feehng is absent, craving is absent ; when feeling 
ceases, craving ceases . . . Where contact is absent, 
feeling is absent ; when contact ceases, feeling ceases 
. . . Where the sixfold field is absent, contact is absent ; 
when the sixfold field ceases, contact ceases . . . Where 
name-and-form is absent, the sixfold field is absent ; 
when name-and-form ceases, the sixfold field ceases . . . 
Where cognition is absent, name-and-form is absent ; 
when cognition ceases, name-and-form ceases . . . 
Where name-and-form is absent, cognition is absent ; 
when name-and-form ceases, cognition ceases." 

21. 'Then to Vipassi the Bodhisat, brethren, this 
occurred : — " Lo ! I have won to this, [35] the Way to 
enlightenment through insight \ And it is this, that 
from name-and-form ceasing, cognition ceases, and 
conversely ; that from name-and-form ceasing, the 
sixfold field ceases ; from the sixfold field ceasing, con- 
tact ceases ; from contact ceasing, feeling ceases ; from 
feeling ceasing, craving ceases ; from craving ceasing, 
grasping ceases ; from grasping ceasing, becoming 
ceases ; from becoming ceasing, birth ceases ; from 
birth ceasing, decay and dying, grief, lamentation, ill, 
sorrow and despair cease. Such is the ceasing of this 
entire body of 111." 

' Literally * the Vipassana Way to insight.' As this is not a stock 
phrase in this connexion it doubtless contains a play on the name 
Vipassi. 



28 XIV. MAHAPADANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 35. 

' " Ceasing to be, ceasing to be ! " — at that thought, 
brethren, there arose to Vipassi the Bodhisat a vision 
into things not called before to mind, and knowledge 
arose, reason arose, wisdom arose, light arose. 

22. ' Thereafter, brethren, Vipassi the Bodhisat 
dwelt in the discernment of the rising and passing 
away of the five groups [of individual life] depending 
on grasping ^ : — " Such is form, such is the coming to 
be of form, such is its passing away ; such is feeling, 
such is the coming to be of feeling, such is its passing 
away ; such is perception, such is its coming to be, 
such is its passing away ; such are the syntheses, such 
is their coming to be, such is their passing away ; 
such is cognition, such is its coming to be, such is its 
passing away." 

' And for him, abiding in the discernment of the 
rising and passing away of the five groups depending 
on grasping, not long was it before his heart, void of 
grasping, was set free from the " Intoxicants 2." ' 

Here endeth the Second Portion for recitation. 



^ That is, the new individual, divisible into five constituent parts, 
called into being by the grasping attitude maintained during the 
previous life. Khandho, group, is rendered by 'body' in § 19 — 
' whole body of 111 ' — and, in both connexions, is always paraphrased 
by rasi, or heap. Buddhist Pluralism turned away from unifying 
concepts, and chose to picture organic processes under aggregates. 
The concept is not so atomistic as we might think, the ' heap ' 
referring to past and potential repetition of process. 

- This is the standing phrase for the attainment, not of Buddha- 
hood, but of Arahantship. Nevertheless Vipassi is henceforth called 
a Buddha. Compare what is said above, p. 2. On the Asavas, here 
rendered Intoxicants, see above. Vol. I, pp. 92, 93. The Jain use 
of the term is referred to by Bhandarkar, 'Report, &c.,' p. 100. 
Other Pali references are J. IV, 222, 3 and A. I, 124, 7, which confirm 
the suggested connotation of a poisonous, intoxicating drug. 



D. ii. 36. THE SUBLIME STORY. 29 

III. 

I. ' Then to Vipassi the Exalted One. Arahant, 
Buddha Supreme, brethren, this occurred ^ : — " What 
if I were now to teach the Truth -." 

'Then to him, brethren, this occurred^: — [36] "I 
have penetrated this Truth, deep, hard to perceive, 
hard to understand, calm, sublime, no mere dialectic**, 
subtle, intelligible only to the wise. But this is a race 
devoting itself to the thingrs to which it clinors, devoted 
thereto, delio-htino; therein. And for a race devoting^ 
itself to the things to which it clings, devoted thereto, 
delighting therein, this were a matter hard to perceive, 
to wit, that this is conditioned by that, and all that 
happens is by way of cause ^. This too were a matter 
hard to discern : — The tranquillization of all the 



* The following episode occurs also in Vinaya I, 4 (translated in 
Vin. Texts, I, 84-8), and M. I, 167-9 (translated by Dr. Neumann, 
' Reden G. Buddho's, Mittlere Sammlung,' I, pp. 268 flf.), and S. I, 

137-4^- 

^ D ham ma, more literally the Norm. On this diflScult but 
all-pervading term see Rh. D. 'American Lectures,' pp. 2, 38, and 
'Buddhist India,' 292-4. 

^ In the eighth week, says the Cy., after his attainment of Buddha- 
hood, the intervening weeks having been spent in places corresponding 
to those where Gotama Buddha is alleged, in the Nidanakatha, to 
have spent them. Rh. D. 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' pp. 105-9. ^^t 
there is nothing in the text to confirm this. 

* See 'Dialogues,' I, 26 : — 'not to be grasped by mere log^c' — 
atakkavacaro. ' Only by na«ani ' — knowledge, insight — adds the 
Cy. Takka, meaning fundamentally thinking, is perhaps too much 
honoured, in the meaning it had come to bear, by being rendered 
'logic' In the Takka-jataka, e.g. where the soubriquet 'takka- 
pa«</ita,' date-sage, is considered by Mr. Chalmers to imply a word- 
play on date and logic, the pundit's occupation is said to be foretelling 
' what were lucky and unlucky seasons ' to villagers for pay. Such 
low crafts, however, are not classed as takka in the 'Moralities' list 
of Dialogues, I, pp. 1 6 ff. And it is very possible that ' takka ' con- 
veyed, to the religious mind of that day, much the same that so-called 
' mere logic ' or ' sophistry ' does at the present time. 

® Idapaccayata pa/iccasamuppado: — more literally, that con- 
ditionedness, genesis by way of cause. The second term implies the 
universal law, the first is its application to any given case. 



30 XIV. MAHAPADANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 36. 

activities of life \ the renunciation of all substrata 
of rebirth, the destruction of craving, the death of 
passion, quietude of heart, Nirvana. And if I were 
now to teach the Truth, and other men did not acknow- 
ledge it to me, that would be wearisome to me, that 
would be hurtful to me." 

2. ' And then verily, brethren, to Vipassi the Exalted 
One, Arahant, Buddha Supreme were revealed on the 
spur of the moment^ these verses unheard of before: — 
" This that through many toils I've won — 
Enough ! why should I make it known ? 
By folk with lust and hate consumed 
Not this the Truth that can be grasped! 
Against the stream of common thought, 
Deep, subtle, difficult, delicate. 
Unseen 'twill be by passion's slaves 
Cloaked in the murk of ignorance ^." 
' In these words, brethren, pondering over the 
matter, did the heart of Vipassi incline to be averse 
from exertion and not to preach the Truth. There- 
upon to one of the Great Brahmas *, when he became 
aware in thought of the thoughts of Vipassi, [37] this 
occurred: — "Alas! the world will perish! Utterly 
alas ! will the world perish, now that the heart of 
Vipassi the Exalted One, Arahant, Buddha Supreme, 
inclines to be averse from exertion and not towards 
preaching the Truth ! " 

^ i.e. of the sankharas of actions, speech and thoughts. 'When 
Nirvana is reached,' says the Cy., ' all their diffusions are calmed. So 
too all cravings are destroyed, all evil passions are quenched, all 
suffering ceases.' For Buddhaghosa, Vipassi's ' Truth ' is the calm 
and detachment of the intellectually and ethically free man. 

^ Anacchariya, i.e. anu-acchar-iya, instantaneous; analogous 
to the Greek dva xpo*"*"' ^^'^ similar to the later iv aTo/AO) of the New 
Testament (i Cor. xv. 52). The expression is frequently used of 
the Buddha's similes. 

^ Ignorance, not explicit in the text, is usually symbolized by dark- 
ness — tamokkhandho — and is so referred to in the Cy. 

* ' Although merely referred to,' says the Cy., ' as one among them, 
he is to be understood as the chief Great-Brahma in this universe.' 
But the title of Sahampati, given in the Vinaya and Majjhima versions, 
seems to be a later gloss. 



D. ii. 38. THE SUBLIME STORY. 3 1 

3. ' Then, brethren, did that Great Brahma, Hke a 
strong man stretching his bent arm out, or drawing- 
back his outstretched arm. vanish from the Brahma 
world and appear before \'ipassi. And the Great 
Brahma, brethren, draping his outer robe over one 
shoulder and stooping his right knee to the ground, 
raised his joined hands towards Vipassi the Exalted 
One, the Arahant, the Buddha Supreme and said : — 
" Lord ! may the Exalted One preach the Truth ! May 
the Welcome One preach the Truth ! There are 
beings whose eyes are hardly dimmed by dust, they 
are perishing from not hearing the Truth ; they will 
come to be knowers of the Truth." 

4. ' At these words, brethren, Vipassi the Exalted 
One, Arahant, Buddha Supreme, spoke thus to the 
Great Brahma : — " To me too, O Brahma, did it 
occur : — ' What if I now were to preach the Truth ? 
But I judged that the world was not fit for it, would 
not acknowledge it ; and that that would be wearisome 
for me, hurtful for me ' . . . [3s] And so, O Brahma, 
pondering over the matter, my heart inclined to be 
averse from exertion, and not towards preaching the 
Truth." 

5. ' But this Great Brahma, brethren, addressed 
Vipassi a second time . . . 

6. ' . . . and again a third time, saying : — " Lord ! let 
the Exalted One preach the Truth ! Let the Welcome 
One preach the Truth ! There are beings whose eyes 
are but hardly dimmed with dust ; they are perishing 
from not hearing the Truth ; they will come to be 
knowers of the Truth ! " 

' Then, brethren, when Vipassi the Exalted One. 
Arahant, Buddha Supreme, became aware of the en- 
treaty of the Brahma, because of his pitifulness towards 
all beings, he looked down over the world with a 
Buddha's Eye \ And so looking, brethren, he saw 
beings whose eyes were nearly free from dust, 

^ On the super-normal sense of a Buddha, one of his ten balas 
or powers, see * Vibhanga,' p. 340. 



32 XIV. MAHAPADANA SUTTANTA. 0.11.38. 



and beings whose eyes were much dimmed with dust, 
beings sharp of sense and blunted in sense, beings of 
good and of evil disposition, beings docile and indocile, 
some among them discerning the danger in rebirth 
and in other worlds, and the danger in wrong doing. 
As in a pond of blue, or red, or white lotuses, some 
lotus-plants born in the water grow up in the water, 
do not emerge from the water, but thrive sunken 
beneath ; and other lotus-plants, born in the water 
and grown up in the water, reach to the level ; while 
other lotus-plants born in the water and grown up in 
the water, stand thrusting themselves above the water, 
undrenched by it ; [39] even so, brethren, did Vipassi 
the Exalted One, Arahant, Buddha Supreme, look down 
over the world with a Buddha's Eye, and see beings 
whose eyes were nearly free from dust, and beings whose 
eyes were dim with dust, beings sharp of sense and 
blunted in sense, beings of good and of evil disposi- 
tion, beings docile and indocile, and some among them 
discerning the danger in rebirth in other worlds, and 
the dano^er in wrong- doincr. 

7. * Thereupon that Great Brahma, brethren, when 
he became aware in thought of the thoughts of Vipassi, 
spoke to him in verse ^ : — 
"As on a crag, on crest of mountain standing, 

A man might watch the people far below. 
E'en so do thou, O Wisdom fair, ascending, 

O Seer of all, the terraced heights of Truth, 
Look down, from grief released, upon the nations 

Sunken in grief, oppressed with birth and age. 
Arise, thou Hero ! Conqueror in the battle! 

Thou freed from debt ! Lord of the pilgrim band ! 
Walk the world o'er, sublime and blessed Teacher ^ ! 

Teach us the Truth ; there are who'll understand." 

^ The following verses and the response are otherwise arranged 
in the Vinaya and Majjhima versions, in the former immediately 
following the deity's petition, in the latter immediately following the 
lotus simile. 

^ In the text simply, O Exalted (or Blessed) One ; — practically the 
only expression not literally reproduced. 



D. ii. 40. THE SUBLIME STORY. 33 

' Thereupon, brethren, Vipassi, the Exalted One, 
Arahant, Buddha Supreme, made response in verse to 
that great Brahma : — 

" Wide opened are the portals to Nirvana ^ ! 

Let those that hear renounce their empty faith ^ ! 
Despairing of the weary task, O Brahma, 
I spake not of this doctrine, sweet and good, to men." 

' Then, brethren, that Great Brahma thinking : — 
" Verily I am the one by whom an opening has been 
given for the preaching of the Truth by Vipassi the 
Exalted One, the Arahant, the Buddha Supreme," [40] 
bowed down before Vipassi, and passing round him by 
the left vanished away. 

8. ' Then to Vipassi, brethren, the Exalted One, 
Arahant, Buddha Supreme, this occurred :— " To whom 
now should I first preach the Truth ? Who will 
quickly understand this doctrine?" And he thought: — 
" There is Khawrt'a a raja's son, and Tissa, the chaplain's 
son, both dwelling at Bandhumati. They are learned, 
open-minded and wise, and for long have had but 
little dust in their eyes. If I were now to teach the 
Truth first to them, they would quickly understand it." 
Thereupon, brethren, did Vipassi, like a strong man 
stretching his bent arm out, or drawing back his 
outstretched arm, vanish from the Wisdom Tree 
and appear in the Sanctuary, in the deer-park at 
Bandhumati -^ 

9. 'And Vipassi, brethren, bade the park-keeper, 
saying : — "Ho you, good park-keeper, go into Ban- 



' Amatassa dvara; literally the doors of ambrosia. On this 
term see Appendix I. Cf. also M. I, 227 :— amatadvaram. * Wide- 
flung the living gate, the safe (road) leading to Nirvana.' 

''PamuncantusaddhaOT. The expression is ambiguous. Olden- 
berg, ' Vinaya Texts,' I, 88, renders it ' Let them send forth faith to 
meet it.' We think it means let them give up their faith in rites, and 
gods, and ceremonies, with especial references to the offerings to the 
dead. Comp. R. O. Franke in Z.D.M.G., 1909, p. 7. 

^ Tradition apparently identified this with Isipatana, the deer-park, 
in Gotama Buddha's time, at Benares, and attributed the name Khema 
to the park as having been given as a deer-preserve, or refuge. Cy. 

III. D 



34 XIV. MAHAPADANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 40. 

dhumati and tell Khanda. the raja's son, and Tissa 
the chaplain's son, that : — Vipassi, the Exalted One, 
Arahant, Buddha Supreme, has arrived at Bandhumati 
and abides in the Khema deer-park. He wishes to 
see you." " Ay, my lord," replied the park-keeper, 
and went to Bandhumati and gave this message to 
Khanda. and Tissa. 

10. [41] ' Then they, ordering out their state carriages, 
mounted, and drove out from Bandhumati to the deer- 
park. As far as there was a road they drove, and then 
alighting went on foot into the presence of Vipassi. 
And being come they saluted Vipassi, the Exalted One, 
Arahant, Buddha Supreme, and seated themselves 
beside him. 

11. 'To them Vipassi discoursed in due order ^; 
that is to say, he gave them illustrative talk on gene- 
rosity, on right conduct, on heaven, on the danger, 
the vanity and the defilement of lusts, on the 
advantages of renunciation. When the Exalted One 
saw that they had become prepared, softened, un- 
prejudiced, upraised and believing in heart, then he 
proclaimed that Truth which the Buddhas alone have 
won ; that is to say, the doctrine of Sorrow, of its 
origin, of its cessation, and the Path. And just as a 
clean cloth, from which all stain has been washed 
away, will readily take the dye, just even so did 
Khaw^a and Tissa obtain, even while sitting there, 
the pure and stainless Eye for the Truth, and they 
knew : — " Whatsoever has a beginning, in that is also 
inherent the necessity of passing away." 

12. 'Then they having seen the Truth, won the 
Truth, understood the Truth, sounded the depths of 
Truth, having crossed the waters of doubt and put 
away perplexity, having gained full confidence and 
become dependent on none other for the teaching of 
the Master, addressed Vipassi, the Exalted One, 
Arahant, Buddha Supreme, and said : — 

' " Most excellent, lord, most excellent, lord ! Just 

^ Cf. 'Dialogues,' I, p. 135. 



D. ii. 42. THE SUBLIME STORY. 35 

as if a man were to set up that which has been thrown 
dow^n, or were to reveal that which has been hidden 
away, or were to point out the right road to him who 
has gone astray, or were to bring a hght into the 
darkness so that those who had eyes could see external 
forms, — even so has the truth been made known in 
many a figure by the Exalted One. We here, lord, 
betake ourselves to the Exalted One [42] as our guide, 
and to the Truth. May w-e be suffered to go forth 
from the world under the Exalted One, may we be 
suffered to obtain ordination." 

13. 'And so, brethren, Khaw^a the raja's son and 
Tissa the chaplain's son obtained retreat and ordina- 
tion under Vipassi, the Exalted One, Arahant, Buddha 
Supreme. Them did Vipassi instruct, arouse, incite 
and gladden with religious discourse, making clear the 
danger, the vanity and the corruption of component 
things, and the advantage in Nirvana. And they thus 
instructed, aroused, incited and gladdened by his 
discourse, their hearts ere long, being void of grasping, 
were set free from the Intoxicants. 

14. 'Now a great multitude, brethren, of the in- 
habitants of Bandhumati — some 84,000 souls — heard 
that Vipassi, the Exalted One, Arahant, Buddha 
Supreme, had come to Bandhumati and was staying 
at the Sanctuary (Khema), in the deer-preserve ; and 
how Khanda. the raja's son and Tissa the chaplain's 
son, had actually at his instigation shaved their heads 
and put on the yellow robe, and had gone forth from 
the House into the Homeless state. And hearing it 
they thought : — " Surely this is no ordinary religious 
rule, this is no common going forth, in that the raja's 
son and the chaplain's son have had their heads 
shaved, have donned the yellow robe and gone forth 
from the House into the Homeless state. Khaw^/a and 
Tissa have indeed done this ; why then should not we ?" 

' So all that multitude came out from Bandhumati 
to see Vipassi, the Exalted One, Arahant, Buddha 
Supreme, and when they were in his presence they 
saluted him and sat down by him. 

D 2 



3^ XIV. mahapadAna SUTTANTA. D. ii. 43. 



15. [43] 'And to them Vipassi discoursed, even as 
he had discoursed to Kha;z^a and Tissa. . . . 

16. ' And they too as those . . . who have gained 
full confidence and become dependent on none other 
for the teaching of the Master, addressed Vipassi even 
as Kha;^^a and Tissa had done, asking that they might 
obtain ordination. 

1 7. ' And so, brethren, those 84,000 souls obtained 
retreat and ordination under Vipassi the Exalted One, 
Arahant, Buddha Supreme. Them did Vipassi instruct, 
arouse, incite and gladden with religious discourse, 
[44] making clear the danger, the vanity and the cor- 
ruption of component things, and the advantages in 
Nirvana. They thus instructed, aroused, incited and 
gladdened by his discourse, their hearts ere long, 
being void of grasping, were set free from the Intoxi- 
cants. 

18. ' Now a great multitude, brethren, of recluses — 
some 84,000 — heard from the former multitude of 
Vipassi's visitation. And they, too, went out from 
Bandhumati to see him. 

19. 'And to them did Vipassi likewise discourse, 
and it happened even so with them. 

20. 21. [45] '. . . and their hearts too ere long were 
set free from the Intoxicants. 

22. ' Now at that time, brethren, a vast company of 
bhikkhus^ was staying at Bandhumati. And to Vipassi 
the Exalted One, Arahant, Buddha Supreme, as he 
meditated in solitude, this idea arose in his mind : — 
" There is now a vast company of bhikkhus dwelling 
at Bandhumati. What if I were now to grant leave to 
the bhikkhus and say : — ' Fare ye forth, brethren, on 
the mission that is for the good of the many, for the 
happiness of the many, to take compassion on the 
world, to work profit and good and happiness to gods 
and men. Go not singly; go in pairs; teach ye, 
brethren, [46] the Truth, lovely in its origin, lovely in 

^ A/Ma-sa/Miw sata-sahassa;;; — 6,800,000 — is the literal 
figure given. See p. 39. 



D. ii. 48. THE SUBLIME STORY. 37 

its progress, lovely in its consummation, both in the 
spirit and in the letter, proclaim ye the higher life in 
all its fullness and in all its purity. Beings there are 
whose eyes are hardly dimmed with dust, perishing 
because they hear not the Truth. Moreover after 
every six years have passed come ye to Bandhumati, 
the royal residence, there to recite the summary of the 
Rules of the Order ^' " 

23. 'Now one of the Great Brahmas, brethren, when 
he became aware in thought of the thoughts of Vipassi, 
like a strong man stretching his bent arm out, or draw- 
ing back his outstretched arm, vanished from the 
Brahma-world and appeared in the presence of Vipassi 
the Exalted One, Arahant, Buddha Supreme. Then, 
draping his outer robe over one shoulder, he raised his 
joined hands towards the Exalted One, saying: — 
" Even so, O Exalted One ! Even so, O Wel- 
come One ! Let the Exalted One thus grant leave 
to this great company of bhikkhus, as he has a 
mind to do . . . Moreover we too, lord, will do even 
as the bhikkhus after every six years have passed ; 
we will come to Bandhumati there to recite the Pati- 
mokkha." 

' Thus, brethren, spake that Great Brahma. And 
b)owing down before the Exalted One, he passed round 
by the left, and forthwith disappeared. 

24, 25. [47] 'Then Vipassi, brethren, arose towards 
eventide from his meditations and told the bhikkhus 
,[of what he had deliberated and of the visitation of the 
Great Brahma]. 

26. [48] ' " I grant ye leave, brethren ! Fare ye forth 
on the mission that is for the good of the many, for 
the happiness of the many, to take compassion on the 
world and to work profit and good and happiness to 
gods and men. Go not singly but in pairs ; teach ye, 



* Patimokkha, literally the Disburdenment. The text as we have 
it (translated in ' Vinaya Texts,' Vol. I) dates only from the times of 
early Buddhism, and it is not likely that this technical name used as 
the title was much older. 



38 XIV. mahApadana suttanta. d. h. 48. 

brethren, the Truth, lovely in its origin, lovely in its 
progress, lovely in its consummation, both in the spirit 
and in the letter ; proclaim ye the higher life in all its 
fullness and in all its purity. Beings there are whose 
eyes are hardly dimmed with dust, perishing because 
they hear not the Truth ; they will become knowers of 
the Truth. Moreover, brethren, after every six years 
have passed come ye to Bandhumati, there to recite 
the Patimokkha." 

' Then those bhikkhus, brethren, for the most part on 
that very day, set forth on their mission among the 
people. 

27. ' Now at that time, brethren, there was a very 
great number of religious dwellings in Jambudtpa — 
some 84,000. As one year was drawing to a close 
the angels proclaimed the news : — " Ho, friends ! one 
year is ending ; now five years remain. At the end of 
five years we have to go to Bandhumati to recite the 
Patimokkha." 

* And [this they did at the close of each remaining 
year, proclaiming] at the end of the sixth year : — " Ho, 
friends ! The six years are at an end. Now is the 
time for us to go to Bandhumati to recite the Pati- 
mokkha." Then, brethren, those bhikkhus, some by 
their own magic power, some by the magic power of 
the gods, on that very day came to Bandhumati to 
recite the Patimokkha. 

28. [49] ' Then verily, brethren, did Vipassi, the 
Exalted One, Arahant, Buddha Supreme, thus rehearse 
a Pdtimokkha : — 

" How may ye best the flesh subdue ? 

Be patient, brethren, be forbearing. 
What is the highest, what the best ? 

Nirvana, brethren, say the Buddhas. 
For he 's no Wanderer who harms 

His fellow man ; he's no recluse 
Who works his neighbour injury. 

Work ye no evil ; give yourselves to good ; 
Cleanse ye your hearts, — so runs the Buddhas' word. 



D. ii. 51. THE SUBLIME STORY. 39 

Blame not, strike not, restrain self in the Law, 
With temperance eat, lonely seek rest and sleep, 
Given to thoughts sublime, — so runs the Buddhas* 
word \" 

29. [50] ' At one time I, brethren, was dwelling at 
UkkaU/i^, in the Delectable Wood, beneath a giant 
s^l tree. Now to me as I meditated in solitude this 
idea arose in my mind : — " There is but one abode of 
beings easily accessible that I have not dwelt in for 
a very long time, and that is among the gods of the 
Pure Mansions-. What if I were now to repair 
thither ? Then, brethren, as a strong man stretching 
his bent arm out, or drawing back his outstretched 
arm, so did I vanish from beneath the giant sal tree in 
the Delectable Wood at Ukka////a and appear among 
the gods of the Aviha heaven. In that group of gods, 
brethren, several thousands of them came up to me, 
and saluting me, stood by and spake thus : — 

' " Friend, it is now ninety-one aeons since Vipassi the 
Exalted One, Arahant, Buddha Supreme, arose in the 
world. Vipassi, friend, was of the noble class and was 
born in a noble family. Vipassi, friend, was by family 
a Kondaiifia. . . . The span of life in his time, friend, 
was 8o,oco years. He attained enlightenment, friend, 
under a trumpet-flower tree. His chief disciples, friend, 
were a pair named Khaw^a and Tissa. [5l] He had, 
friend, three companies of disciples, sixty-eight lacs, 
one lac, and eighty thousand in number. His special 
attendant, friend, was named Asoka. His father was 
the raja Bandhuman, whose ranee, Bandhumati, was 
his mother, and whose seat was the town of Bandhu- 



' These verses, except lines 8 and 9, have been included in the 
Dhammapada 184-6. 

' The Suddhavasa deva comprise the five highest spheres of 
celestials in the so-called Rupa loka, i.e. the universe of Form, the five 
being named successively in the text. Beyond these five heavens were 
yet four spheres of the Formless. The following paragraphs develop 
the assertion on p. 7 : ' And gods also have revealed these matters to 
him.' ... 



40 XIV, MAHAPADANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. gi. 

mati. His leaving the world, his becoming a recluse, 
his travail, his enlightenment, his setting the Wheel of 
Truth a-rolling, were each on such and such wise. 
And we being of those who have lived the holy life 
under Vipassi our Exalted One, and purged the lusts 
of the flesh, have been reborn here." 

30. * And again, brethren, in that group of gods, 
several thousands of them . . .^. And again, brethren, 
several hundreds of them came up to me, and saluted, 
and stood on one side, and said : — " Friend ! in this 
fortunate aeon the Exalted One has now arisen in the 
world as an Arahant, Buddha Supreme. The Exalted 
One, friend, is of noble birth, born in a clan of nobles, 
in a family with Gotama for surname. Small, friend, 
is the span of life in the Exalted One's time, [52] brief 
and soon past; he who is longlived lives a hundred 
years more or less. The Exalted One, friend, became 
a Buddha under an aspen tree. He has, friend, two 
chief disciples, Sdriputta and Moggallina, a glorious 
pair. He has had one assembly, friend, of disciples, 
1250 in number, and in this company all are arahants. 
He has /or attendant, friend, for chief attendant, one 
named Ananda. His father, friend, is the r§.ja Suddho- 
dana, whose wife Mdya is his mother, and whose seat 
is the town of Kapilavatthu. His leaving the world, 
his becoming a recluse, his travail, his enlightenment, 
his setting the Wheel of Truth a-rolling, were each on 
such and such wise. And we, friend, being of those 
who lived the holy life under our Exalted One, and 
purged the lusts of the flesh, have been reborn 
here." 

31, 32. 'Thereafter, brethren, I resorted, not only 
to the Aviha gods, but also to the home of the Cool 
gods ; and so, including both the Aviha gods and the 



^ The text here is greatly abbreviated. It is intended that num- 
bers of the gods claim to have been, in a previous birth, the followers 
of each successive Buddha ; and § 29 is to be understood, in full, for 
each Buddha. The full text is given, as usual, for the first and last 
cases only. 



D. ii. 54- THE SUBLIME STORY. 4 1 

Cool gods\ I came to the home of the Fair gods-. 
Then on, including thus the Aviha and Cool and Fair 
gods, I came to the home of the Wellseeing gods.^ 
And yet on, including thus Aviha and Cool and Fair 
and Wellseeing gods, till I came to the home of the 
Senior gods. [And in each of these heavens numbers 
of the gods accosted me and told me of their previous 
birth under Vipassi and the following Buddhas down 
to the present one, myself.] 

33. [53] 'Thus, brethren, through his clear discern- 
ment of that principle of the Truth, is the Tathagata 
able to remember the Buddhas of old, who attained 
final completion, who cut oft" obstacles, who cut down 
barriers, who have ended the cycle, who have escaped 
from all sorrow, — so that he can remember as to their 
birth, their names, their families, [54] the span of life 
usual in their time, their pair of disciples, and their 
congregations of disciples, and can say : — " Of such 
was the birth of those Exalted Ones, such were their 
names, their families, such were their morals, their 
doctrines, their wisdom ; how they lived and how they 
gained emancipation/" 

Thus spake the Exalted One. And the brethren, 
pleased at heart, rejoiced at the word of the Exalted 
One. 



^ The Cy. interprets as active: — na kafici sattam tapentJti — 

they torment no one. 

' Paraphrased as ' lovely to look at, beautiful, charming.' 

^ Paraphrased as * because they see vividly the beautiful vision of 

the former.' 



INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

mahA-nidAna-suttanta. 

The doctrine of Pa/icca-samuppada — that all dhamma 
(phenomena physical and mental) are pa/iccasamuppanna 
(happen by way of cause) finds in the following Suttanta the 
fullest exposition accorded to it throughout the Pi/akas. It 
is true that for some reason (cf. p. 26, n. i) the Dighabha«akas 
(recorders of the Digha-Nikaya) excluded the first two of 
the Twelve Nidanas — avijja, sankhara — and that, in the 
Paccayakara-vibhanga of the Abhidhamma, the formula is 
reiterated and analysed with greater variety of presentation. 
But in the present instance the doctrinal contents are more 
fully worked out. There is another feature in this Digha 
exposition which seems to us of no little significance. 

But before discussing this feature, we would point to yet 
another factor in the statement of the chain of the Nidanas 
which does not find a place in the Nidana-Suttanta. This is 
the schematized, or abstract formula of the whole sequence, 
showing the logic of it without the contents — ' That being 
thus, this comes to be, from the coming to be of that, this 
arises. That being absent this does not happen, from the 
cessation of that, this ceases.' (M. II, 32.) In the other 
Nikayas the scheme usually precedes the full formula, and 
in one case where the principle of the latter is called 'the 
Dhamma,' supersedes the formula. It is on all fours with 
the modern formulation of the law of causation — ' That every 
event is the result or sequel of some previous event, or events, 
without which it could not have happened, and which, being 
present, it must take place.' 

The significant feature is this: — although the formula, as 
expounded in this Suttanta, ends in the usual way — ' Such is 
the uprising of this whole body of 111 ' — the burden of the 
Dialogue is in no way directly concerned with 111, pain or 
sorrow. In certain other passages, on the other hand, where 
the Nidana-chain occurs, dukkha occupies the foreground. 
Thus in A. 1, 177, the formula of the Pa/icca-samuppada is 
rehearsed tp explain the Aryan Truth of the uprising of 111. 



INTRODUCTION. 43 



In M.I, 190 the context of the formula is an exhortation by 
Siriputta on the primary importance of a right attitude to- 
wards, and understanding of, the nature and causes of 111, so 
that the brethren may meet persecutions — ills not due to their 
own ill deeds — with fortitude and serenity. In the Nidana- 
Sawyutta of the Sawyutta-Nikaya, all the contexts of the 
formula known to the compilers are grouped together. Of 
the ninety-three brief Suttas of which this division consists, 
only one-sixth of those in which the formula occurs, have 
Dukkha (or its opposite) for their subject. A slightly larger 
proportion of the Suttas (16) are so many statements up- 
holding the truth of the evolution of phenomena by way of 
natural causation. That any being exists absolutely and 
eternally is at the same time denied. And that any being 
ever perishes absolutely is equally denied. Of the remaining 
Suttas, four, in which Loka, the world of sense-perception, is 
substituted in the Pa/icca-samuppada for Dukkha, belong 
virtually to the foregoing sixteen. Seven are concerned with 
rebirth, eight are ethical exhortations to destroy Craving, and 
thirty-six emphasize the importance of mastering the pri?iciple 
of the Pa/icca-samuppada. That holds the key to insight ; to 
understand it is therefore the test of true knowledge and 
sound doctrine. This too is the point in Saw/yutta V, 387-9, 
where the formula again occurs. Once more, in the very 
strongly emphasized rehearsal of the formula in the ' Great 
Tawha-sankhaya-Sutta ' of M. I, 256, the doctrine there in- 
culcated is not in any way hedonistic, sentimental or, directly, 
moral. It has nothing to say about Dukkha. It is a re- 
pudiation of the belief in any permanent, transmigrating 
intelligent principle (viiiiiawa) in man, and the affirmation of 
the contrary view — that viiiiiawa is a contingent phenomenon, 
a happening by way of cause and effect, something that 
' becomes ' and dies away. 

Dukkha, on the other hand, and the causes of it — ' evam 
. . . samudayo'— holds, in nearly every case, the last word in 
this notable formula. And according to the Buddhist records, 
as told in the preceding Suttanta, the fact and sequence of 
those causes dawn ever on the mind of every Buddha in 
response to the anguished questionings of his mind brooding 
over the misery of the world, and of the infinite living and 
dying in it. 

Hence in trying to account adequately for the profound 
significance and high importance attached by the founders ot 
Buddhism to the doctrine of the Pa/icca-samuppada, we need 
to keep in view this dual aspect of it — that it is a way of ex- 
plaining phenomena, and that the most interesting phenomenon 



44 INTRODUCTION. 



to be explained is that of Dukkha ^ The latter standpoint 
is that of man as recipient or percipient, the former, that of 
man as intellective or interpreting. 

Now if to this twofold aspect we add that of man as react- 
ing, by will and deed, to his impressions and his interpretations, 
and take the Buddha's doctrine of the Eightfold Path, as the 
corresponding formula, we have not only the whole of Early 
Buddhism in a nutshell, but also just those points concerning 
which we find the most emphatic affirmations of Dhamma as 
Dhamma ascribed to Gotama — 

' Both in the past and now do I set forth just f /its : — " dukkha 
and the cessation of dukkha ^," 

' Let us put aside questions of the Beginning and the End. 
I will teach you the Dhamma: — That being thus, this comes 
to be. From the coming to be of that, this arises. That 
being absent, this does not happen. From the cessation of 
that, this ceases^. 

' There is a Middle Path . . . discovered by the Tathagata 
(discovered by none but a Tathagata, S. V, 14) . . . this Aryan 
Eightfold Path ...*.' This Path, my friend, is the religious 
life (brahmacariya) ®.' 

These three central tenets are put, by our earliest and best 
authorities, in these or other words, into the mouth of Gotama 
himself at the very outset of his career, in his first sermon, as 
the doctrine of the Four Aryan or Noble Truths. And the 
Pa/icca-samuppada, with its positive formula of uprising 
(Samudaya), and its negative formula of passing away 
(Nirodha), covers the ground staked out by the second and 
third of these Truths. It is frequently quoted in this con- 
nexion ^ and its importance in the Dhamma is thereby made 
the more evident. 

But the reason for that importance only becomes clear, 
when we look away from the dukkha to which the formula is 



^ It is regrettable that later Buddhist teaching, yielding to this fact 
of 'interest,' obscured the great causal principle taught by Gotama, 
through the simile of a wheel, so as to include the va//a, or round of 
Samsara. A ladder or stairway (nissewi), like that used to illustrate 
the way to see Brahma (' Dialogues,' I, 308, Tevijja-Sutta), would have 
been more appropriate. 

=^ M. I, 140. 

' lb. II, 32. Cf. ib. I, 190, where Sariputta says — 'The Exalted 
One has said, that he who sees the Pa/icca-samuppada, sees the 
Dhamma, and he who sees the Dhamma sees the Pa/icca-samuppada.' 

* Vin. I, 10. ' S. V, 15. 

« e.g. S. II, 14-16, 28, 29, 57-9, 108, 109, 129-31, A. I, 177. 



INTRODUCTION. 45 



SO often applied, away too from the antecedents of dukkha, 
and consider all that is implied in the Pa/icca-samuppada by 
way of method and W eltanscliauttng. 

If we persist in viewing either Dukkha or its causes as the 
' secret ' of the doctrine, we might omit the formula altogether, 
since the nature and cause and effect of each nidana is fully 
taught in each Nikaya. Nor is the order of sequence the 
main tenet. Frequent liberties are taken in the Canon with 
both order and number of nidanas^. Nor finally could the 
arrangement of antecedents and consequences in an iterated 
rigmarole (convenient for oral transmission) appeal with the 
runic force of a Shibboleth to a movement of thought like 
that of Buddhism, any more than would the similarly arranged 
fragment of formula contained in the Sankhya Karika have 
appealed, as such, to the followers of that school. No refoijmers 
who so carefully purged their literature of all the ' eulalic ' 
reiterations of Om ! Hari ! and the rest, that so throng the 
pages of the Upanishads, would care a brass farthing for any 
' accumulative jingle ' accounting for things after the fashion of 
the widely spread pre-historic folk-rune, ' The cat began to kill 
the rat, the rat began to gnaw the rope,' &c. . . . ' and so the 
old woman got home that night.' Evam etassa, &c. 

It was not the fact of Dukkha, nor the fairly obvious 
conditions of birth and so on, leading up to it, that come as 
a revelation to each Buddha, beneath his Bo-tree. It was the 
process of samudaya and nirodha as a natural and universal 
law. ' Coming to pass ! Coming to pass ! At that thought 
there arose in me a Vision into things not called before to 
mind, and knowledge arose, insight, wisdom, light arose 2.' 
Not uncaused and casually, nor by the fiat of i9vara — Indra, 
Soma, Varuwa, BrahmA ^ — did events happen, painful or other- 
wise; not as Job and the Psalmist taught — 'God distributeth 
sorrows in his anger.' For ' God is a righteous judge, and 
God is angry every day*.' Events came impelled by preceding 
conditions, causes that man could by intelligence and good 
will, study and govern, suspend or intensify^. 

* e. g. this Suttanta omits the first two. In ' Dialogues/ I, p. 53 
(Brahmajala S.), the first five are omitted, so also in S. II, 92. S. II, 
loi, instead of the usual order of the twelve nidanas, gives 3, 4, 2, 11, 
12 only, and in this order. In M. I, 191, a different ^o\x^ of antece- 
dents are said to have dukkha as their consequence — desire, attach- 
ment, indulgence, lusting after. 

* See above, p. 26. ' See ' Dialogues,' I, p. 310. 

* Job xxi. 17, Ps. vii. 2. 

^ Cf. herewith Prof. Oltramare's ' La Formule bouddhique des douze 



46 INTRODUCTION. 



Thus Buddhaghosa, in explaining the name Pa/icca-samup- 
pada^, points out that it excludes all theories of absolutism, 
nihilism, chance, irregular causation 2, and indeterminism ^ 
And of such theories, it is concerning the implied rejection 
of the first two that he is most explicit. Namely, that there 
is no persistent ego reaping results in one life sown as causes 
in a previous life, and that it is not a different, an alien ego 
either, which reaps. The latter person (attabhava) is the 
resultant, the creature, the ' evolute ' of the former. Thus 
faithfully was the tradition of the Pi/akas preserved, wherein 
the view of viniiawa as a persistent ego was categorically 
contradicted in the words anekapariyayena pa/icca- 
samuppanna (causally evolved in various ways). M. I, 256. 

Let it be remembered that the ' immanent ' absolutism 
opposed by Buddhism was chiefly the Brahmanic theosophy. 
According to this, the atman ^of the individual was not so 
much an efflux of the World-Atman, as was the latter im- 
manent in, and identified with, each man-soul. ' In the 
beginning this world was only Soul, in the shape of a man 
. . . world-guardian, world-lord, this that is My Soul ^.' ' My 
Soul ' was therefore, in that theosophy, the personal First 

causes' (Genbve, 1909), which we have had the good fortune to read 
before going to press. ' Le Bouddha a voulu apprendre . . . que la 
misere ne vient point a Thomme de quelque agent externe ^chappant 
a sa prise, et qu'elle n'est pas non plus inh^rente a une substance 
immuable, ce qui la rendrait elle-meme incurable. . . . Le Pratityasa- 
mutpada est une tentative d'expliquer la quality de la vie, sans 
qu'interviennent ni la notion d'ame, ni la notion de Dieu,' &c. And 
yet to these luminous remarks he prefixes the statement, that the 
Buddha certainly did not wish to affirm any formula of universal 
causality, since that theory iiinte'resse que thomme. To us it seems 
that precisely for this reason it would be the object of the quest of him 
men called the Naruttama, the Aggapuggala — the supreme Man — who 
combined ' philosophical curiosity ' or rather, insight, with the practical 
bent of a saviour of men. 

^ Visuddhi-Magga, ch. xvii. 

^ Visama-hetu-vado. Warren translates this 'heresy of exis- 
tences due to an over-ruling power.' Buddhism did virtually reject an 
Issara, but scarcely in such terms as those above. 

' Vasavattivado. Warren has 'self-determining existences.' 

* Cf. H. Oldenberg, 'Buddha' (London, 1882). 'Where there is 
no being, but only becoming, it is not substance, but only a law, which 
can be recognized as the first and the last.' The significance of the 
Pa/icca-samuppada as the discerning of such a law has found adequate 
emphasis in this scholar's work. 

•" Brhad. Up. I, 4. i ; Kaush. Up. Ill, 8. 



INTRODUCTION. 47 



Cause and Final Cause. And hence the Pa/icca-samuppada 
of Buddhism was as decided a negation of all teleology as 
was the theorem of Demokritus and his master Leukippus, 
that • nothing happens by chance, but ever>-thing through a 
cause and of necessity ^' 

Had the fates been kinder to the writings of the Atomist 
of Abdera, had the * teleological reaction ' not been led by 
two men of such extraordinary genius as Plato and Aristotle, 
it is conceivable that the whole philosophy, not to say the 
Dhamma, of the West, might have flowed along a channel in 
which the influence of the mikros and the mcgas Diakosmos 
might have brought both that philosophy and that Dhamma 
more nearly parallel to the informing principle of the Pa/icca- 
samuppada. As it happened. Europe learned from Athens 
compromise and comprehensiveness, learned to believe in a 
universe governed partly by necessity and partly by chance, 
learned to combine belief in unchanging natural law with 
belief in first and final causes. 

And so gradually has the realm of regular, causal sequence 
encroached upon that of the casual and the arbitrary, that 
on no period in the intellectual development of Europe can 
we place our finger and say : — Here the concept of a universe 
governed, as to its every movement and happening, by 
natural causation, was brought home to the minds of men, — 
to the mind of one man. There is nothing resembling the 
intellectual earthquake caused half a century ago by that 
extension of the law of causation : the theory of evolution. 
Or was there some such milestone of rational development 
reached, when Demokritus formulated the philosophy of 
Atomism, and won renown as a great prophet and teacher 
of mankind ? 

In the histor>' of Indian thought, on the other hand, we 
can point to such an epoch-making crisis, we can discern the 
significance of the law of universal causation breaking in on 
a great mind with a flash of intuition. The law, we read, 
stands as fundamental, whether Tathagatas have arisen or 
not. But the Tathagata penetrates and masters it., and delivers 
the knowledge thereof to the world -. 

' Lange, ' History of Materialism,' I, ch. i. Demokritus flourished 
apparenily about half a century after the Buddha's death. See also 
Vis. Magga XVII : ' the wheel of becoming is without known beginning, 
lacking both maker (karako) . . . such as Brahma . . . and percipient 
(vadako) " I." For each consequent proceeds by reason of its ante- 
cedent.' 

^ S. II, 25. 



48 INTRODUCTION. 



No such crisis of thought is patent in the literature of 
the Brahmins, though that Hterature extends over practically 
the whole era of Indian culture. Those Upanishads which 
are ranked as the oldest show a naif animism : those ranked 
later reveal thought attained to relative maturity \ But there 
is no evidence of a transition causing a mental upheaval. In 
the seventy-two stanzas of the Sankhya Karika, again, 25 per 
cent, contain some consciously generalized affirmation re- 
specting cause and effect. The abstract causal concept shows 
as a well-matured instrument of metaphysical thought. 
Throughout the Yoga Sutra too we find allusions to causality 
as an abstract idea 2. It is only in the Buddhist Nikayas that 
we come up against the actual effort itself of the human mind 
to get at a more scientific view of world-order, — an effort 
which is marked with the freshness and vigour of a new fetch 
of intellectual expansion, and the importance and gravity of 
which is affirmed with the utmost emphasis, both in the earliest 
records and in the orthodox literature of ten centuries later. 

The significance of the Pi/akas, as the vehicle of this evolu- 
tionary cry of travail and new birth, is not minimized by the 
objection, that a gospel promulgated by laymen (Khattiyas), 
and preached to the man in the street, would naturally regard, 
as truths new and wonderful, axioms which, to the more 
esoteric, philosophical schools of the day, were the common- 
places of dialectical metaphysic. For we have shown that, in 
the one case where such a school has preserved its ancient 
literature, we find books of pre-causational and post-causational 
thought, but nothing indicating that the conviction of a law 
of universal natural causation was taking birth. The 
aphorisms, constituting the oldest existing survivals of Yoga 
and Sankhya thought, reveal no inner evolution of philosophic 
progress, and no traces of early animistic culture such as 
appear in certain of the Upanishads. Most of the Jain 
literature still awaits it editor, but we have Dr. Jacobi's learned 
authority for it, that, in spite of an atomistic theory of some 
interest, its philosophy was crude, animistic and mere 'common 

^ Cf. Aitareyya Up. ' The Atman deliberated : I will send forth 

worlds — he then formed the person ... he brooded over him, and 

... a mouth burst forth like an egg' — with ^vetasvatara Up. 

* Should time, or nature, or necessity, or chance, or the elements, or 

the Person be considered as the cause ? ' 

"^ In one passage (IV, 11), the statement takes \kiQ.form of the nega- 
tive part of the Buddhist formula. 'As the sankharas are collected by 
cause, eftect, substratum, and support, therefore through the absence of 
these, there is an absence of the sankharas.' 



INTRODUCTION. 49 



sense.' It is not likely therefore that the Angas which are 
still inedited will reveal any conception of causation possessing 
deep philosophical insight. Hence all early Indian literature, 
for which any such insight is claimed, except that of Buddhism, 
either shows both the child-like and the more adult stages of 
thought without the (supremely interesting) transitional stage, 
or else it has preserved only its more adult records, or else it 
never had any but adult records to show, i.e. it is later 
literature only. 

Now in the history of philosophy, whether its concepts be 
sought in the cell and the academy of the originating seer, or 
in the reaction to his influence in thoughtful and earnest minds, 
nothing is more illuminating either for chronology' or for 
interpretation, than to catch the intelligence in the act of 
ascending to a fresh vantage-point in its interpretation of the 
world — 

. . . dhammamayarh, Sumedha. 
pasadarh aruyha, Samantacakkhu . . . 
avekkhassu ! ^ 

And since no auspicious day amid Egyptian or trans- Aegean 
ruins has brought back to us Leukippus or Demokritus, the 
Buddhist Pi/akas, by presenting this evolutionary moment, 
possess a unique interest for the historian of human ideas, not 
only in India, but in the entire world of culture. 



See preceding Suttanta, p. 39 of the text 



III. 



XV. mahA-nidAna-suttanta. 

(the great discourse on causation.) 

I. [66] Thus have I heard. The Exalted One was 
once dwelling among the Kurus^ Now a township 
of that country is named Kammassadamma. And the 
venerable Ananda came to where the Exalted One was, 
bowed in salutation before him, and took a seat on one 
side. And so seated he said to the Exalted One : — 
' Wonderful, lord, and marvellous it is, that whereas 
this doctrine of events as arising from causes is so 
deep and looks so deep ^ to me it seems as clear as 
clear can be ! ' 

' Say not so, Ananda, say not so ! Deep is this 
doctrine of events as arising from causes, and it looks 
deep too. It is through not understanding this doctrine, 
through not penetrating it, that this generation ^ has 
become a tangled skein, a matted ball of thread *, like 



^ The Kurus occupied the country of which Indraprastha, close to 
the modern Delhi, was the capital. See Rh. D. ' Buddhist India,' 
p. 27. 

2 Water, muses the Cy., may be shallow and look deep like a pool 
black with the rotten leaves beneath the surface ; it may be deep and 
look shallow, like the jewel-like translucence of Ganges water ; it may 
be and look shallow, like the contents of a basin ; it may be and look 
deep, like the ocean at the foot of Mount Sineru. But this doctrine is 
ever and only deep both in substance and appearance. 

^ The Greek yewrjfia of the Gospels has much the same vague 
meaning as paja — offspring, here rendered 'generation.' 

* A more literal rendering than Warren's picturesque ' entangled 
warp . . . ensnarled web.' The similes are drawn from weaving cloth 
and making nets. The tangle is due to bad workmanship or the teeth 
of mice; the matting, to grease (kafijiyasuttam), the ball resembling 
a bird's nest. Both similes are to illustrate the confused state of the 
popular mind, lost in fallacies of opinion, prejudice and superstition 
e. g. among the sixty-two heresies of the first Suttanta (Vol. I). Cy. 



D. ii. 56. THE GREAT DISCOURSE ON CAUSATION. 5 1 

to munja-grass and rushes \ unable to overpass the 
doom of the Waste -, the Woeful Way, the Downfall, 
the Constant Round [of transmigration] ^ 

2. ' If you, Ananda, were asked : — " Is old age and 
death due to a particular cause ? " you should say : — 
" It is." And to the question : — " From what cause 
is old age and death ? " you should say : — " Birth is 
the cause of old age and death." 

' If you, Ananda, were asked : — "Is birth due to a 
particular cause ? " [56] you should say : — " It is." And 
to the question : — " From what cause is birth ? " you 
should say > — " Becoming ^ is the cause of birth." ) 

/U you, Ananda, were asked : — " Is becoming due to 
a particular cause" ? you should say : — " It is." And 
to the question : — *' From what cause is becoming ? " 
you should say : '* Grasping is the cause of becoming." 
, ' If you, Ananda, were asked : — " Is grasping due to 
a particular cause ? " you should say : — " It is." And 
to the question : — " From what cause is grasping ? " 
you should say : — " Craving is the cause of grasping?" 

' If you, Ananda, were asked : " Is craving due to 
a particular cause ?" you should say : — " It is." And 
to the question : — " From what cause is craving ?" you 
should say :-;^" Sensation is the cause of craving." 

* If you, Ananda, were asked : — " Is sensation due 
to a particular cause ? " you should say : — " It is." 
And to the question: — "From what cause is sensation?" 
you should say : — " Contact is the cause of sensation." 

^ When these are withering and cut in autumn, if gathered up in 
sheaves wherever they fall, it becomes difficult to extricate stalk from 
stalk and lay them in parallel order. (Cy.) 

* Apaya. For the concrete meaning see above, Vol. I, p. 125. In 
the secondary sense the word is often — quite wrongly, rendered 'hell.' 
There is no hell, i. e. no existence of unending torment, in Indian 
thought. 

^ These four terms all refer to a change for the worse in rebirth, i.e. 
to one or other of the four infra-human grades of existence — purgatory, 
animal kingdom, shades or ghosts, and asuras or fallen angels. 

* The Cy. is at no pains to explain here the staple terms in the 
chain of causation, the author having expounded them after his fashion 



in the Visuddhi Magga. 



E 2 



52 XV. MAHA-NIDANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 56. 

* If you, Ananda, were asked : — " Is contact due to 
a particular cause?" you should say: — "It is." And 
to the question : — " From what cause is contact ? " you 
should say:—" Name-and-form is the cause of contact." 

* If you, Ananda, were asked : — " Is name-and-form 
due to a particular cause ? " you should say : — " It is." 
And to the question : — " From what cause is name- 
and-form ?" you should say : — " Cognition is the cause 
of name-and-form." 

3. * Thus then is it, Ananda, that cognition, with 
name-and-form as its cause ; name-and-form, with cog- 
nition as its cause ; contact, with name-and-form as its 
cause ; sensation with contact as its cause ; craving, with 
sensation as its cause ; grasping, with craving as its 
cause ; becoming, with grasping as its cause ; birth, 
with becoming as its cause ; old age and death, with 
birth as its cause ; grief, lamentation, ill, sorrow and 
despair, all come into being, [sv] Such is the coming 
to pass of this whole body of 111. 

4. ' I have said that birth is the cause of old age 
and death. Now in what way that is so, Ananda, is to 
be understood after this manner. Were there no 
birth of any sort or kind whatever of any one an)'where 
— that is to say, of gods to godhood, of Gandharvas ^ 
after their kind, of Yakshas after their kind, of goblins ^ 
after their kind, of humans to humanity, of quadrupeds 
to the animal kingdom, of birds to winged things, or of 
insects to the insect- world — were there no birth after 
the several kind of every one of these classes of beings, 
then, there being no birth whatever, would there, owing 
to this cessation of birth, be any appearance of old age 
and death ? ' 

' There would not, lord.' 

'Wherefore, Ananda, just that is the ground, that 

' The Cy., following S. Ill, 250, speaks of these beings as fairies 
residing in the perfumes given out by roots and other parts of trees 
and flowers, saying nothing of their * celestial musicianship ' (see 
Hardy, ' Manual of Buddhism,' 43), or of Sakka as their king (see 
Jat. VI, 260). 

' Bhfita. 



D. ii. jS. THE GREAT DISCOURSE ON CAUSATION. 53 

is the basis, that is the genesis, that is the cause of old 
age and death, to wit, birth. 

5. /I have said that becoming^ is the cause of birth. 
Now in what way that is so, Ananda, is to be under- 
stood after this manner. Were there no becoming of 
any sort or kind whatever of any one anywhere, that is 
to say, no coming to be of any sentient, formed, or 
formless being -, then there being no becoming what- 
ever, would there, owing to this cessation of becoming, 
be any appearance of birth ? ' 

' There would not, lord.' ^ 

' Wherefore, Ananda, just that is the ground, that 
is the basis, the genesis, the cause of birth, to wit, 
becoming. 

.6. 'I have said that grasping^ is the^ cause of 
becoming. Now in what way that is so, Ananda, is 
to be understood after this manner. Were there no 
grasping of any sort or kind whatever by any one at 
an)4:hing — [58] that is to say, no grasping at the things 
of sense, no grasping through speculative opinions, 
no grasping after mere rule and ritual, no grasping 
through theories of soul — then there being no grasping 



^ Tattha bhavatiti bhavo. ' Here bhavo means one becomes' 
(so the Vis. Mag. opens its comment) — not atthi, one is. Burnouf, 
Oldenberg, Warren all choose ' existence.' Winternitz (' Religions- 
geschichtliches Lesebuch,' p. 236) has Dasein. But the mobile, 
plastic, evolutionary thing, ever in progress, that life appears as con- 
ceived by the Indian, fits ills in the more rigid Western metaphysic of 
Being. As Buddhist sponsors, possibly also as philosophers, we lost 
much when we dropped weorihan for becumen, and may envy 
our German colleagues with their Werden (see Mrs. Rh. D. in 
'Buddhism,' March, 1904, pp. 389, 390; Rangoon). Moreover, 
according to the Vibhanga (p. 137) the bhava which is the cause of 
birth is not only uppattibhavo, — the becoming which is ' coming 
into sentient being' of some sort — but also kammabhavo, or the 
generating of effective actions, effective in good or bad results, or in 
result which is ' beyond good and bad,' \iz. meritorious activity, 
demeritorious activity, and 'unmoved 'or ' static activity ' (aneiijabhi- 
sankharo). ' Existence ' fits here still worse. 

- These three exhausted, for the Buddhist, the living universe. See 
Dh. S., §§ 1 281-6 (Trans., p. 334). 

' Up a dan a. See preceding Suttanta, II, 18, and the note there. 



54 XV. MAHA-NIDANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 58. 

whatever, would there, owing to this cessation of 
grasping, be any appearance of becoming ? ' 

* There would^not, lord.' 

' Wherefore, Ananda, just that is the ground, the 
basis, the genesis, the cause of becoming, to wit, 
grasping. 

7. ' I have said that craving ^ is the cause of 
grasping. Now in what way that is so, Ananda, 
is to be understood after this manner. Were there no 
craving of any sort or kind whatever by any one for 
anything — that is to say, no craving for sights, sounds, 
odours, tastes, tangibles or ideas — then there being no 
craving whatever, would there, owing to this cessation 
of craving, be any appearance of grasping ? ' 

* There would^ not, lord.' 

' Wherefore, Ananda, just that is the ground, that is 
the basis, the genesis, the cause of grasping, to wit, 
craving. 

8. ' I have said that sensation - is the cause of crav- 
ing. Now in what way that is so, Ananda, is to be 
understood after this manner. Were there no sensa- 
tion of any sort or kind whatever in any one for any- 
thing, that is to say, no sensations born of impressions 
received by way of sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, 
or imagination, — then there being no sensation what- 
ever, would there, owing to this cessation of sensation, 
be any appearance of craving ? ' 



^ Tawha. Usually translated 'thirst,' but not used to express 
physical thirst in the Pi/akas. Dr. Neumann sometimes uses the 
equivalent (to craving) — Begier. Winternitz has Gier. 

^ Vedana, which is usually, in the Pi/akas, resolved into feeling, 
pleasurable, painful, neutral, is here explained in terms of sense- 
reaction to contact. Now the term 'feeling,' in its widest psycho- 
logical meaning (namely, as consisting essentially in our 5etng affected 
or acted upon), is able to bear this connotation as well as the more 
emotional aspect. But since we have the alternative term ' sensation,' 
since Buddhaghosa himself emphasizes the different aspect: dvarato 
vedana vutta (' the vedana mentioned refers to sense,' Vis. Mag.), 
— and since other translators are unanimous in using ' sensation,' this 
rendering is followed here. In Sum. Vil., Buddhaghosa characterizes 
the term in this passage as vipaka- vedana, 'resultant vedana.' 



D. ii. 59- THE GREAT DISCOURSE ON CAUSATION. 55 

* There would not, lord.' 

'Wherefore, Ananda, just that is the ground, the 
basis, the genesis, the cause of craving, to wit, 
sensation.' 

9. ' Thus it is, Ananda, that craving ^ comes into 
being because of sensation, pursuit because of craving, 
gain because of pursuit, decision - because of gain, 
desire and passion '^ because of decision, tenacity 
because of desire and passion, possession because of 
tenacity, avarice * because of possession, watch and 
ward because of avarice, [59] and many a bad and 
wicked state of things arising from keeping watch and 
ward over possessions : — blows and wounds, strife, 
contradiction and retort, quarrelling ^ slander and lies. 

10. ' I have said that many a bad and wicked state 
of things arising from keeping watch and ward over 
possessions, blows and wounds, quarrelling and the 
like, come into being. Now in what way that is so, 
Ananda, is to be understood after this manner. Were 
there no watch and ward of any sort or kind whatever 
by any one over anything, then there being no watch 
and ward whatever, would there, owing to this cessation 
of watch and ward, be any coming into being of those 
many bad and wicked states of things ? ' 

' There would not, lord.' 

' Wherefore, Ananda, just that is the ground, the 

' This and the nine following sections constitute a digression in the 
exposition of the chain which is thus explained by the Cy. Craving 
may be considered under two aspects: — There is the primordial 
craving which is the root or base of transmigration (va//a-mula- 
bhfita purima-ta«ha],and there is craving as manifested in conduct 
(samudacara-tawha). The former, with the remaining links, is now 
put aside, ' as if one were putting a clamorous person out of the road, 
hitting him on the back and seizing his hair.' And the latter is dis- 
cussed under the t^vofold subdivision of craving in the quest, and 
craving in the found quarry — seeking and gloating over. 

* Vinicchayo, explained as deciding what to do with one's gains. 
^ Chandarago. From these selfish considerations volitions both 

weak and strong arise. Chando is weak passion (or lust, rago). 

* Macchariyaw; the not suflFering others to share. 

® On tuvaOTtuvaw, see E. Miiller, ' Pali Grammar,' p. 38. 



56 XV. MAHA-NIDANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 59. 

basis, the genesis, the cause of blows and wounds, of 
strife, contradiction and retort, of quarrelling, slander 
and lies, to wit, the guarding of property. 

11. 'I have said that watch and ward is because of 
avarice. Now in what way that is so, Ananda, is to be 
understood after this manner. Were there no avarice 
of any sort or kind whatever in any one about anything, 
then there being no avarice whatever, would there, 
owing to this cessation of avarice, be any appearance 
of watch and ward ? ' 

' There would not, lord.' 

* Wherefore, Ananda, just that is the ground, the 
basis, the genesis, the cause of watch and ward, to wit, 
avarice. 

1 2. ' I have said that avarice is because of posses- 
sion. Now in what way that is so, Ananda, is to be 
understood after this manner. [60] Were there no 
possession of any sort or kind whatever by any one of 
anything, then there being no possessing whatever, 
would there, owing to this cessation of possession, be 
any appearance of avarice ? ' 

'There would not, lord.' 

' Wherefore, Ananda, just that is the ground, the 
basis, the genesis, the cause of avarice, to wit, 
possession. 

13. 'I have said that tenacity is the ^ cause of 
possession. Now in what way that is so, Ananda, is 
to be understood after this manner. Were there no 
tenacity of any sort or kind whatever shown by any one 
with respect to anything, then there being no tenacity 
whatever, would there, owing to this cessation of 
tenacity, be any appearance of possession ? ' 

' There would not, lord.' 

* Wherefore, Ananda, just that is the ground, the 
basis, the genesis, the cause of possession, to wit, 
tenacity. 

14. 'I have said that tenacity is because of desire 
and passion. Now in what way that is so, Ananda, 
is to be understood after this manner. Were there no 
passion or desire of any sort or kind whatever in any 



D. ii.6i. THE GREAT DISCOURSE ON CAUSATION. 57 

one for anything, then there being no passion or desire 
whatever, would there, owing to this cessation of 
passion and desire, be any appearance of tenacity ? ' 

' There would not, lord.' 

' Wherefore, Ananda, just that is the ground, the 
basis, the genesis, the cause of tenacity, to wit, desire 
and passion. 

15.'! have said that passion and desire is because 
of decision. Now in what way that is so, Ananda, is 
to be understood after this manner. Were there no 
purpose of any sort or kind whatever devised by any 
one for anything, then there being no purpose what- 
ever, would there, owing to this cessation of purpose, 
be any appearance of passion and desire ? ' 

[ei] ' There would not, lord.' 

■ Wherefore, Ananda, just that is the ground, the 
basis, the genesis, the cause of passion and desire, to 
wit, decision. 

16. 'I have said that decision is becaiise of gain. 
Now in what way that is so, Ananda, is to be under- 
stood after this manner. Were there no gain of any 
sort or kind whatever by any one of anything, then, 
there being no gain whatever, w^ould there, owing to 
this cessation of gain, be any appearance of decision ? ' 

' There would not, lord.' 

' Wherefore, Ananda, just that is the ground, the 
basis, the genesis, the cause of decision, to wit, gain. 

1 7. * I have said that gain^ is because of pursuit. 
Now in what way that is so, Ananda, is to be under- 
stood after this manner. Were there no pursuit of any 
sort or kind whatever by any one after anything, then 
there being no pursuit whatever, would there, owing 
to this cessation of pursuit, be any appearance of 
gain ? ' 

' There would ^not, lord.' 

' Wherefore, Ananda, just that is the ground, the 
basis, the genesis, the cause of gain, to wit, pursuit. 

18. ' I have said that pursuit is because of craving. 
Now in what way that is so, Ananda, is to be under- 
stood after this manner. Were there no craving of 



58 XV. MAHA-NIDANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 61. 

any sort or kind whatever by any one for anything, — 
that is to say, the lust of the flesh, the lust of life 
eternal and the lust of the life that now is ^ — then, 
there being no craving whatever, would there, owing 
to this cessation of craving, be any appearance of 
pursuit ? ' 

* There would^not, lord.' 

* Wherefore, Ananda, just that is the ground, the 
basis, the genesis, the cause of pursuit, to wit, craving. 

* So now, Ananda, these two aspects [of craving] 
from being dual become united through the sensation 
[which conditions them]^.' 

19. [62] 'I have said that contact is the cause of 
sensation. Now in what way that is so, Ananda, is to 
be understood after this manner. Were there no con- 
tact of any sort or kind whatever between any one and 
anything whatever, — that is to say, no reaction^ of 
sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch or imagination — 
then, there being no contact whatever, would there, 
owing to this cessation of contact, be any appearance 
of sensation ? 

' There would ^not, lord.' 

' Wherefore, Ananda, just that is the ground, the 
basis, the genesis, the cause of sensation, to wit, 
contact. 

20. ' I have said that name-and-form is the cause of 
contact. Now in what way that is so, Ananda, is to 
be understood after this manner. Those modes, 
features, characters, exponents, by which the aggre- 
gate called ' name ' manifests itself, — if all these were 
absent, would there be any manifestation of a corre- 



^ See Rh. D. 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 148, n. 4. On the three kinds 
the Cy. remarks, that the first, kamatawha, means craving for the five 
classes of sense- objects, the second is the passion characterizing 
Eternalism, the third, that characterizing Nihilism (see 'Dialogues,' I, 
pp. 27, 46). 

^ 'These two aspects' (dhammi), i.e. according to the Cy., the 
two aspects of craving specified above, p. 55, n. i. 

' Samphasso. 



D. ii. 62. THE GREAT DISCOURSE ON CAUSATION. 59 



spending verbal impression in the aggregate called 
[bodily] form ? ^ ' 

' There would not, lord.' 

' Those modes, features, characters, exponents, by 
which the aggregate called [bodily] form manifests 
itself— if all these were absent, would there be any 
manifestation of an impression of sense-reaction - in the 
aggregate called name ? ' 

' There would not, lord,' 

' And if all those modes, &c., of both kinds were 
absent, would there be any manifestation of either 
verbal or sensory impression ? ' 

* There would not, lord.' 

' So that, if all those moods, &c., by which name-and- 
form manifests itself were absent, there would be no 
manifestation of contact ? ' 

' There would not, lord.' 

' Wherefore, Ananda, just that is the ground, the 
basis, the genesis, the cause of contact ^ to wit, name- 
and-form. 



' Rfipakaye adhivacanasamphasso. This and its complement 
the pa/ighasamphasso in 'name' (rendered 'impression of sense- 
reaction') occur in the Vibhanga, p. 6, as two modes of santia, or 
perception, the former being described as refined, subtle^, delicate, the 
latter as gross, coarse, thick. If" the ps}xhological comments of 
Buddhaghosa on these two expressions in the Sammoha-Vinodani and 
the Sumangala Vilasini be a correct guide to the Buddha's utterance, 
then the passage under consideration reveals what would now be 
called a psycho-physiological standpoint of much interest. The ' modes 
. . . exponents ' of ' name ' are not physical expressions, but the pro- 
cesses of subjective consciousness, — feelings, perceptions, &c. The 
consciousness, bent back upon itself — pi//Aiva//aka hutva — 
refouUe sur soi-meme — gives the name to what it finds. The 
modes, &c., of ' form ' are the modes of sensation, by which ' form 
manifests itself' to the mind, — 'at the mind-door,' as the Cy. has it. 

* See Dh. S., translation, p. 172, n. i, 183, n. i. 

' i. e. of this twofold contact, as the Cy. points out, of mental object 
with mind-activity or mind, and of sense-object with sense-organ. Cf. 
Dh. S., §§ 3-5, and translation, p. 5, n. 2. The former mode of 
contact is there called ceto-samphasso, manovinnawadhatu- 
samphasso. 

The Cy. sums up the relation between namarfipa and phasso as 
follows : — In the channels of the five senses, sight, hearing, &c., by 



60 XV. MAIIA-NIDANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 62. 



2 1. 'I have said that cognition is the cause of name- 
and form [63]. Now in what way that is so, Ananda, is 
to be understood after this manner. Were cognition 
not to descend ' into the mother's womb, would name- 
and-form become constituted therein - ? ' 

' It would not, lord.' 

' Were cognition, after having descended ^ into the 
mother's womb, to become extinct, would name-and- 
form come to birth in this state of being ? ' 

• It would not, lord.' 

' Were cognition to be extirpated from one yet young, 



means of visual and other objects, are the ' form/ while the [other four] 
skandhas, brought into relation therewith, are the ' name.' Thus in 
a fivefold way is name-and-form the cause of contact. Moreover in 
the channel of the sixth sense (ma no, ideation) its physical basis, — 
the heart — as well as such corporeal form as becomes its mental 
object, constitute ' form,' while the related states of consciousness 
induced, as well as such incorporeal form as becomes its mental object, 
constitute incorporeal form. Thus in saying that name-and-form is 
the cause of contact, we must also include contact that is mental (i.e. of 
ideas). Name-and-form is therefore in many ways the cause of con- 
tact. (On the heart, see Dh. S., translation, p. Ixxviii; Pras. Up. 

in, 1, 5.) 

^ The animistic implication adhering to this term (okkamissatha; 
ava, down-h \/kram, stride) would of course have no significance for 
Buddhist doctrine. Accordingly it is, in the Cy., paraphrased as 
follows : — ' having entered, so to speak, and staying (vattamanam=the 
Latin idiom, versatum est), by means of conception, were not to 
keep going on.' The contradictory term, vokkamissatha, 'become 
extinct,' rendered by Warren ' go away again,' is paraphrased 
nirujjhissatha, and only signifies that the advent is in some way 
annulled. There is no conception of cognition, as a unity, descending 
from outside into the womb like a ball into a bag. At Sa»zyutta 
V, 283 we are told of happiness descending on a man, and at Mil. 299 
of drowsiness descending into or on to a man. So okkantika piti 
is a standing expression for a particular sort of joy. In each of these 
cases the bliss, or drowsiness, or joy is supposed to develop from 
within ; and so also here of cognition. 

- Samucchissatha, derived by Dr. Konow (J.P. T.S., 1908) 
from sam-|- v^murch, to thicken, and by him and Warren rendered *to 
be consolidated.' So also Oldenberg • Buddha °,' p. 259; and 
Windisch, 'Buddha's Geburt,'p. 39. The Cy. haskalaladi-bhavena 
. . . missibhutawi hutva, 'become mixed with the embryo in its 
different stages.' 



D. ii. 64. THE GREAT DISCOURSE ON CAUSATION. 6 1 

youth or maiden, would name-and-form attain to growth, 
development, expansion ? ' 
It would not. lord.' 

* Wherefore, Ananda, just that is the ground, the 
basis, the genesis, the cause of name-and-form, to wit, 
cogfnition. 

2 2. * I have said that name-and-form is the cause of 
cognition. Now in what way that is so. Ananda. is to 
be understood after this manner. Were coofnition to 
gain no foothold in name-and-form, would there then, 
in the coming years, be manifested that concatenation 
of birth, old age, death and the uprising of 111 .^ " 

' There would not, lord.' 

' Wherefore, Ananda, just that is the ground, the 
basis, the genesis, the cause of cognition, to wit, name- 
and-form. 

' In so far only, Ananda, can one be born, or grow 
old, or die, or dissolve, or reappear, in so far only is 
there any process ^ of verbal expression, in so far only 
is there an)- process of explanation, in so far only is 
there any process of manifestation, in so far only is 
there any sphere of knowledge, in so far only do we go 
round the round of life [64] up to our appearance amid 
the conditions of this world - — in as far as this is, to wit, 
name-and-form together with cognition.' 



23. ' Now with declarations concerning the soul, 
Ananda. how many such declarations are there ^ ? 

^ Patho, literally, course, path. 

^ Itthattaw pafifiapanaya, lit. for the making manifest thus- 
ness. Warren's rendering: — 'And it is all that is reborn to appear 
in the present shape,' — is beside the point, as well as free. Barely 
stated, the summary amounts to this : — ' Only through cognition, 
language and bodily form do we live and express ourselves.' The 
little paragraph contains a great part of modern psychology in the 
germ-state. 

' The doctrine of origin by way of cause having now been set 
forth, the following is, according to the Cy., an illustration of how 
' this generation has become a tangled skein,' &c., as asserted above 
(§ i). These different impressions as to the nature of the attS 



62 XV. MAHA-NIDANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 64. 

Either the soul is declared to have form and to be 
minute, in the words : — " My soul has form and is 
minute." Or the soul is declared to have form and to 
be boundless, in the words : — " My soul has form and 
is boundless." Or the soul is declared to be formless 
and minute, in the words : — " My soul is formless and 
minute." Or the soul is declared to be formless and 
boundless, in the words : — " My soul is formless and 
boundless." 

24. ' And in each case, Ananda, he who makes the 
declaration, makes it with regard either to the present 
life, or to the next life, or else his idea is : — " My soul 
not being like that, I will refashion it into that like- 
ness." That being so, Ananda, we have said enough 
about the case of one who is given to the theories that 
the soul has form and is minute, . . . has form and is 
boundless, and so on. 

[65] 'In so many ways, Ananda, are declarations 
made concerning the soul. 

25. ' And in how many ways, Ananda, when no 
declaration concerning the soul is made^, is such de- 
claring refrained from ? Either the soul is not declared 
to have form and to be minute, in the aforesaid formula, 
or the soul is not declared to have form and to be 
boundless, in the aforesaid formula, or the soul is not 
declared to be formless and minute, in the aforesaid 
formula, or the soul is not declared to be formless and 
boundless, in the aforesaid formula. 



(at man), soul, or mannikin, are, according to the Cy., deductions 
from Jhana experience. For instance, in the first ' declaration,' ' he 
who, on gazing at a particular kasi«a' (one of ten kinds of objects 
for inducing meditative rapture), ' gets hold of an after-image where 
there is no expansion {■a.vadd/iita.m), and of a consciousness that " it is 
the soul," declares that it, the soul, has form and is minute ' — and so on. 
Comp, on the whole exposition above Vol. I, pp. 45 foil. 

^ ' Who are they,' asks the Cy., ' who refrain ? All ariya-puggala 
— noble-minded persons, learned persons:-— those who know the 
Three Pi/akas (by heart), or two, or one, or even only one of the 
Nikayas, and can discourse thereon, and ar? of alert insight. These 
take the kasiwas for what they are, and. for them, the constituents 
of mind (the four khandhas) are such and no more.' 



D. ii.66. THE GREAT DISCOURSE ON CAUSATION. 6 



3 



26. * And in each case, Ananda, he who refrains 
from making the declaration, does not make it with 
regard either to the present Hfe, or to the next Hfe, nor 
is it his idea: — " My soul not being like that, I will re- 
fashion it into that likeness." [ee] That being so, 
Ananda, we have said enough about the case of those 
who are not given to theories respecting the form and 
dimensions of the soul. 

' In so many ways, Ananda, is there a refraining from 
declarations concerning the soul.' 

27. ' And under how many aspects, Ananda, is the 
soul regarded ? The soul is regarded ^ either as feeling, 
in the words : — " My soul is feeling " — or the opposite, 
in the words : — " Nay, my soul is not feeling, my soul 
is not sentient " ; or again : — " Nay, my soul is not feel- 
ing, nor is it non-sentient ; my soul /las feelings, it has 
the property of sentience." Under such aspects as 
these is the soul regarded. 

28. ' Herein, Ananda, to him who affirms: — "My 
soul is feeling" — answer should thus be made : — " ^Nly 
friend, feeling is of three kinds. There is happy feel- 
ing, painful feeling, neutral feeling. Of these three 
feelings, look you, which do you consider your 
soul is ? " 

' When }ou feel a happy feeling, Ananda, you do not 
feel a painful feeling, or a neutral feeling ; you feel just 
a happy feeling. And when you feel a painful feeling, 
you do not feel a happy feeling, or a neutral feeling, but 
just a painful feeling. And when you feel a neutral 
feeling, you do not then feel a happy feeling or a pain- 
ful feeling ; you feel just a neutral feeling. 

^ These three forms of the ' individuality-heresy ' amount to an 
interesting and metaphysically more discriminating statement of the 
oft-quoted theories identifying the soul or mannikin with one or other 
of the five Khandhas. (See Vin. 1, 1 3 (' Vin. Texts,' 1, 100) ; M. 1, 1 38, 
300; S. Ill, 66; IV, 34, &c.) According to the Cy., the second 
assertion is the identification with the body (rfipakkhandha- 
vatthuka), which is usually placed first; the third assertion includes 
identification of the soul with the other three Khandhas — with, let us 
say, thinking and volition. 



64 XV. MAHA-NIDANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 66. 

29. ' Moreover, Ananda, happy feeling is imperma- 
nent, a product ^, the result of a cause or causes, liable 
to perish [67], to pass away, to become extinct, to 
cease. So too is painful feeling. So too is neutral 
feeling. If when experiencing a happy feeling one 
thinks : — " This is my soul," — when that same happy 
feeling ceases, one will also think : — " My soul has de- 
parted." So too when the feeling is painful, or neutral. 
Thus he who says : — -" My soul is feeling," — regards, as 
his soul, something which, in this present life, is imper- 
manent, is blended of happiness and pain, and is liable 
to begin and to end. Wherefore, Ananda, it follows 
that this aspect : — " My soul is feeling " — does not 
commend itself. 

30. * Herein again, Ananda, to him who affirms : — 
" Nay, my soul is not feeling, my soul is not sentient," 
— answer should thus be made : — " My friend, where 
there is no feeling of anything, can you there say. — ' I 
am ' ? " ' 

' You cannot, lord ^.' 

* Wherefore, Ananda, it follows that this aspect : — 
"Nay, my soul is not feeling, my soul is not sentient," 
— does not commend itself. 

31. * Herein again, Ananda, to him who affirms : — 
" Nay, my soul is not feeling, nor is it non-sentient ; my 
soul has feelings, it has the property of sentience," — 
answer should thus be made : — " My friend, were feel- 
ing of every sort or kind to cease absolutely, then there 
being, owing to the cessation thereof, no feeling what- 
ever, could one then say : — ' I myself am ' ? " ' 

* No, lord, one could not.' 

^ Sahkhata, con-fected, composite, the resultant of conditions. 
The soul, according to the then current animism, was considered to 
be unique, not a product, not causally modifiable through temporal 
or spatial conditions. The commentary explains sahkhata as 'that 
which, having through such and such causes (lit. doings) come to- 
gether, is made.' 

- All the MSS. agree in putting this answer in the mouth of 
Ananda, instead of in that of the soul-theorist. And it would be quite 
like him to rush in, in this way, with his opinion. And so also 
below. 



D. ii. 68. THE GREAT DISCOURSE ON CAUSATION. 6$ 

' Wherefore, Ananda, it follows that this aspect : — 
" Nay, my soul is not feeling, nor is it non-sentient ; my 
soul has feelings, it has the property of sentience," — 
does not commend itself 

32. [68] ' Now when a brother, Ananda, does not 
regard soul under these aspects, — either as feeling, or 
as non-sentient, or as having feeling, — then he, thus 
refraining from such views, grasps at nothing whatever 
in the world ; and not grasping he trembles not ; and 
trembling not, he by himself attains to perfect peace. ^ 
And he knows that birth is at an end, that the higher 
life has been fulfilled, that what had to be done had 
been accomplished, and that after this present world 
there is no beyond ! 

' And of such a brother, Ananda, whose heart is 
thus set free, if any one should say : — " His creed 
is that an Arahant - goes on after death " — that 
were absurd. Or : " His creed is that an Arahant 
does not go on . . . does, and yet does not, go on . . . 
neither oroes on nor groes not on after death " — all 
that were absurd. Why is that ? Because, Ananda, 
whatever verbal expression there is and whatever 
system of verbal expression, whatever explanation 
there may be, and whatever system of explanation, 
whatever communication is possible and whatever 
system of communication, whatever knowledge there 
is and whatever sphere of knowledge, whatever 
round of life and how far the round is traversed, — 
by master)' over all this that brother is set free. 
But to say, of a brother who has been so set free 



^ Parinibbayati. Usually rendered 'he attains complete Nirvana' 
or 'attains Parinir\ana,' or even 'enters Nirvana.' The term is 
applied to the death of an Arahant, but it is also used to express 
perfected tranquillity, as in the case of a horse (M. I, 446), or of 
a man (M. I, 251 ; S. Ill, 54). Tradition, as represented by the Cy,, 
did not associate the hour of death with the term, for it says, ' Having 
thus completely pari nib ban a-ed (by extinguishing all evil) he goes 
on to reflect, " Birth is at an end," ' &c. 

' Tathagata; perhaps it merely means 'mortal.' See M. I, 542. 

III. F 



66 XV. MAHA-NIDANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 68. 

by insight : — " He knows not, he sees not " — that were 
absurd ! ^ ' 



33. 'There are seven resting-places for Cognition 2, 
Ananda, and two Spheres ^. Which are the seven ? 

[69] ' There are beings differing in body and differ- 
ing in intelligence ^, for instance, human beings and 
certain of the gods and some of those in purgatory. 
This is the first resting-place for Cognition. 

' There are beings differing in body but of uniform 
intelligence, for instance, the gods of the Brahma- 
heaven who are there reborn by means of the First 
[Jhana]*. This is the second resting-place for Cognition. 

* There are beings uniform in body and differing in 
intelligence, for instance, the Luminous Gods ". This 
is the third resting-place for Cognition. 



^ The argument in this paragraph seems to have appealed in 
a special degree to the early Buddhists, for it has been made the basis 
of a whole Suttanta, the Jaliya (which is itself repeated, occurring first 
as part of the Mahali, and then again separately). The main point 
there emphasized is that the converted man will have gone so far 
beyond them that all such questions will have ceased to interest him. 
The two other Suttantas have been translated in full in Vol. I; but 
see especially pp. 200-5. 

^ The Sangiti Suttanta (' Dialogues,' III) and A. IV, 39, 40 also 
name seven. S. Ill, 54 gives only four. 

' The Pali thus rendered is Miti and ayatana^z respectively. 
The Cy. paraphrases the first by ' this is an equivalent for a setting-up 
(pati//^ana) of vifinawa.' Pati//-^anawi isthe affordingof a standing- 
place, resting-place, locus standi^ or foothold for. T'^^iti again is the 
term for the central, static moment in any process, contrasting with two 
others in the same category, viz. inception and dying-out. ' Rest ' is 
not satisfactory, but no English term suggests itself which exactly 
meets the requirement. For ' sphere ' the paraphrase is simply : — 
' nivasana/Manaw,' dwelling-place,. . . 'These are included to 
exhaust [the contents] of the Cycle (sazwsara), for the Cycle goes not 
on merely by way of vinnawa-resting places.' 

* No two human beings, says the Cy., are ever exactly alike ; even 
in twins that are undistinguishable in likeness of appearance and com- 
plexion, there will be some difference in look, speech, gait or carriage. 

* Cf. Dh. S., §§ 160 ff., 266 ff. ; transl., pp. Ixxxvii-ix, 43 ff., 
72 ff. 

* Ranking sixth in the heavens of Rflpabrahmaloka. 



D. ii. 69. THE GREAT DISCOURSE ON CAUSATION. 67 

* There are beings uniform in body and of uniform 
intelligence, for instance, the All-Lustrous Gods \ This 
is the fourth resting-place for Cognition. 

' There are beings who, by having passed wholly 
beyond all consciousness of form, by the dying out of 
the consciousness of sense-reaction, by having turned 
the attention away from any consciousness of the 
manifold, and become conscious only of "space as 
infinite," are dwellers in the realm of infinite space ^ 
This is the fifth resting-place for Cognition. 

* There are beings who, by having passed w-holly 
beyond the realm of infinite space, and become con- 
scious only of " cognition as infinite," are dwellers in 
the realm of infinite cogfnition. This is the sixth 
resting-place for Cognition. 

' There are beings who, by having passed w'holly 
beyond the realm of infinite cognition, and become 
conscious only that " there is nothing whatever," are 
dwellers in the realm of nothing^ness. This is the 
seventh resting-place for Cognition. 

' The Sphere of beings without consciousness \ 

* Next to that, the Sphere of beings who neither 
have consciousness nor yet have it not *. 

34. ' Now there, Ananda — in that first resting- 
place for Cognition, of differing bodies and differing 
intelligences, — to wit, human beings and certain of the 
gods and certain of those in purgatory — think you that 
he who both knows what that state is, and how it 
comes to be, and how it passes away, — knows too the 
pleasures of it, and the miseries '" of it, and the way of 



^ Ranking ninth in the same. 

' The Cy. refers the inquirer to the Vis. Mag. for further comment. 
Cf. next Suttanta, and Dh. S., §§ 265-8 ; trans., pp. 71-5. 
^ Sanna, perhaps awareness would be a better rendering. 

* The Cy. here includes cognition with awareness, the extreme 
tenuity or refinement (sukhumattaw) of both being in this sphere 
such that it is as a zero point between presence and absence of either. 
See passage last cited in pre\ious note. 

* Or the peril of it (adinavo), i. e. the thought of its impermanence, 
changeableness, &c. Cy. 

F 2 



68 XV. MAHA-NIDANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 69. 

escape from it, — think you that it were fitting for such 
an one to take delight in it ? ^ ' 

[70] ' Nay, lord; 

' And in those other six resting-places for Cognition, 
and in those two Spheres, — think you that he who both 
knows them for what they are, how they come to be, 
and how they pass away, knows too the pleasures of 
them, and the miseries of them, and the way of escape 
from them, — think you that it were fitting for such an 
one to take delight in them ? ' 

' Nay, lord.' 

' But, Ananda, when once a brother has understood 
as they really are the coming to be and the passing 
away, the pleasures and the miseries of, and the way 
of escape from, these seven resting-places for Cognition, 
and these two Spheres, that brother, by being purged 
of grasping, becomes free. And then, Ananda, he is 
called Freed-by- Reason 2.' 



o. 



j5. 'Now these, Ananda, are the eight stages of 
Deliverance ''. Which are they ? 

^ This standpoint of insight into the limitations of all sentient 
experience when estimated according to its emotional or hedonistic 
values is claimed by the Buddha as a monopoly of his own doctrine, 
distinguishing it from other ethical systems. See his graphic exposition 
in the Great Suttanta on the Body of 111 ; and the passages quoted 
under Yathabhutawz in the Sawyutta Index (vol. vi). 

"^ Panna vimutto, i.e. says the Cy. 'emancipated without the aid 
of the following eight grades of deliverance ' — by native insight. So 
PP. 14, 73. Here, as throughout, when panfia is rendered by 
'reason,' it is but a pis-aller. Panna is really intellect as conversant 
with, engaged upon, general truths, and thus comes out as approxi- 
mately Kant's Vernunfl, and Reason as distinct from Understanding, 
a distinction very general in English and European philosophy. See 
Dh. S., transl., p. 17, n. 2. By 'emancipated' the Cy. understands 
' having effected the non-perpetuity (in rebirths) of name and form.' 

^ Vimokha. See the following Suttanta, p. in of the text; A. 
IV, 306, 349 ; Dh. S., §§ 248-50 ; transl., pp. 63-5. Buddhaghosa's 
comments on the last citation are approximately the same as those on 
the first three stages here given. Here, too, he explains Release as 
deliverance from adverse conditions, so that the attention is sustained 
with all the detachment and confidence felt by the little child borne on 
his father's hip, his limbs dangling, and no need felt to clutch. In the 



D. ii. 71. THE GREAT DISCOURSE ON CAUSATION. 69 

' Having one's self external form, one sees [these] 
forms. This is the first stage. 

' Unaware of one's own external form, one sees 
forms external to one's self. This is the second stage. 

[71] '"Lovely!" — with this thought one becomes 
intent. This is the third stage. 

' Passing wholly beyond ^ perceptions of form, all 
perceptions of sense-reaction dying away, heedless of 
all perceptions of the manifold, conscious of space as 
infinite, one enters into and abides in the sphere of 
space regarded as infinite. This is the fourth stage. 

' Passing wholly beyond the sphere of space regarded 
as infinite, conscious of reason as infinite, one enters 
into and abides in the sphere of cognition regarded as 
infinite. This is the fifth stage. 

' Passing wholly beyond the sphere of reason re- 
garded as infinite, conscious of there being nothing 
whatever, one enters into and abides in the sphere of 
nothinorness. This is the sixth stasje. 

' Passing wholly beyond the sphere of nothingness, 
one enters into and abides in the sphere of " neither- 
consciousness-nor-unconsciousness." This is the seventh 
stage. 

* Passing wholly beyond the sphere of " neither- 
ideation-nor-non-ideation, " one enters into and abides 



first stage, Jhana is induced by intense concentration on the colour 
of some bodily feature. In the second, the kasi«a is an object 
external to one's body. In the third, consciousness of an uprising 
glamour (around or superseding the kasiwa) of perfectly pure colour 
or lustre is meant. The aesthetic suffusion was held to quicken the 
sense of emancipation from morally adverse conditions analogously to 
that perception of ethical rapture induced by the Four Divine or 
Sublime floods, described in the Maha Sudassana Suttanta. The 
Pa/isambhidamagga is again referred to by the Cy., viz. II, p. 39, in 
this connexion. The curious thing is that in reply to the question, 
' How is there release thus : — " How lovely it is — with this thought he 
becomes intent ? " ' — the reply is simply and solely the Formula of the 
Four Sublime Moods. 

^ The 4th-7th stages were afterwards known as the Four Aruppa 
Jhanas, or the four Jhanas to be cultivated for attaining to the Form- 
less Heavens (see Dh. S., §§ 265 ff.). 



70 XV. MAIIA-NIDANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 71. 

in a state of suspended perception and feeling. This 
is the eighth stage. 

' These, Ananda, are the eight stages of Deliver- 
ance. 

T)6. ' Now when once a brother, Ananda, has 
mastered these eight stages of Deliverance in order, 
and has also mastered them in reverse order, and again, 
in both orders consecutively, so that he is able to lose 
himself in, as well as to emerge from, any one of them, 
whenever he chooses, wherever he chooses, and for 
as long as he chooses — when too, by rooting out the 
Taints, he enters into and abides in that emancipation 
of heart, that emancipation of the intellect which he by 
himself, here in this present world, has come to know 
and realize — then such a brother, Ananda, is called 
" Free-in-both-ways \" And, Ananda, any other Free- 
dom-in-both-ways higher and loftier than this Free- 
dom-in-both-ways there is not ! ' 

Thus spake the Exalted One. Glad at heart the 
Venerable Ananda delighted in his words. 

Here endeth the Maha-Nidana-Suttanta. 



^ Ubhato-bhaga-vimutto, i.e. freed both by Reason and also 
by the intellectual discipline of the Eight Stages. According to a 
scholastic elaboration of the term, emanating from the Giri-vihara 
of the great Loha-pasada (or Brazen Palace), ' both ways ' meant the 
Four JhSnas and the Aruppa-jhanas. How this can be reconciled with 
this paragraph — confirmed by PP. 14 and 73 and by M. I, 477-8 — 
is not stated. ' Taints ' are the Four Asavas, rendered ' Intoxicants ' 
above, p. 28, «. 2. 



I 



INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 

The general conclusions we have to draw as to the gradual 
growth of the various books in the Buddhist canon have been 
stated in Chapter X of ' Buddhist India.' To work out the 
details of it will be greatly facilitated by tabular statements 
of the differences and resemblances found in the various books, 
whether in matters of form or of ideas. The follovvinsf table 
gives a list of all such passages in this book as have, so far, 
been traced elsewhere. Others will, no doubt, be discovered ; 
but those here given will throw some light on the method 
of construction followed in the book. Only parallel passages 
are given, passages in which some other book has at least 
a paragraph or more couched in identical, or almost identical, 
words. 

A glance at column three, giving the pages of the text, 
shows a remarkable result. There are ninety-six pages of 
Pali text, beginning on p. 72. With a few gaps — pp. 92, 3; 
113-15; 117-21; 13C-3; 137-40; 148-50; 153; 158-60; 
164-7 (nine in number) — the whole text is found, in nearly 
identical words, elsewhere. The gaps, filled with matter 
found only in the Book of the Great Decease, amount alto- 
gether to about 32 or ^^ pages, that is to about one-third 
of the whole. That proportion would be reduced if we were 
to include passages of similar tendency, or passages of shorter 
length. 

Secondly ; the parallel passages are found, without exception, 
in those books which belong to the oldest portion of the canon. 
In 'Buddhist India,' p. 1S8, there is a table showing, in groups, 
the probable relative order in time of the Buddhist literature 
down to the time of Asoka. 

All these passages belong to the two earliest groups ; all 
are found in books included in groups 4-6 ; not one occurs 
in any of the books included in the later groups — groups 7, 8, 9, 
and 10. So far as it goes, therefore, the present table is in 
harmony with the order suggested in the table referred to. 

Thirdly ; the slight differences, the more important of which 



72 INTRODUCTION. 



Book of the Great Decease. Other Old Pali Books. 



I 


Chap. I 


§§ i-io 


pp. 72-80 


2 




16, 17 


81-83 


3 




20-34 


84-89 


4 


II 


2, 3 


90, 91 


5 




12, 13 


94»95 


6 




14-19 


95-98 


7 




22-26 


98-101 


8 


III 


1-20 


102-109 


9 




I-IO 


102-107 


lO 




21-23 


109, no 


II 




24-32 


no, III 


12 




33 


III, 112 


13 




43 


116 


M 


IV 


2, 3 


122, 123 


15 




7-1 1 


123-126 


i6 




13-25 


126-129 


17 




39-43 


134-136 


i8 


V 


II 


141, 142 


19 




12 


142, 143 


20 




15 


144 


21 




16 


145,146 


22 




17,18 


146, 147 


23 




27 


151 


24 




28 


152 


25 


VI 


5 


154.5 


26 




7-IO 


155-158 


27 




9 


156 


28 




lO 


157 


29 




17 


161 


30 




19-20 


162, 163 


31 




27 


167 (end 



A. IV, 16-24 

D. XXVIII and S. V, 1 59-1 61 

Ud. VIII, 6 and Vin. I, 226 
(S. V, 431; Vin. I, 231 and 
1 Netti 166 

S. IV, 211 

Vin. I, 231-233' 

S. V, 152-154, §26, ib. 164, 5 

A. IV, 308-313 

S. V, 259-263 and Ud. VI, i 

A. IV, 30 (nearly = M. I, 72) 

A.IV, 305 and 348; M.II, 13, 14 
jD, II, 70, 71 ; A. IV, 306 and 

i 349 

Quoted KV. 559 
(A. II, I, 2 and A.IV, 105 (quoted 
1 KV. 115)2 

A. II, 167-170 

Ud. VIII, 5 

Ud. VIII, 5 

D. II, 161 

A. II, 245, 6 

S. V, 16 (nearly) 

A. II, 132 

D. II, 169, 170 

Quoted KV. 601 
fD.1,176; M.I, 391,494; S.II, 
1 21; Vin. 1,69,71 

A. II, 79, 80 

S.I, 157-159' 

A. IV, 410 ff. 

Th. I, 905, 1046; A. I, 236 

D. II, 141, 2 

Vin. II, 284, 5 * 



' Differs as to locus in quo. 

- Differs as to application. 

^ Differs as to order of sentences. 

* Differs as to order of sentences. 



INTRODUCTION. 73 



are noted in the table, are very suggestive. No. 26 is the 
episode of the stanzas uttered at the moment of the Buddha's 
death. The Sawyutta gives it in the Brahma-Sa;;/yutta 
because the first verse is attributed to Brahma. The last 
two verses are there put into the mouths of Ananda and 
Anuruddha respectively, perhaps because Anuruddha's verse 
forms a more fitting conclusion. In the Digha Ananda's 
comes last, either in deprecation of Ananda (which is scarcely 
probable), or for the reason given in the note to the translation. 

In No. 14 w'e have four lines of verse, and the prose intro- 
ductory to them, ascribed in the Digha to the Buddha, 
ascribed in the Anguttara to a former teacher whose story is 
there told by the Buddha. That previous teacher, though not 
a Buddha, is highly praised in the story ; the epithet applied 
to him in the verses (sattha) is quite in the right place in that 
connexion ; and the verses when spoken by the Buddha of 
another teacher, are quite appropriate. On the other hand, 
when put as the Digha puts them, into the mouth of the 
Buddha as spoken of himself, they are not in the best of taste, 
and sound forced. There can, I think, be no doubt but that 
the application of these verses to Sunetta the Teacher was the 
original one, and that the little poem was only later applied 
to the Buddha himself. But it does not follow in the least 
that the Anguttara is older than the Digha. For, as is shown 
by the references in the table, the Anguttara itself contains, 
in an earlier part of the work, the later application of these 
verses. There it gives the episode, word for word, as it occurs 
in the Digha. The two passages cannot be of the same age. 
It is not possible that the same story was told originally of two 
different people. But the two collections (Xikayas) may 
very well have been put together, from older materials of 
varying age, at the same time. 

No. 30 is the episode of the explosion of ill-will on the 
part of Subhadda. There is a slight but very suggestive 
difference here between the two texts, one found in our 
Suttanta the other in the Paflcasatika Khandaka of the 
Vinaya. For convenience of comparison the two versions 
of this episode are here reprinted side by side. 

Digha. Vinaya. 

Now at that time the venerable Now the venerable Maha Kas- 

Maha Kassapa was journeying sapa addressed the Bhikkhus and 

along the high road from Pava to said : ' Once I was journeying 

Kusinaia with a great company along the high road from Pava to 

of the brethren, with about five Kusinara with a great company 

hundred of the brethren. And of the brethren, with about five 



74 



INTRODUCTION. 



the venerable Maha Kassapa left 
the high road, and sat himself 
down at the foot of a certain tree. 

Just at that time a certain 
ascetic who had picked up a 
Mandarava flower in Kusinara 
was coming along the high road 
to Pava. Now the venerable 
Maha Kassapa saw the ascetic 
coming in the distance, and on 
seeing him he said to that ascetic : 
* O friend ! surely thou knowest 
our Master ? ' 

' Yea, friend ! I know him. 
This day the Samawa Gotama 
has been dead a week. That is 
how I obtained this Mandarava 
flower.' 

On that of those of the brethren 
who not yet free from the passions, 
some stretched out their arms and 
wept, and some fell headlong on 
the ground, and some reeled to 
and fro in anguish at the thought : 
' Too soon has the Exalted One 
died ! Too soon has the Happy 
One passed away ! Too soon 
has the Light gone out in the 
world!' Butthoseof the brethren 
who were free from the passions 
(the Arahants) bore their grief 
self-possessed and composed at 
the thought : ' Impermanent are 
all component things ! How is 
it possible that (they should not 
be dissolved?),' 

Now at that time a brother 
named Subhadda, who had been 
received into the Order in his old 
age, was seated in that company. 
And Subhadda, the recruit in his 
old age, said to those brethren : 
' Enough, Sirs ! Weep not, neither 
lament ! We are well rid of the 
great Samawa. We used to be 
annoyed by being told : " This 
beseems you, this beseems you 
not." But now we shall be able 



hundred of the brethren. And I 
left the high road and sat myself 
down at the foot of a certain tree. 
Just at that time a certain 
ascetic who had picked up a 
Mandarava flower in KusinSra 
was coming along the high road 
to Pava. Now I saw that ascetic 
coming in the distance, and on 
seeing him I said to that ascetic : 
' O friend ! surely thou knowest 
our Master ? ' 

' Yea, friend ! I know him. 
This day the Samawa Gotama 
has been dead a week. That is 
how I obtained this INIandarava 
flower.' 

On that, Sirs, of those of the 
brethren who were not yet free 
from the passions, some stretched 
out their arms and wept, and 
some fell headlong on the ground, 
and some reeled to and fro in 
anguish at the thought : ' Too 
soon has the Exalted One died I 
Too soon has the Happy One 
passed away ! Too soon has the 
Light gone out in the world ! ' 
But those of the brethren who 
were free from the passions (the 
Arahants) bore their grief self- 
possessed and composed at the 
thought: 'Impermanent are all 
component things ! How is it 
possible that (they should not be 
dissolved ?).' 

Then I, Sirs, spoke thus to 
the Bhikkhus : ' Enough, my 
brethren, weep not, neither 
lament ! Has not the Exalted 
One, Sirs, formerly declared this, 
that it is in the very nature of all 
things near and dear to us that we 
must divide ourselves from them, 
leave them, sever ourselves from 
them. How, then, can this be 
possible — whereas anything what- 
ever born, brought into being. 



INTRODUCTION. 75 



to do whatever we like ; and what and organized contains within 

we do not like, that we shall not itself the inherent necessity of 

do ! ' dissolution — how then can this 

But the venerable Maha Kas- be possible that such a being 

sapa exhorted the brethren : should not be dissolved ? No such 

' Enough, my brethren ! Weep condition can exist ! ' 
not, neither lament ! Has not Now at that time, Sirs, a brother 

the Exalted One formerly declared named Subhadda, who had been 

this, that it is in the very nature received into the Order in his old 

of all things near and dear unto age, was seated in that company, 

us that we must divide ourselves And Subhadda, Sirs, the recruit in 

from them, leave them, sever our- his old age, said to those brethren : 

selves from them? How then, ' Enough, Sirs ! Weep not, neither 

brethren, can this be possible — lament ! We are well rid of the 

whereas anything whatever bom, great Samana. We used to be 

brought into being, and organized annoyed by being told : " This 

contains within itself the inherent beseems you, this beseems you 

necessity of dissolution — how not." But now we shall be able 

then can this be possible that to do whatever we like ; and what 

such a being should not be dis- we do not like that we shall not 

solved? No such condition can do.' 
exist ! ' 

A glance at the above columns shows that the two texts are 

identical except in two particulars. The Digha gives the 
episode in narrative form, whereas the Vinaya puts it into 
the mouth of Kassapa himself. And secondly, whereas the 
Digha puts Kassapa's speech after the outburst of Subhadda, 
the Vinaya puts it before — that is, the last two paragraphs 
in the Digha are transposed in the Vinaya. 

Professor Oldenberg, who was the first to point out (more 
than thirty years ago) ^ the parallelism between the two texts, 
acutely suggests that the change is due to the position 
occupied by this episode in the Vinaya. It is there used as 
introduction to the account of the Council at Rajagaha held, 
according to the tradition, to counteract such sentiments as 
were expressed in Subhadda's outburst. It was considered 
more appropriate, therefore, that in that connexion, Subhadda's 
words should come last, to lead up to what follows. The 
whole of the story is accordingly taken from our Suttanta. 
But the last paragraphs are transposed, and the whole is put 
into the mouth of Kassapa. on whose advice the Council is 
stated to have been convened. 

This seems a very probable explanation of the transposition, 
and of the existence of two slightly different accounts of the 



^ Introduction to the Vinaya, xxvi-xx\iii. 



76 INTRODUCTION. 



episode. If we accept it — and I think we should ^ — we have 
to face the further question : Why was the episode inserted in 
the Digha? It is given there in the middle of the account 
of the cremation of the Buddha at Kusinara. It has very little 
to do either with what precedes, or with what follows it ; and 
is said to have taken place away from Kusinara. The out- 
burst itself was of little importance in the long story of the 
Buddha's last days ; and (in the older order as preserved in 
the Digha) is immediately overwhelmed by Maha Kassapa's 
apt quotation from the Master's words. Have we not here 
a very similar motive, acting on either the same or very 
similar minds? Is it not precisely the part played by this 
anecdote in the traditional account of the First Council that 
led the compilers of the Digha to find a place for it in the 
Book of the Great Decease? They might so easily have left 
it out. As it stands it only breaks in upon the narrative. 
And, apart from the tradition about the First Council, it had 
no importance. 

There has been much discussion both for and against the 
authenticity of this First Council. Is this really necessary? 
Oldenberg's analysis of the comparative date of the different 
parts of the Vinaya has shown conclusively that the record, 
as we have it, is later than the Council of Vesali, that is at 
least a hundred years later than the meeting whose proceedings 
it purports to record. What can be the value of so late a 
record ? It may be objected to this that though the extant 
record is late the tradition may be older. No one can prove 
that it was not. But this would not help matters at all. We 
must then point out that the details as given are, as one might 
expect, quite inaccurate ^. 

Space will only allow of one example being taken. 

It is well known that all the ancient sacred literatures of the 
world have grown up gradually, and are a mosaic of earlier 



' It does not quite follow that the Vinaya is borrowing direct from 
the Digha. That may be so. But the Subhadda story may have been 
in existence before either Digha or Vi,iaya was put into its present 
shape. If so, it was doubtless current in the form now preserved by 
the Digha ; and was changed by the compilers of the Vinaya. Both 
Oldenberg {loc. ci't.) and Franke (J. P. T. S., 1908, 8-12) suppose the 
Vinaya to be borrowing from the Digha. It is quite possible that 
the two books — Digha and Vinaya — m?y have been put together, as 
we now have them, at the same time. 

^ It is admitted there were no reporters present. There were at 
the time of the Buddha's death no mechanical means available for 
writing anything beyond the most meagre notes. 



INTRODUCTION. 77 



and later material. The Buddhist Pi/akas form no exception. 
As regards the Nikayas I have shown this elsewhere in 
considerable detail ^. Now the record, as we have it, pre- 
supposes the existence, already at the time of the Buddha's 
death, of the Five Nikayas in their present arrangement ! 

It follows that both on general principles of comparative 
criticism, and on consideration of a particular instance in this 
special case, the details given us in the Vinaya about the First 
Council cannot be trusted. But it does not follow, as a matter 
of certainty, that there was no Council at all. It is quite 
possible, and even probable, that the Order held a ' General 
Chapter,' as we should call it, soon after the Buddha's death. 
They kept no proper minutes of the meeting. We may 
conjecture what happened at it, but it would be only conjecture. 
And we must continue patiently, from the incidental references 
in the books themselves, to formulate a probable theory as to 
the method in which the literature gradually sprang up. The 
record handed down to us in the Vinaya is authentic enough ; 
but only in the only -way in ivkich any such record can be con- 
sidered authentic, that is, as evidence of beliefs held at the 
date at which it was composed. 



'Dialogues,' I, x-xx; 'Buddhist India,' 161-208. 



[XVI. mahA parinibbAna suttanta. 

The Book of the Great Decease. 
CHAPTER I.] 

1. [72] Thus have I heard. The Exalted One was 
once dwelling in Rajagaha, on the hill called the 
Vulture's Peak. Now at that time Ajatasattu, the 
son of the queen-consort of the Videha clan \ the king 
of Magadha, had made up his mind to attack the 
Vajjians ; and he said to himself, ' I will strike at these 
Vajjians, mighty and powerful - though they be, I will 
root out these Vajjians, I will destroy these Vajjians, 
I will bring these Vajjians to utter ruin ! ' 

2. So he spake to the brahmin Vassakara (the Rain- 
maker), prime-minister of Magadha, and said : — 

^ Ajatasattu Vedehiputto. The first word is not a personal name 
but an official epithet, ' he against whom there has arisen no (worthy 
or equal) foe' (so already in the Rig Veda but Sum. 131 different). 
The second gives us the maiden family, or tribal (not personal) name 
of his mother. Her name, according to a Tibetan authority quoted 
by Rockhill, ' Life of the Buddha,' p. 63, was Vasavi. 

Persons of distinction are scarcely ever mentioned by name in 
Indian Buddhist books, a rule applying more especially to kings, but 
extended not unfrequently to private persons. Thus Upatissa, the 
disciple whom the Buddha himself declared to be ' the second founder 
of the kingdom of righteousness,' is referred to either as Dhamma- 
senapati or as Sariputta ; epithets of corresponding origin to those in 
the text. See above, Vol. I, pp. 193-5. 

By the Jains Ajatasattu is called Kijwika or Ko«ika, which again is 
probably not the name given to him at the rice-eating (the ceremony 
corresponding to infant baptism), but a nickname acquired in after-life. 

"^ Evammahiddihike evammahanubhave. There is nothing 
magical or supernatural about the iddhi here referred to. Etena 
tesa;?z samaggla-bhavaw; kathesi says the commentator simply : 
thus referring th«3 former aijective to the power of union, as he does 
the second to t'he power cprived from practice in military tactics 
(hatthisippad "ihi). See aba-e, Vol. I, p. 273. 



D. ii. 73- "T^E BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 79 

' Come now, brahmin, do you go to the Exalted 
One, and bow down in adoration at his feet on my 
behalf, and inquire in my name whether he is free 
from illness and suffering, and in the enjoyment of ease 
and comfort and vigorous health. Then tell him that 
Ajatasattu, son of the Vedehi, the king of Magadha, 
in his eagerness to attack the Vajjians, has resolved, 
*' I will strike at these Vajjians, mighty and powerful 
though they be, I will root out these Vajjians, I will 
destroy these Vajjians, I will bring these Vajjians to 
utter ruin ! " And bear carefully in mind whatever 
the Exalted One may predict, and repeat it to me. 
For the Buddhas speak nothing untrue ! ' 

3. [73] Then the brahmin Vassakara, the Rain- 
maker, hearkened to the words of the king, saying, 
' Be it as you say.' And ordering a number of state 
carriages to be made ready, he mounted one of them, 
left Rajagaha with his train, and went to the X'^ulture's 
Peak, riding as far as the ground was passable for 
carriages and then alighting and proceeding on foot 
to the place where the Exalted One was. On arriving 
there he exchangfed with the Exalted One the grreetines 
and compliments of politeness and courtesy, sat down 
respectfully by his side (and then delivered to him the 
message even as the king had commanded^). 

4. Now at that time the venerable Ananda was 
standing behind the Exalted One, and fanning him. 
And the Blessed One said to him : — ' Have you heard, 
Ananda, that the Vajjians foregather often and frequent 
the public meetings of their clan ? ' 

' Lord, so I have heard,' replied he. 

* So long, Ananda,' rejoined the Blessed One, ' as 
the Vajjians foregather thus often, and frequent the 
public meetings of their clan ; so long may they be 
expected not to decline, but to prosper.' 

(And in like manner questioning Ananda, and 
receiving a similar reply, the Exalted One declared 



The wording of § 2 is here repeated. 



8o XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 73. 

as follows the other conditions which would ensure the 
welfare of the Vajjian confederacy ^) 

[74] * So long, Ananda, as the Vajjians meet together 
in concord, and rise in concord, and carry out their 
undertakings in concord — so long as they enact nothing 
not already established, abrogate nothing that has 
been already enacted, and act in accordance with the 
ancient institutions of the Vajjians, as established in 
former days — so long as they honour and esteem and 
revere and support the Vajjian elders, and hold it 
a point of duty to hearken to their words — so long 
as no women or girls belonging to their clans are 
detained among them by force or abduction — [75] so 
long as they honour and esteem and revere and 
support the Vajjian shrines ^ in town or country, and 
allow not the proper offerings and rites, as formerly 
given and performed, to fall into desuetude — so long 
as the rightful protection, defence, and support shall 
be fully provided for the Arahants among them, so 
that Arahants from a distance may enter the realm, 
and the Arahants therein may live at ease — so long may 
the Vajjians be expected not to decline, but to prosper.' 

5. Then the Exalted One addressed Vassakara the 
brahmin and said : — 

' When I was once staying, O brahmin, at Vesali at 
the S^randada Shrine^, I taught the Vajjians these 
conditions of welfare ; and so long as these conditions 
shall continue to exist among the Vajjians, so long as the 
Vajjians shall be well instructed in those conditions, so 
long may we expect them not to decline, but to prosper.' 

' We may expect then,' answered the brahmin, ' the 
welfare and not the decline of the Vajjians when they 
are possessed of any one of these conditions of welfare, 
how much more so when they are possessed of all 

^ In the text there is a question, answer, and reply with each clause. 

^ Cetiyani, which Sum. Vil. explains as Yakkha-cetiyani. 

^ The commentator adds that this was a vihara erected on the site 
of a former shrine of the Yakkha Sarandada. The teaching referred 
to is set out in full at A. IV, 16, but the persons taught are there 
called Licchavis. 



D. ii. 76. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 8 1 

the seven, [ve] So, Gotama. the Vajjians cannot be 
overcome by the king of Magadha ; that is not in 
battle, without diplomacy or breaking up their alliance \ 
And now, Gotama, we must go ; we are busy and 
have much to do.' 

' Whatever you think most fitting, O brahmin,' was 
the reply. And the brahmin Vassakdra, the Rain- 
maker, delighted and pleased with the words of the 
Exalted One, rose from his seat, and went his way. 

6. Now soon after he^ had gone the Exalted One 
addressed the venerable Ananda, and said : — ' Go now, 
Ananda, and assemble in the Service Hall such of 
the brethren^ as live in the neighbourhood of Rajagaha.' 

And he did so ; and returned to the Exalted One, 
and informed him, saying : — 

' The company of the brethren, lord, is assembled, 
let the Exalted One do as seemeth to him fit.' 

And the Exalted One arose, and went to the Service 

* 'Overcome' is literally 'done' (karaniya), but the word evidently 
has a similar sense to that which ' done ' occasionally has in colloquial 
English. Upalapana, which I have only met with here, must mean 
'humbug, cajolery, diplomacy;' see the use of the verb upa-lapeti, at 
S. I, I02 ; Vin. II, 119; IV, 139; Jat. II, 266, 267; IV, 56. Sum. 
Vil. explains it, at some length, as making an alliance, by gifts, with 
hostile intent, which comes to much the same thing. The root, I 
think, is li. 

- The word translated 'brethren' throughout is in the original 
bhikkhu, a word most difficult to render adequately by any word 
which would not, to Christians and in Europe, connote something 
different from the Buddhist idea. A bhikkhu, literally ' beggar,' was 
a disciple who had joined Gotama's order ; but the word refers to their 
renunciation of worldly things, rather than to their consequent mendi- 
cancy ; and they did not really beg in our modern sense of the word. 
Hardy has ' priests ; ' I have elsewhere used ' monks ' and sometimes 
' beggars ' and ' members of the order.' This last is, I think, the best 
rendering ; but it is too long for constant repetition, as in this passage, 
and too complex to be a really good version of bhikkhu. The 
members of the order were not priests, for they had no priesdy powers. 
They were not monks, for they took no vow of obedience, and could 
leave the order (and constantly did so and do so still) whenever they 
chose. They were not beggars, for they had none of the mental and 
moral qualities associated with that word. ' Brethren ' connotes very 
much the position in which they stood to one another ; but I wish 
there were a better word to use in rendering bhikkhu. 

III. G 



82 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 76. 

Hall ; and when he was seated, he addressed the 
brethren, and said : — 

* I will teach you, O mendicants, seven conditions 
of the welfare of a community. Listen well and attend, 
and I will speak.' 

' Even so, lord,' said the brethren, in assent, to the 
Exalted One ; and he spake as follows : — 

* So long, O mendicants, as the brethren foregather 
oft, and frequent the formal meetings of their Order — 
so long as they meet together in concord, and rise in 
concord, and carry out in concord the duties of the 
Order — [77] so long as the brethren shall establish 
nothing that has not been already prescribed, and 
abrogate nothing that has been already established, 
and act in accordance with the rules of the Order as 
now laid down — so long as the brethren honour and 
esteem and revere and support the elders of experience 
and long standing, the fathers and leaders of the Order, 
and hold it a point of duty to hearken to their words — 
so long as the brethren fall not under the influence 
of that craving which, springing up within them, would 
give rise to renewed existence — so long as the brethren 
delight in a life of solitude — so long as the brethren so 
train their minds in self-possession that good men 
among their fellow-disciples shall come to them, and 
those who have come shall dwell at ease — so long may 
the brethren be expected, not to decline, but to prosper. 
So long as these seven conditions shall continue to 
exist among the brethren, so long as they are well- 
instructed in these conditions, so long may the brethren 
be expected not to decline, but to prosper. 

7. ' Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach 
you, O brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I will 
speak.' 

And on their expressing their assent, he spake as 
follows : — 

[78] ' So long as the brethren shall not engage in, 
or be fond of, or be connected with business — so long 
as the brethren shall not be in the habit of, or be fond 
of, or be partakers in idle talk — so long as the brethren 



D. iL79« THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 8 



O 



shall not be addicted to, or be fond of, or indulge in 
slothfulness — so long as the brethren shall not frequent, 
or be fond of, or indulge in society — so long as the 
brethren shall neither have, nor fall under the influence 
of, wronQf desires ^ — so lono- as the brethren shall not 
become the friends, companions, or mtimates of evil- 
doers — so long as the brethren shall not come to a stop 
on their way (to Nirvana in Arahantship -) because they 
have attained to any lesser thing — so long may the 
brethren be expected not to decline, but to prosper. 

' So long as these conditions shall continue to exist 
among the brethren — so long as they are instructed in 
these conditions — so long may the brethren be expected 
not to decline, but to prosper. 

8. * Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach 
you, O brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I will 
speak.' 

And on their expressing their assent, he spake as 
follows : — 

' So long as the brethren shall be full of faith, 
modest in heart, afraid of wrong doing ^, full of learning, 
[79] strong in energy, active in mind, and full of 
wisdom — so long may the brethren be expected not to 
decline, but to prosper. 

' So long as these conditions shall continue to exist 
among the brethren — so long as they are instructed in 

^ The blundering misstatement that Buddhism teaches the suppres- 
sion of desire (not of wrong desire) is still occasionally met with. The 
question is fully discussed in Mrs. Rhys Davids's article on ' The Will 
in Buddhism' (J.R.A.S., 1898). 

* This is an interesting analogue to Philippians iii. 13 : — ' I count not 
myself to have apprehended : but this one thing I do, forgetting those 
things which are behind, and reaching forth unto those things which 
are before, I press toward the mark,' &c. See also below, Chap. V, 
§68. 

' The exact distinction between hiri and ottappa is here explained 
by Buddhaghosa as loathing sin as contrasted with fear of sin. But 
this is rather a gloss than an exact and exclusive definition. Ahirika 
is shamelessness, anotappaw frowardness. At Jat. I, 207 we find 
hiri described as subjective, and ottappa as objective, modesty of 
heart as contrasted with decency in outward behaviour. See further 
Mrs. Rhys Da\ids in 'Buddhist Psychology,' p. 20. 

G 2 



$4 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBAnA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 79. 

these conditions — so long may the brethren be expected 
not to decline, but to prosper. 

9. * Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach 
you, O brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I will 
speak.' 

And on their expressing their assent, he spake as 
follows : — 

' So long as the brethren shall exercise themselves 
in the sevenfold higher wisdom, that is to say, in 
mental activity, search after truth, energy, joy, peace, 
earnest contemplation, and equanimity of mind — so 
long may the brethren be expected not to decline, but 
to prosper. 

' So long as these conditions shall continue to exist 
among the brethren — so long as they are instructed in 
these conditions — so long may the brethren be expected 
not to decline, but to prosper. 

10. * Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach 
you, O brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I will 
speak.' 

And on their expressing their assent, he spake as 
follows : — 

' So long as the brethren shall exercise themselves 
in the realization of the ideas of the impermanency 
of all phenomena, bodily or mental, the absence [in 
them of any abiding principle] of any "soul," of 
corruption, of the danger of wrong thoughts, of the 
necessity of getting rid of them, of purity of heart, 
of Nirvana — so long may the brethren be expected not 
to decline, but to prosper. 

[so] ' So long as these conditions shall continue to 
exist among the brethren — so long as they are in- 
structed in these conditions — so long may the brethren 
be expected not to decline but to prosper. 

11. 'Six conditions of welfare will I teach you, 
O brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I will 
speak.' 

And on their expressing their assent, he spake 
as follows : — 

* So long as the brethren shall persevere in kindness 



D. ii. 8i. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 85 

of action, speech, and thought towards their fellow- 
disciples, both in public and in private — so long as 
they shall divide without partiality, and share in 
common with their upright companions, all such things 
as they receive in accordance with the just provisions 
of the Order, down even to the mere contents of 
a begging-bowl — so long as the brethren shall live 
among the saints in the practice, both in public and 
in private, of those virtues which [unbroken, intact, 
unspotted, unblemished] are productive of freedom \ 
and praised by the wise ; which are untarnished [by 
the desire of future life, or by the belief in the efficacy 
of outward acts] - ; and which are conducive to con- 
centration of heart — so long as the brethren shall live 
among the saints, cherishing, both in public and in 
private, that noble and saving insight which leads 
to the complete destruction of the sorrow of him who 
acts according to it — so long may the brethren be 
expected not to decline, but to prosper. 

[8l] ' So long as these six conditions shall continue 
to exist among the brethren — so long as they are 
instructed in these six conditions — so long may the 
brethren be expected not to decline, but to prosper.' 



r 



12. Now it was while the Exalted One was staying 
there at Rajagaha on the Vulture's Peak that he held 
that comprehensive religious talk with the brethren, 
saying : — ' Such and such is upright conduct ; such and 
such is earnest contemplation ; such and such is intelli- 

' Buddhaghosa takes this in a spiritual sense. He says : — ' These 
virtues are bhujissani because they bring one to the state of a free 
man by delivering him from the slavery of craving.' 

^ The commentator explains:- — 'These virtues are called apara- 
ma//i^ani because they are untarnished by craving or delusion, and 
because no one can say of him who practises them, " you have been 
already guilty of such and such a fault." Craving is here the hope of 
a future life in heaven, and delusion the belief in the efficacy of rites 
and ceremonies (the two nissayas), which are condemned as unworthy 
inducements to virtue. At A. Ill, 132 these five qualities are called 
ph^su-vihara, states of bliss. 



86 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 8l. 

gence. Great becomes the fruit, great the advantage 
of earnest contemplation, when it is set round with 
upright conduct. Great becomes the fruit, great the 
advantage of intellect when it is set round with earnest 
contemplation. The mind set round with intelligence 
is set quite free from the Intoxications, that is to say, 
from the Intoxication of Sensuality, from the Intoxica- 
tion of Becoming, from the Intoxication of Delusion, 
from the Intoxication of le^norance ^' 

13. Now when the Exalted One had sojourned at 
Rajagaha a^s long as he thought fit, he addressed the 
venerable Ananda, and said : — ' Come, Ananda, let us 
oro to Ambala////ik^.' 

' So be it, lord ! ' said Ananda in assent, and the 
Exalted One, with a large company of the brethren, 
proceeded to Ambala/Mika. 

14. There the Exalted One stayed in the king's 
house and held that comprehensive religious talk with 
the brethren, saying : — ' Such and such is upright 
conduct ; such and such is earnest contemplation ; 
such and such is intellip;ence. Great becomes the 
fruit, great the advantage of earnest contemplation, 
when it is set round with upright conduct. Great 

^ This paragraph is spoken of as if it were a well-known summary, 
and it is constantly repeated below. The word I have here rendered 
'earnest contemplation' is samadhi, which occupies in the Five 
Nikayas very much the same position as faith does in the New Testa- 
ment; and this section shows that the relative importance of samadhi, 
pafifia, and sila played a part in early Buddhism just as the distinc- 
tion between faith, reason, and works did afterwards in Western 
theology. It would be difficult to find a passage in which the Buddhist 
view of the relation of these conflicting ideas is stated with greater 
beauty of thought, or equal succinctness of form. See further Rhys 
Davids's ' The Yogavacara's Manual of Indian Mysticism,' pp. xxv 
foil., and above, Vol. I, p. 156. Also E. W. West, 'Pahlavi Texts,' 
III, 37 ; Anguttara I, 233 ; Itivuttaka, No. 59. 

The expression 'set round with' is in Pali paribhavita. In 
a constantly recurring simile (M. I, 104; S. Ill, 153) eggs are said 
to be paribhavitani by a brooding hen. In medicine the word 
means 'charged with, impregnated with.' See Jat. I, 380; IV, 407; 
and compare Mil. 361, 382, 394. Comp. Bhag. Gita III, 38 for this 
simile. 



I 



D. ii. 82. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 87 

becomes the fruit, great the advantage of intellect 
when it is set round with earnest contemplation. The 
mind set round with intelligence is set quite free from 
the Intoxications, that is to say, from the Intoxication 
of Sensuality, from the Intoxication of Becoming, 
from the Intoxication of Delusion, from the Intoxication 
of Ignorance.' 

15. Now when the Exalted One had sojourned at 
Ambala////ika as long as he thought fit, he addressed 
the venerable Ananda, and said : — ' Come, Ananda, 
let us go on to Nalanda ^' 

' So be it, lord ! ' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Exalted One. 

Then the Exalted One proceeded, with a great 
company of the brethren, to Nalanda; and there, at 
Nilanda, the Exalted One stayed in the Pavarika 
mango grove. 

16. 2 Now the venerable Sariputta came to the place 
where the Exalted One was, and having saluted him, 
took his seat respectfully at his side, [82] and said : — 
' Lord ! such faith have I in the Exalted One, that 
methinks there never has been, nor will there be, nor 
is there now any other, whether wanderer or brahmin, 
who is greater and wiser than the Exalted One, that 
is to say, as regards the higher wisdom.' 

' Grand and bold are the words of thy mouth, 
Sariputta : verily, thou hast burst forth into a song 
of ecstasy ! of course then thou hast known all the 
Exalted Ones who in the long ages of the past have 
been Able, Awakened Ones^ comprehending their 

' Afterwards the seat of the famous Buddhist University for so many 
centuries the centre of learning in India. 

* The following conversation is also given at length in the Sam- 
pasadaniya Suttanta of the Digha Nikaya, and a third time in the 
Satipa/Mana Sawyutta of the Sawyutta Nikaya (S. V, 159). It was 
evidently a very popular passage, and is quite possibly the one referred 
to in Asoka's Bhabra Edict as the ' Question of Upatissa,' that is, of 
Sariputta. 

' Arahant Buddhas. The meaning of these words must have 
been very present to the minds of those who used them at the time of 
the rise of what we call Buddhism ; and there was little or no difference 



88 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 82. 

minds with yours, and aware what their conduct was, 
what their wisdom, what their mode of hfe, and what 
the emancipation they attained to ? ' 

' Not so, O lord ! ' 

' Of course then thou hast perceived all the Exalted 
Ones who in the long ages of the future shall be Able 
Awakened Ones comprehending [in the same manner 
their whole minds with yours] ? ' 

'Not so, O lord!' 

' But at least then, O Sariputta, thou knowest me as 
the Able Awakened One now alive, and hast penetrated 
my mind [in the manner I have mentioned] ? ' 

' Not even that, O lord ! ' 

' You see then, Sariputta, that you know not the 
hearts of the Able Awakened Ones of the past and 
of the future. [83] Why therefore are your words so 
grand and bold ? Why do you burst forth into such 
a song of ecstasy ? ' 

17. ' O lord ! I have not the knowledge of the 
hearts of the Able Awakened Ones that have been, 
and are to come, and now are. I only know the 
lineage of the faith. 

'Just, lord, as a king might have a border city, 
strong in its foundations, strong in its ramparts 
and towers, and with only one gate ; and the king 
might have a watchman there, clever, expert, and wise, 
to stop all strangers and admit only men well known. 
And he, on patrolling in his sentry walks over the 
approaches all round the city, might not so observe 
all the joints and crevices in the ramparts of that city 
as to know where even a cat could get out. He might 
well be satisfied to know that all living things of larger 
size that entered or left the city, would have to do so 



between the connotation of the two terms. As lime went on the two 
were more and more differentiated, and hardened into technical terms. 
See Samyulia. Ill, 65 on the difference between the two : and see 
Saw/yutta I, 233; III, 160; IV, 175 for very old explanations of 
Araha, and Pa/isambhida I, 172 for an ancient commentary on the 
meaning of Buddha. 



D. ii. 84. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 89 



by that gate. Thus only is it, lord, that I know the 
lineage of the faith. 

' I know that the Able Awakened Ones of the past, 
putting away all hankering after the world, ill-will, 
sloth, worry and perplexity — those five Hindrances, 
mental faults which make the understanding weak ; — 
trainincr their minds in the four kinds of mental 
activity ; thoroughly exercising themselves in the 
sevenfold higher wisdom, received the full fruition of 
Enlightenment. And I know that the Able Awakened 
Ones of the times to come will [do the same]. And 
I know that the Exalted One, the Able Awakened 
One of to-day, has [done so] now ^' 



18. [84] There too at Nalanda in the Pavarika 
mango grove the Exalted One held that comprehen- 
sive religious talk with the brethren, savino- : — ' Such 
and such is upright conduct ; such and such is earnest 
contemplation ; such and such is intelligence. Great 
becomes the fruit, great the advantage of earnest con- 
templation, when it is set round with upright conduct. 
Great becomes the fruit, great the advantage of in- 
tellect when it is set round with earnest contemplation. 
The mind set round with intelligence is set quite free 
from the Intoxications, that is to say, from the Intoxi- 
cation of Sensuality, from the Intoxication of Becom- 



' The tertium quid of the comparison is the completeness of the 
knowledge. Sariputta acknowledges that he was wrong in jumping 
to the wide conclusion that his own lord and master was the wisest of 
all the teachers of the different religious systems that were known to 
him. So far — after the cross-examination by the Buddha — he admits 
that his knowledge does not reach. But he maintains that he does 
know that which is, to him, after all the main thing, namely, that all 
the Buddhas must have passed through the process here laid down as 
leading up to the Enlightenment of Arahantship. 

All the details he gives are details, not of Buddhahood, but of 
Arahantship. He makes no distinction between the two states of 
attainment. This is most important for the history of that Buddhology, 
which, in after centuries, was the main factor in the downfall of 
Buddhism. 



90 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 



ing, from the Intoxication of Delusion, from the Intoxi- 
cation of Ignorance.' 

19. Now when the Exahed One had sojourned as 
long as he thought fit at Nalanda, he addressed the 
venerable Ananda, and said : — * Come, Ananda, let us 
go on to Pa/aligama.' 

' So be it, lord ! ' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Exalted One. 

Then the Exalted One proceeded, with a great com- 
pany of the brethren, to Pa/aligima. 

20. Now the disciples at Pa/aligama heard of his 
arrival there, and they went on to the place where he 
was, took their seats respectfully beside him, and in- 
vited him to their village rest-house. And the Exalted 
One signified, by silence, his consent. 

21. Then the Pa/aligama disciples seeing that he 
had accepted the invitation, rose from their seats, and 
went away to the rest-house, bowing to the Exalted 
One and keeping him on their right as they passed 
him. On arriving there they strewed all the rest-house 
with fresh sand, placed seats in it, set up a water-pot, 
and fixed an oil lamp. Then they returned to the 
Exalted One, and saluting him they stood beside him, 
and told him what they had done and said : — ' It is 
time for you to do what you deem most fit.' 

22. [85] And the Exalted One robed himself, took 
his bowl and other things, went with the brethren to 
the rest-house, washed his feet, entered the hall, and 
took his seat against the centre pillar, with his face 
towards the east. And the brethren also, after wash- 
ing their feet, entered the hall, and took their seats 
round the Exalted One, against the western wall, and 
facing the east. And the Pa/aligama disciples too, 
after washing their feet, entered the hall, and took 
their seats opposite the Exalted One, against the 
eastern wall, and facing towards the west. 

23. Then the Exalted One addressed the Pa/aligama 
disciples, and said : — ' Fivefold, O householders, is the 
loss of the wrong-doer through his want of rectitude. 
In the first place the wrong-doer, devoid of rectitude, 



D. if. 86. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 9 1 

falls into great poverty through sloth ; in the next 
place his evil repute gets noised abroad ; thirdl)', what- 
ever society he enters — whether of nobles, brahmins, 
heads of houses, or men of a reliorious order — he enters 
shyly and confused ; fourthly, he is full of anxiety when 
he dies ; and lastly, on the dissolution of the body, 
after death, he is reborn into some unhappy state of 
suffering or woe ^ This, O householders, is the five- 
fold loss of the evil-doer ! 

24. [86] ' Fivefold, O householders, is the gain of 
the well-doer through his practice of rectitude. In the 
first place the well-doer, strong in rectitude, acquires 
great wealth through his industry ; in the next place, 
good reports of him are spread abroad ; thirdly, what- 
ever society he enters — whether of nobles, brahmins, 
heads of houses, or members of a reh^ious order — he 
enters confident and self-possessed ; fourthly, he dies 
without anxiety ; and lastly, on the dissolution of the 
body, after death, he is reborn into some happy state 
in heaven. This, O householders, is the fivefold gain 
of the well-doer.' 

25. When the Exalted One had thus taught the 
lay disciples at Pa/aligama, and incited them, and 
roused them, and gladdened them, far into the night 
with religious discourse, he dismissed them, saying : — 
' The night is far spent, O householders. It is time 
for you to do what you deem most fit.' ' Even so, 
lord ! ' answered the disciples of Pa/aligama, and they 
rose from their seats, and bowing to the Exalted One, 
and keeping him on their right hand as they passed 
him, they departed thence. 



And the Exalted One, not long after the disciples 



' Four such states are mentioned, apaya, duggati, vinipato, and 
nirayo, all of which are temporar}' states. The first three seem to be 
synonyms. The last is one of the four divisions into which the first 
is usually divided, and is often translated hell; but not being an 
eternal state, and not being dependent or consequent upon any 
judgement, it cannot be accurately so rendered. See p. 51. 



92 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 86. 



of Pa/aligdma had departed thence, entered into his 
private chamber \ 

26. At that time Sunidha and Vassakara, the chief 
ministers of Magadha, were building a fortress at 
Pa/aHgama to repel the Vajjians, [87] and there were 
a number of fairies who haunted in thousands the plots 
of ground there. Now, wherever ground is so occupied 
by powerful fairies, they bend the hearts of the most 
powerful kings and ministers to build dwelling-places 
there, [and fairies of middling and inferior power bend 
in a similar way the hearts of middling or inferior kings 
and ministers^.] 

27. And the Blessed One, with great and clear 
vision, surpassing that of ordinary men, saw thousands 
of those fairies haunting Pa/aligama. And he rose up 
very early in the morning, and said to Ananda : — .* Who 
is it then, Ananda, who is building a fortress at 
Pa/aligama ?' 

' Sunidha and Vassakara, lord, the chief ministers of 
Magadha, are building a fortress there to keep back 
the Vajjians.' 

28. ' They act, Ananda, as if they had consulted with 
the Tavati;;2sa angels.' [And telling him of what he 
had seen, and of the influence such fairies had, he 
added]: — ' And as far, Ananda, as Aryan people resort, 
as far as merchants travel, this will become the chief 
city, Pa/ali-putta, a centre for the interchange of all 
kinds of wares, [ss] But three dangers will hang over 
Pa/ali-putta, that of fire, that of water, and that of 
dissension among friends ^' 



^ Compare Vinaya III, 93. 

^ The curious popular belief as to good and bad fairies haunting 
the sites of houses gave rise to a quack science, akin to astrology, 
called vatthu-vijja, which Buddhaghosa explains here at some 
length, and which is frequently condemned elsewhere in the Five 
Nikayas. See, for instance, I of the Maha-silam, translated above, 
Vol. I, p. 18. The belief is turned to ridicule in the edifying legend, 
No. 40, in my 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' pp. 326-34. 

^ This paragraph is of importance to the orthodox Buddhist as 
proving the Buddha's power of prophecy and the authority of the 



D. ii. 88. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 93 

29. Now Sunidha and Vassakara, the chief ministers 
of Magadha, proceeded to the place where the Exalted 
One was. And when they had come there they 
exchanged with the Exalted One the greetings and 
compliments of politeness and courtesy, and stood 
there respectfully on one side. And, so standing, 
Sunidha and Vassakara, the chief ministers of Magadha, 
spake thus to the Exalted One : — 

' May the venerable Gotama do us the honour of 
taking his meal, together with the company of the 
brethren, at our house to-day.' And the Exalted One 
signified, by silence, his consent. 

30. Then when Sunidha and Vassakara, the chief 
ministers of Magadha, perceived that he had given his 
consent, they returned to the place where they dwelt. 
And on arriving there, they prepared sweet dishes of 
boiled rice, and cakes ; and informed the Exalted One, 
saying : — 

* The hour of food has come, O Gotama, and all is 
ready.' 

And the Exalted One robed himself early, took his 
bowl with him, and repaired, with the brethren, to the 
dwelling-place of Sunidha and Vassakara, and sat 
down on the seat prepared for him. And with their 
own hands they set the sweet rice and the cakes before 
the brethren with the Buddha at their head, and waited 
on them till they had had enough. And when the 
Exalted One had finished eating his meal, the ministers 
brought a low seat, and sat down respectfully at his 
side. 

31. And when they were thus seated the Exalted 
One gave thanks in these verses : — 

'Wheresoe'er the prudent man shall take up his 
abode 



Buddhist scriptures. To those who conclude that such a passage 
must have been written after the event that is prophesied (if any), it 
may be valuable evidence of the age both of the Vinaya and of this 
Maha Parinibbana Suttanta. See the note at ' Vinaya Texts/ II, 102. 



94 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 88. 

Let him support the brethren there, good men of 

self-control, 
And give the merit of his gifts to the deities who 

haunt the spot ^ 
Revered, they will revere him : honoured, they 

honour him again ; 
Are gracious to him as a mother to her own, her 

only son. 
And the man who has the grace of the gods, good 

fortune he beholds.' 

32. [89] And when he had thanked the ministers in 
these verses he rose from his seat and departed thence. 
And they followed him as he went, saying, ' The gate 
the Samana Gotama goes out by to-day shall be called 
Gotama's gate, and the ferry at which he crosses the 
river shall be called Gotama's ferry.' And the gate 
he went out at was called Gotama's gate. 



2,S- But the Exalted One went on to the river. And 
at that time the river Ganges was brimful and over- 
flowing ; and wishing to cross to the opposite bank, 
some began to seek for boats, some for rafts of wood, 
whilst some made rafts of basket-work. Then the 
Exalted One as instantaneously as a strong man would 
stretch forth his arm, or draw it back again when he 
had stretched it forth, vanished from this side of the 
river, and stood on the further bank with the company 
of the brethren. 

34. And the Exalted One beheld the people who 
wished to cross to the opposite bank looking some of 
them for boats and some of them for rafts of wood, 
and some of them for rafts of basket-work ; and as he 
beheld them he brake forth at that time into this 
song : — 



^ Tasaw dakkhi/zaw adise. See Then Gatha 307, 311 
Mil. 294. 



D. ii. 89. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 95 

' They who have crossed the ocean drear 
Making a solid path across the pools — 
Whilst the vain world ties its basket rafts — 
These are the wise, these are the saved indeed ! ^ ' 

End of the First Portion for Recitation. 



^ That is, those who cross the ' ocean drear ' of taw ha, or craving ; 
avoiding by means of the ' dyke ' or causeway of the Aryan Path, the 
• pools ' or shallows of lust, and ignorance, and delusion (comp. 
Dhp. 91), whilst the vain world looks for salvation from rites, and 
ceremonies, and gods, — ' these are the wise, these are the saved 
indeed 1 ' 



CHAPTER II. 

I. ^[90] Now the Exalted One addressed the venera- 
ble Ananda, and said : — ' Come, Ananda, let us go on 
to Ko/igama.' 

' So be it, lord ! ' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Exalted One. 

The Exalted One proceeded with a great company 
of the brethren to Ko/igdma ; and there he stayed in 
the villaofe itself ^ 

2. And at that place the Exalted One addressed the 
brethren, and said : — ' It is through not understanding 
and grasping four Aryan Truths, O brethren, that we 
have had to run so long, to wander so long in this 
weary path of transmigration, both you and I ! 

' And what are these four ? ' 

* The Aryan truth about sorrow ; the Aryan truth 
about the cause of sorrow ; the Aryan truth about the 
cessation of sorrow ; and the Aryan truth about the 
path that leads to that cessation. But when these 
Aryan truths are grasped and known the craving for 
future life is rooted out, that which leads to renewed 
becoming is destroyed, and then there is no more 
birth !^' 

3. Thus spake the Exalted One ; and when the 
Happy One had thus spoken, then again the Teacher 
said :— [91] 

' By not seeing the Aryan Truths as they really are. 
Long is the path that is traversed through many 
a birth ; 

^ As will be observed from the similar passages that follow, there is 
a regular sequence of clauses in the set descriptions of the Buddha's 
movements. The last clause should specify the particular grove or 
house where the Exalted One stayed ; but it is also (in this and one 
or two other cases) inserted with due regularity even when it adds 
nothing positive to the sense. 

"^ Compare below, Chapter IV, §§ 2, 3; p. 131. 



T). ii.pi. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 97 

When these are grasped, the cause of rebirth is 

removed, 
The root of sorrow uprooted, and then there is no 

more birth.' 

4. There too, while staying at Ko/igama, the 
Exalted One held that comprehensive religious talk 
with the brethren, saying : — ' Such and such is upright 
conduct ; such and such is earnest contemplation ; such 
and such is intelligence. Great becomes the fruit, 
great the advantage of earnest contemplation, when it 
is set round with upright conduct. Great becomes the 
fruit, great the advantage of intellect when it is set 
round with earnest contemplation. The mind set 
round with intelligence is set quite free from the 
Intoxications, that is to say, from the Intoxication of 
Sensuality, from the Intoxication of Becoming, from 
the Intoxication of Delusion, from the Intoxication of 
Ignorance. 

5. Now when the Exalted One had remained as 
long as he thought fit at Ko/igama, he addressed the 
venerable Ananda, and said : — ' Come, Ananda, let us go 
on to the Nadikas.' 

' So be it, lord I ' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Exalted One. 

And the Exalted One proceeded to the Nadikas 
with a great company of the brethren ; and there, at 
Nadika, the Exalted One stayed in the Brick Hall \ 

* At first Nadika is (twice) spoken of in ihe plural number (a clan- 
name); but then, thirdly, in the last clause, in the singular (a local 
name derived from the clan-name). Buddhaghosa explains this by 
saying that there were two villages of the same name on the shore of 
the same piece of water. The ' Brick Hall ' was the public resting- 
place for travellers, and the name is noteworthy as almost all buildings 
were then of wood. 

The expression used here is an idiomatic phrase descriptive of the 
arrival of travellers at a place : — ' and there, at X. so and so stayed in 
Y.' where X. is the name of the town or village, and Y. is the lodging- 
place the traveller occupies. (See just above in § i for a good 
instance.) The first name, the name X., is always the name of the 

III. H 



98 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 91. 

6. And the venerable Ananda went to the Exalted 
One and paid him reverence and took his seat beside 
him. And when he was seated, he addressed the 
Exalted One, and said: — ' The brother named Si/ha has 
died at Nadika, lord. Where has he been reborn, and 
what is his destiny ? The sister named Nanda has 
died, lord, at Nadika. Where is she reborn, and what 
is her destiny ? ' [92] [And in the same terms he 
inquired concerning the lay disciple Sudatta, and the 
devout lady Sugata, the lay disciples Kakudha, and 
Kdlinga, and Nika/a, and Ka/issabha, and Tu//>^a, and 
Santu//^a, and Bhadda, and Subhadda^.] 

7. ' The brother named Sd/ha, Ananda, by the 
destruction of the Intoxications has by himself, and in 
this world, known and realized and attained to Arahant- 
ship, to emancipation of heart and to emancipation of 
mind. The sister named Nanda, Ananda, has, by the 
complete destruction of the five bonds that bind people 
to these lower worlds of lust, become an inheritor of 
the highest heavens, there to pass entirely away, thence 
never to return. The devout Sudatta, Ananda, by the 
complete destruction of the three bonds, and by the 
reduction to a minimum of lust, ill-will, and stupidity, 
has become a Sakadagamin, who on his first return to 
this world will make an end of sorrow. The devout 
Sugata, Ananda, by the complete destruction of the 
three bonds, has become converted, is no longer liable 
to be reborn in a state of suffering, and is assured of 
hereafter attaining to the enlightenment [of Arahant- 
ship]\ The devout Kakudha, Ananda, by the com- 
plete destruction of the five bonds that bind people to 
these lower worlds of lust, has become an inheritor of 
the highest heavens, there to pass entirely away, thence 
never to return. [The same of Kalinga, Nika/fa, 

town, and never an adjective in agreement with the second name. It 
seems simple enough ; but even the best Sanskritists appear sometimes 
to be unfamiliar with the force of this Pali idiom. 

^ See Rhys Davids's 'Buddhism,' pp. 108-10; above, Vol. I, 
pp. 190-2; below, at VI, 6, and in the translation of D. II, 201; 
also Divyavadana, ])p. 533-4. 



D. ii. 93- THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 99 

Ka/issabha, Tu///^a, Saatu//^a, Bhadda, and Subhadda, 
[93] and with more than fifty devout men in Nadika.] 
More ^than ninety devout men in Nadika, who have 
died, Ananda, have by the complete destruction of the 
three bonds, and by the reduction of lust, ill-will and 
stupidity, become Sakadagamins, who on their first 
return to this world will make an end of sorrow. 
More than five hundred devout men of Nadika who 
have died, Ananda, have by the complete destruction 
of the three bonds become converted, are no longer 
liable to be reborn in a state of suffering, and are 
assured of hereafter attaining the enlightenment [of 
Arahantship]. 

8. ' Now there is nothing strange in this, Ananda, 
that a human being should die ; but that as each one 
does so you should come to me, and inquire about 
them in this manner, that is wearisome to me. I will, 
therefore, teach you a way of truth, called the Mirror 
of Truth, which if a disciple of the noble ones possess 
he may, if he should so desire, himself predict of him- 
self: — " Purgatory is destroyed for me, and rebirth as an 
animal, or a ghost, or in any place of woe. I am con- 
verted, I am no longer liable to be reborn in a state of 
suffering, and am assured of hereafter attaining to the 
enlightenment [of Arahantship]." 

9. ' What then, Ananda, is this Mirror of Truth ? [It 
is the consciousness that] the disciple of the Arahants 
is in this world possessed of faith in the Buddha — 
believing the Exalted One to be the Arahant, the 
Fully-enlightened One, Wise, Upright, Happy, World- 
knowing, Supreme, the Bridler of men's wayward 
hearts, the Teacher of gods and men, the Exalted and 
Awakened One. And that he [the disciple] is possessed 
of faith in the Truth — believing the Truth to have 
been proclaimed by the Exalted One, of advantage in 
this world, passing not away, welcoming all, leading to 
salvation, and to be attained to by the wise, each one 
for himself. And that he [the disciple] is possessed 
of faith in the Order — believing the multitude of the 
disciples of the Exalted One who are walking in the 

H 2 



{ 



lOO XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 93. 

four Stages of the noble eightfold path, the righteous, 
the upright, the just, the law-abiding — [94] believing 
this church of the Exalted One to be worthy of honour, 
of hospitality, of gifts, and of reverence ; to be the 
supreme sowing ground of merit for the world ; to be 
possessed of the virtues beloved by the good, virtues 
unbroken, intact, unspotted, unblemished, virtues which 
make men truly free, virtues which are praised by the 
wise, are untarnished by the desire of future life or by 
the belief in the efficacy of outward acts, and are con- 
ducive to concentration of heart ^ 

' This, Ananda, is the way, the Mirror of Truth, 
which if a disciple of the noble ones possess he may, if 
he should so desire, himself predict of himself : — " Pur- 
gatory is destroyed for me ; and rebirth as an animal, 
or a ghost, or in any place of woe. I am converted ; 
I am no longer liable to be reborn in a state of suffer- 
ing, and am assured of finally attaining to the enlighten- 
ment [of Arahantship]." ' 



10. There, too, at the Brick Hall at Nadika the 
Exalted One held that comprehensive religious talk 
with the brethren, saying : — ' Such and such is upright 
conduct ; such and such is earnest contemplation ; such 
and such is intelligence. Great becomes the fruit, 
great the advantage of earnest contemplation, when it 
is set round with upright conduct. Great becomes the 
fruit, great the advantage of intellect when it is set 
round with earnest contemplation. The mind set 
round with intelligence is set quite free from the 
Intoxications, that is to say, from the Intoxication of 
Sensuality, from the Intoxication of Becoming, from 
the Intoxication of Delusion, from the Intoxication of 
Ignorance.' 

11. Now when the Exalted One'^had remained as 
long as he wished at Nadika, he addressed Ananda, 
and said : — ' Come, Ananda, let us go on to Vesili.' 



^ See above. I. ii. 



D. ii.95' THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. lOI 

' So be it, lord ! ' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Exalted One. 

Then the Exalted One proceeded, with a great com- 
pany of the brethren, to Vesali ; and there at Vesali 
the Exalted One stayed at Ambapali's grove. 

12. Now there the Exalted One addressed the 
brethren, and said : — ' Let a brother, O mendicants, be 
mindful and self-possessed ; this is our instruction to 
you^ 

* And how does a brother become mindful ? 

' Herein, O mendicants, a brother continues as to the 
body, so to look upon the body that he remains 
strenuous, [95] self-possessed, and mindful, having 
overcome both the hankering and the dejection com- 
mon in the world. [And in the same way as to feel- 
ings, moods, or ideas, he continues so to look upon 
each] that he remains strenuous, self-possessed, and 
mindful, having overcome both the hankering and the 
dejection common in the world. 

13. 'And how does a brother become self-possessed? 
' He acts, O mendicants, in full presence of mind 

whatever he may do, in going out or coming in, in 
looking forward or in looking round, in bending in his 
arm or in stretching it forth, in wearing his robes or in 
carrying his bowl, in eating or drinking, in masticating 
or swallowing, in obeying the calls of nature, in walk- 
ing or standing or sitting, in sleeping or waking, in 
talking and in being silent. 

' Thus let a brother, O mendicants, be mindful and 
self-possessed ; this is our instruction to you -.' 

' Quoted Mil. 378. 

^ This doctrine of being ' mindful and self-possessed ' is one of the 
lessons most frequently inculcated in the Pali Pi/akas, and is one of 
the ' Seven Jewels of the Law.' It is fully treated of in each of the 
Nikayas, forming the subject of the INIaha Satippa/Z^ana Suttanta in 
the Digha Nikaya, and the Satippa/Mana Suttanta of the Majjhima 
Nikaya, and the Satippa/Mana Sawyutta of the Sawyutta Nikaya, as 
well as of various passages in the Anguttara Nikaya, and of the 
Vibhahga. See above, Vol. I, pp. 80, 81 ; and the translation, below, 
of pp. 290 foil, of the text. The point is there discussed in detail. 

Buddhaghosa has no comment here on the subject itself, reserving 



I02 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 95. 

14. ^ Now the courtezan Ambapali heard that the 
Exalted One had arrived at Vesali, and was staying 
there at her mango grove. And ordering a number of 
state vehicles to be made ready, she mounted one of 
them, and went forth with her train from Vesdlt 
towards her garden. She went in the carriage as far 
as the ground was passable for carriages ; there she 
alighted ; and she proceeded on foot to the place where 
the Exalted One was, and took her seat respectfully 
on one side. And when she was thus seated the 
Exalted One instructed, aroused, incited, and gladdened 
her with religious discourse. 

Then she — instructed, aroused, incited, and glad- 
dened with his words — addressed the Exalted One, 
and said : — 

' May the Exalted One do me the honour of taking 
his meal, together with the brethren, at my house to- 
morrow ? ' 

And the Exalted One gave, by silence, his consent. 
Then when Ambapali the courtezan saw that the 
Exalted One had consented, she rose from her seat 
and bowed down before him, and keeping him on 
her right hand as she passed him, she departed 
thence. 



what he has to say for the comnrient on the Suttantas devoted entirely 
to it ; but he observes in passing that the reason why the Exalted 
One laid stress, at this particular time and place, on the necessity of 
being * mindful and thoughtful/ was because of the imminent approach 
of the beautiful courtezan in whose grove they were staying. The use 
of the phrase sati upa//-^apetabba below, Chap. V, 9 (text, p. 141), 
in reference to- the way in which women should be treated, is quite in 
accordance with this explanation. But see the next note. 

* From this point down to the words ' he rose from his seat,' in 
II, 24 is, with a few unimportant variations, word for word the same 
as Vinaya, Vol. I, pp. 231-3. But the passage there follows im- 
mediately after the verses translated above, I, 34, so that the events 
here (in §§ 14-18) localized at Vesalt, are there localized at Ko/igama. 
Our section II, 5 is then inserted between our sections II, 18 and 
II, 19 ; and our section II, 11 does not occur at all, the Exalted One 
only reaching Ambapali's grove when he goes there (as in our section 
II, 19) to partake of the meal to which he had been invited. Buddha- 
ghosa passes over this apparent discrepancy in silence. 



D.ii. 96. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. IO3 

15. [96] Now the Licchavis of Vesali heard that the 
Exalted One had arrived at Vesali, and was staying at 
Ambapali's grove. And ordering a number of state 
carriages to be made ready, they each mounted one of 
them and went forth with their train from Vesali. 
Some of them were dark, dark in colour, and wearing 
dark clothes and ornaments : some of them were fair, 
fair in colour, and wearing light clothes and ornaments : 
some of them were red, ruddy in colour, and wearing 
red clothes and ornaments : some of them were white, 
pale in colour, and wearing white clothes and orna- 
ments. 

16. And Ambapali drove up against the young 
Licchavis, axle to axle, wheel to wheel, and yoke to 
yoke, and the Licchavis said to Ambapali the courtezan : 
— ' How is it, Ambapali, that thou drivest up against 
us thus ? ' 

' My lords, I have just invited the Exalted One and 
his brethren for their morrow's meal,' said she. 

* Ambapali ! give up this meal to us for a hundred 
thousand,' said they. 

' My lords, were you to offer all Vesali with its 
subject territory, I would not give up so honourable 
a feast ! ' 

Then the Licchavis cast up their hands, exclaiming : 
— ' We are outdone by this mango girl ! we are out- 
reached by this mango girl ^ ! ' and they went on to 
Ambapali's grove. 

17. When the Exalted One saw the Licchavis 
approaching in the distance, he addressed the brethren, 
and said : — 

' O brethren, let those of the brethren who have 
never seen the Tavatiwsa gods, gaze upon this com- 
pany of the Licchavis, behold this company of the 
Licchavis, compare this company of the Licchavis — 
for they are even as a company of Tavatiwsa gods ^.' 

^ Literally ' by this woman.' But I have tried to reproduce the 
evident word-play. Ambapali means mango grower, one who looks 
after mangoes. 

' The Tavatiwsa-deva are the gods in the heaven of the Great 



I04 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 97. 

18. [97] And when they had ridden as far as the 
ground was passable for carriages, the Licchavis 
ahghted there, and then went on foot to the place 
where the Exalted One was, and took their seats 
respectfully by his side. And when they were thus 
seated the Exalted One instructed and roused and in- 
cited and gladdened them with religious discourse ^ 

Then they — instructed and roused and incited and 
gladdened with his words — addressed the Exalted One, 
and said : — ' May the Exalted One do us the honour 
of taking his meal, together with the brethren, at our 
house to-morrow ? ' 

' O Licchavis, I have promised to dine to-morrow 
with Ambapali the courtezan,' was the reply. 

Then the Licchavis cast up their hands, exclaiming : 
— ' We are outdone by this mango girl ! we are out- 
reached by this mango girl ' ! And expressing their 
thanks and approval of the words of the Exalted One, 
they rose from their seats and bowed down before the 
Exalted One, and keeping him on their right hand as 
they passed him, they departed thence. 

19. And at the end of the night Ambapali the 
courtezan made ready in her mansion sweet rice and 
cakes, and announced the time to the Exalted One, 
saying: — ' The hour, lord, has come, and the meal is 
ready ! ' 

And the Exalted One who had dressed himself 
early in the morning, took his bowl, and his robe, and 
went with the brethren to the place where Ambapali's 
mansion was : and when he had come there he seated 
himself on the seat prepared for him. And Ambapali 

Thirty-Three, the principal deities of the Vedic Pantheon. See 
A. Ill, 239 ; Sum. I, 310; Mahavastu I, 262. 

^ The Malalahkara-vatthu gives the substance of the discourse on 
this occasion. ' The princes had come in their finest and richest 
dress; in their appearance they vied in beauty with the nats (or 
angels). But foreseeing the ruin and misery that was soon to come 
upon them all, the Buddha exhorted his disciples to entertain 
a thorough contempt for things that are dazzling to the eyes, but 
essentially perishable and unreal in their nature/ — Bigandet, 2nd 
ed., p. 260. 



D. ii. 98. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 05 

the courtezan set the sweet rice and cakes before the 
Order, with the Buddha at their head, and waited upon 
them till they refused any more. 

And when the Blessed One had quite finished his 
meal, and had cleansed the bowl and his hands, the 
courtezan had a low stool brought, and [98] sat down 
at his side, and addressed the Exalted One, and said : 
— * Lord, I present this pleasaunce to the order of 
mendicants, of which the Buddha is the chief.' And 
the Exalted One accepted the gift ; and after instruct- 
ing, and rousing, and inciting, and gladdening her with 
religious discourse, he rose from his seat and departed 
thence.^ 

20. While at Ambapali's mango grove the Exalted 
One held that comprehensive religious talk w4th the 
brethren, saying : — ' Such and such is upright conduct ; 
such and such is earnest contemplation ; such and such 
is intellio'ence. Great becomes the fruit, orreat the 
advantage of earnest contemplation, when it is set 
round with upright conduct. Great becomes the fruit, 
great the advantage of intellect when it is set round 
with earnest contemplation. The mind set round with 
intelligence is set quite free from the Intoxications, 
that is to say, from the Intoxication of Sensuality, from 
the Intoxication of Becoming, from the Intoxication of 
Delusion, from the Intoxication of Ignorance.' 



21. Now when the Exalted One had remained so 
long as he wished at Ambapali's grove, he addressed 
Ananda. and said : — ' Come, Ananda, let us go on to 
Beluva -.' 



' Bishop Bigandet says : — ' In recording the conversion of 
a courtezan named Apapalika, her liberality and gifts to Budha and 
his disciples, and the preference designedly given to her over princes 
and nobles, who, humanly speaking, seemed in every respect better 
entitled to attentions — one is almost reminded of the conversion of 
' a woman that was a sinner,' mentioned in the Gospels (• Legend of 
the Burmese Budha,' 2nd ed., p. 258). 

- The Vinaya (I, 233) says they went to the Great Wood near 



I06 XVI. MAIIA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 98. 

' So be it, lord,' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Exalted One. 

Then the Exalted One proceeded, with a great 
company of the brethren, to Beluva, and there the 
Exalted One stayed in the village itself. 

22. Now the Exalted One there addressed the 
brethren, and said : — ' O mendicants, do you take up 
your abode round about Vesali, each according to the 
place where his friends, acquaintances, and intimates 
may live, for the retreat in the rainy season [for vassa]. 
I shall enter upon the rainy season here at Beluva.' 

' So be it, lord ! ' said those brethren, in assent, to 
the Exalted One. And they entered upon the rainy 
season round about Vesali, each according to the place 
where his friends, acquaintances, and intimates lived : 
[99] whilst the Exalted One stayed even there at 
Beluva. 

23. Now when the Exalted One had thus entered 
upon the rainy season, there fell upon him a dire sick- 
ness, and sharp pains came upon him, even unto death. 
But the Exalted One, mindful and self-possessed, bore 
them without complaint. 

Then this thought occurred to the Exalted One : — 'It 
would not be right for me to pass away without 
addressing the disciples, without taking leave of the 
Order. Let me now, by a strong effort of the will, 
bend this sickness down again, and keep my hold on 
life till the allotted time be come \' 

And the Exalted One, by a strong effort of the will, 
bent that sickness down again, and kept his hold on 
life till the time he fixed upon should come. And the 
sickness abated upon him. 

24. Now very soon after the Blessed One began to 
recover. And when he had quite got rid of the sick- 
ness, he came out from his lodging, and sat down in 
the shadow thereof on a seat spread out there. And 



Vesali, that is, it skips the context here as far as III, 64. Our 
sections 27-35 ^r^ ^^ the Saw/yutta V, 152-4. 
^ Compare Divyavadana 203. 



D. ii. lOO. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. IO7 

the venerable Ananda went to the place where the 
Exalted One was. and saluted him, and took a seat re- 
spectfully on one side, and addressed the Exalted One, 
and said : — ' I have beheld, lord, how the Exalted 
One was in health, and I have beheld how the Exalted 
One had to suffer. And though at the sight of the 
sickness of the Exalted One my body became weak 
as a creeper, and the horizon became dim to me. and 
my faculties were no longer clear \ yet notwithstanding 
I took some little comfort from the thought that the 
Exalted One would not pass away until at least he had 
left instructions as touchinq; the Order.' 

25. [100] ' What, then, Ananda ? Does the Order 
expect that of me ? I have preached the truth without 
making any distinction between exoteric and esoteric 
doctrine ; for in respect of the truths, Ananda, the 
Tathao^ata has no such thiuQ; as the closed fist of 
a teacher, who keeps some things back'. Surely, 
Ananda, should there be any one who harbours the 
thought. " It is I who will lead the brotherhood," or. 
' The Order is dependent upon me," it is he who should 
lay down instructions in any matter concerning the 
Order. Now the Tathaqata, Ananda, thinks not that 
it is he who should lead the brotherhood, or that the 
Order is dependent upon him. Why then should he 
leave instructions in any matter concerning the Order ? 
I too, O Ananda, am now grown old, and full of years, 
my journey is drawing to its close, I have reached my 
sum of days, I am turning eighty years of age ; and 
just as a worn-out cart, Ananda, can be kept going 
only with the help of thongs, so, methinks. the body of 
the Tathagata can onh be kept going by bandaging it 
up'. It is only, Ananda, when the Tathagata. by 



* Compare A. J II, 69. 

* Compare Jataka II, 221. 250; Mil, 144. 

' Vegha-missakena, the meaning of which is not clear. The 
Malalahkara-vatthu, as rendered by Bigandet, has '' repairs.' The 
Sumangala Vilasini agrees, but in such a way as to throw no light on 
the derivation of the word. In the Sawyutta Nikaya (V. 153) the 



I08 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. 1). ii. lOO. 

ceasing to attend to any outward thing, becomes 
plunged by the cessation of any separate sensation in 
that concentration of heart which is concerned with no 
material object — it is only then that the body of the 
Tathagata is at ease ^ ^ 

26. ^ ' Therefore, O Ananda, be ye lamps unto your- 
selves. Be ye a refuge to yourselves. Betake your- 
selves to no external refuge. Hold fast to the Truth 
as a lamp. Hold fast as a refuge to the Truth. Look 
not for refuge to any one besides yourselves. And 
how, Ananda, is a brother to be a lamp unto himself, 
a refuge to himself, betaking himself to no external 
refuge, holding fast to the Truth as a lamp, holding fast 
as a refuge to the Truth, looking not for refuge to any 
one besides himself? 

' Herein, O mendicants, a brother continues, as to 
the body, so to look upon the body that he remains 
strenuous, self-possessed, and mindful, having over- 
come both the hankering and the dejection common in 
the world. [And in the same way] as to feelings . . . 
moods . . . ideas, he continues so to look upon each 
that he remains strenuous, self-possessed, and mindful, 
having overcome both the hankering and the dejection 
common in the world. 

[101] ' And whosoever, Ananda, either now or after 
I am dead, shall be a lamp unto themselves, and 
a refuge unto themselves, shall betake themselves to 
no external refuge, but holdingf fast to the Truth as 



Burmese Phayre MS. reads vekhamissakena and another Burmese 
MS. vedha — but SS. all read vegha. The Siamese edition has ve/u. 
My Digha Nikaya confirms Childers's reading, which no doubt 
correctly represents the uniform tradition of the Ceylon MSS. On 
the use of the word missaka at the end of a compound see Jataka 
II, 8, 420, 433 ; and compare M, I, 82 ; Thera-gatha 143 ; INIil. 159 ; 
and the discussion in ' J.P. T, S.,' 1884, pp. 97-101. 

^ This is very interesting as giving what is, no doubt, the original 
meaning of animitta as applied to ceto-samadhi. See my 
' Yogavacara's Manual of Indian Mysticism,' p. xxvii. 

^ This section recurs at S. V, 163, compare III, 42, and the 
example given at V, 221. 



D.ii. lOi. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. IO9 

their lamp, and holding fast as their refuge to the 
Truth, shall look not for refuge to any one besides 
themselves — it is they, Ananda, among my bhikkhus, 
who shall reach the very topmost Height! — but they 
must be anxious to learn '.' 

End of the Second Portion for Recitation. 



* Buddhaghosa says : — 'Tamatagge is for tamagge. The"t"in 
the middle is used for euphony. This word means, " These are the most 
pre-eminent, the very chief." Having, as above started, broken every 
bond of darkness (tama), those bhikkhus of mine. Ananda, will be at 
the ver)- top, in the highest condition. They will be at the very top 
of whom ? Those bhikkhus who are willing to learn, and those who 
exercise themselves in the four ways of being mindful and thoughtful, 
they shall be at the top of all (the rest). Thus does he make Arahant- 
ship the three-peaked height of his discourse ' (compare on this last 
phrase Nibbanena desanaX-utam gawhati, Jataka I, 275, 393, 
401 ; and see also I, 114). Uttama, the highest (scil. bhava, condition), 
is used absolutely of Arahantship or Nirvana at Jataka I, 96 ; Agga- 
phala occurs in the same sense at Jataka I, 114; and even Phalagga 
at ]\Iahava7«sa XV, 209. The last words, ' but they must be anxious to 
learn/ seem to me to be an afterthought. It is only those who are 
thoroughly determined to work out their own salvation, without looking 
for safety to any one else, even to the Buddha himself, who will, whilst 
in the world, enter into and experience Nirvana. But, of course, let 
there be no mistake, merely to reject the vain baubles of the current 
superstitious beliefs is not enough. There is plenty to learn and to 
acquire, of which enough discourse is elsewhere. 



CHAPTER III. 

i.i [102] Now the Exalted One robed himself early 
in the morning, and taking his bowl in the robe, went 
into Vesili for alms. When, after he had returned 
from the round for alms, he had^ finished eating the 
rice, he addressed the venerable Ananda, and said : — 
* Take up the mat, Ananda ; I will go and spend the 
day at the Chapala Shrine.' 

' So be it, lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Exalted One. And taking up the mat 
he followed step for step behind the Exalted One. 

2. So the Exalted One proceeded to the Chapala 
Shrine, and when he had come there he sat down on the 
mat spread out for him, and the venerable Ananda took 
his seat respectfully beside him. Then the Exalted 
One addressed the venerable Ananda, and said : — 

A 

' How delightful a spot, Ananda, is Vesali, and how 
charming the Udena Shrine, and the Gotamaka Shrine, 
and the Shrine of the Seven Mangoes, and the Shrine 
of Many Sons, and the Sarandada Shrine, and the 
Chapala Shrine ^ ! 

3. [103] ' Ananda, whosoever has developed, prac- 
tised, dwelt on, expanded and ascended to the very 
heights of the four paths to Iddhi ^ and so mastered 
them as to be able to use them as a vehicle, and as a 

^ 1-20 recur in A. IV, 308 foil. ; i-io in Udana VI, i, and S. V, 
259 foil. Compare Divy., pp. 200-8. 

- Shrines of pre-Buddhistic worship. They were probably trees and 
barrows ; but as no excavations have yet been made at Vesali the point 
is uncertain. The Anglo-Indian use of the word Chetiya, as equivalent 
to our Temple, is quite wrong. 

^ Iddhi. The four paths are : — (i) will, (2) effort, (3) thought, and 
(4) investigation, each united to earnest thought and the struggle 
against evil. On the Iddhi to be reached by them see above, Vol. I, 
pp. 272, 273; and the translator's 'Buddhism,' pp. 174-7- The 
whole set of participles is used elsewhere of other conditions of mind. 
So, for instance, of universal love (metta) at A. V, 342, quoted 
Jataka II, 61 , Mil. 1 98. An ancient commentary on them is preserved 
at Pa/is. I, 172. 



T>. ii. 104. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. I I I 

basis, he, should he desire it, could remain in the same 
birth for an aeon or for that portion of the aeon which 
had yet to run. Now the Tathagata has thoroughly 
practised and developed them [in all respects as just 
more fully described], and he could, therefore, should 
he desire it, live on yet for an aeon, or for that portion 
of the aeon which has yet to run.' 

4. But even though a suggestion so evident and a 
hint so clear were thus given by the Exalted One, the 
venerable Ananda was incapable of comprehending 
them ; [i04] and he besought not the Exalted One. 
saying : — ' Vouchsafe, lord, to remain during the aeon I 
Live on through the aeon, O Happy One ! for the good 
and the happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity 
for the world, for the good and the gain and the weal of 
gods and men ! ' So far was his heart possessed by the 
Evil One \ 

5. A second and a third time did the Exalted One 
[say the same thing, and a second and a third time was 
Ananda's heart thus hardened]. 

6. Then the Exalted One addressed the vener- 

^ Yatha tarn Marena pariyu///ntacitto. Here ta.m is the 
indeclinable particle, yatha ta.m introducing an explanation. My 
MS. of the Digha Nikaya and the Tumour MS. of the Sumangala 
Vilasini read parivu//^ita, and either spelling is correct. The fact 
is that the ' y ' or ' v ' in such cases is even less than euphonic ; it is an 
assistance not to the speaker, but merely to the writer. Thus in the 
Sinhalese duwanawa, 'to run,' the spoken word is duanawa, and 
the ' w ' is written only to avoid the awkward use in the middle of 
a written word of the initial sign for the sound ' a '. That the speakers 
of Pali found no difficulty in pronouncing two vowels together is 
abundantly proved by numerous instances. The writers of Pali, in 
those cases in which the second vowel begins a word, use without 
hesitation the initial sign ; but in the middle of the word this would be 
so ungainly that they naturally prefer to insert a consonantal sign /o 
carry the vowel sign. The varnng readings I have pointed out are 
a strong confirmation of the correctness of the pronunciation of 
modem native scholars (in this case pari-u//^ita); and we may the 
more readily adopt it as the question is not really one concerning the 
pronunciation of Pali, but concerning the use which modem native 
copyists make of their own alphabet. I would pronounce therefore 
pari-utthita-citto. See Windisch, • Mara und Buddha,' p. 40 ; M. I, 
433-4; Vin. II, 289; IV, 94, 229. 



112 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 104. 

able Ananda, and said : — ' You may leave me, Ananda, 
awhile, and do whatsoever now seemeth to thee fit.' 

' So be it, lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Exalted One, and passing him on the 
right sat down at the foot of a certain tree not far off 
thence. 



7. Now not long after the venerable Ananda had 
been gone, Mara, the Evil One, approached the Ex- 
alted One and stood beside him. And so standing 
there, he addressed the Exalted One in these words : — 

' Pass away now, lord ; let the Exalted One now 
die. Now is the time for the Exalted One to pass away 
— even according to the word which the Exalted One 
spoke when he said ^ : — ■'' I shall not die, O Evil One ! 
until the brethren and sisters of the Order, and until the 
lay-disciples of either sex - shall have become true 
hearers, wise and well trained, ready and learned, carry- 
ing the doctrinal books in their memory, masters of the 
lesser corollaries that follow from the larger doctrine, 
correct in life, walking according to the precepts — until 
they, having thus themselves learned the doctrine, shall 
be able to tell others of it, preach it, make it known, 
establish it, open it, minutely explain it and make it 
clear — until they, when others start vain doctrine easy 
to be refuted by the truth, shall be able in refuting it, 
to spread the wonder-working ^ truth abroad ! " 

8. ' And now, lord, the brethren and sisters of the 
order and the lay-disciples of either sex have become 
[all this], are able to do [all this]. [l05] Pass away 
now therefore, lord ; let the Exalted One now die ! 
The time has come for the Exalted One to pass away — 



^ The words here quoted were spoken by the Buddha, after he had 
been enjoying the first bliss of Nirvana, under the goatherd's Nigrodha 
tree (see below, ch. Ill, § 34). 

^ The whole paragraph is repeated, here and below, § 35, for each of 
these classes of persons. 

^ Sappa/ihariyaw dhammaw. (Comp. the opposite idea 
appa/ihtra-kata;;z bhasitaw/, D. I, 193, 239.) The two ideas are 
contrasted at KV. 561. 



D. ii. I07. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. II3 

even according to the word which he sjpake when he 
said, " I shall not die, O Evil One ! until this pure 
religion of mine shall have become successful, pros- 
perous, wide-spread, and popular in all its full extent — 
until, in a word, it shall have been well proclaimed 
among men." And now, lord, this pure religion of 
thine has become [all this]. Pass away now therefore, 
lord ; let the Exalted One now die ! The time has 
come for the Exalted One to pass away ! ' 

9. [106] And when he had thus spoken, the Exalted 
One addressed Mara, the Evil One, and said : — ' O 
Evil One ! make thyself happy, the death of the Tatha- 
gata shall take place before long. At the end of three 
months from this time the Tathagata will pass away.' 



10. Thus the Exalted One while at the Shrine of 
Chapala deliberately and consciously rejected the rest 
of his natural term of life ^. And on his so rejecting it 
there arose a mighty earthquake, awful and terrible, 
and the thunders of heaven burst forth. [l07] And 
when the Exalted One beheld this, he broke out at that 
time into this hymn of exultation : — 

' His sum of life the sage renounced, 
The cause of life immeasurable or small ; 
With inward joy and calm, he broke. 
Like coat of mail, his life's own cause ! - ' 



11.^ Now the following thought occurred to the 

' Ayu-sa;wkharaOT ossaji. The difficult term Ayu-sawkhSra 
must here have the meaning in which it is used at Majjhima I, 
pp. 295, 296 ; Sawyutta II, 266 ; Jataka IV, 215. He renounced those 
tendencies, potentialities, which in the ordinary course of things, would 
otherwise have led to the putting together of, the building up of, more 
life (that is, of course, in this birth. Any more life in a futtire birth 
he had already renounced when, under the Wisdom Tree, he attained 
Nirvana). 

'^ This verse is obscure and possibly corrupt. See Windisch, 
'Mara und Buddha,' pp. 37, 72 ; Ud. VI, i ; S. V, 263; Div. 203. 

' The narrative is now interrupted by the insertion of paragraphs 
which at first sight seem to be quite out of place. But the connexion, 
or want of connexion, between them and the main story is very 

III. I 



114 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 107. 

venerable Ananda : — ' Wonderful indeed and mar- 
vellous is it that this mighty earthquake should arise, 
awful and terrible, and that the thunders of heaven 
should burst forth ! What may be the proximate, what 
the remote cause of the appearance of this earthquake ? ' 

12. Then the venerable Ananda went up to the 
place where the Blessed One was, and did obeisance 
to the Exalted One, and seated himself respectfully at 
one side, and said : — ' Wonderful indeed and marvellous 
is it that this mighty earthquake should arise, awful 
and terrible, and that the thunders of heaven should 
burst forth ! What may be the proximate, what the 
remote cause of the appearance of this earthquake ? ' 

1 3. ' Eight are the proximate, eight the remote 
causes, Ananda, for the appearance of a mighty earth- 
quake. What are the eight ? This great earth, 
Ananda, is established on water, the water on 
wind, and the wind rests upon space. And at such a 
time, Ananda, as the mighty winds blow, the waters 
are shaken by the mighty winds as they blow, and by 
the moving water the earth is shaken. These are the 
first causes, proximate and remote, of the appearance 
of a mighty earthquake ^. 

14. [los] 'Again, Ananda, a recluse or a brahmin of 
great [intellectual] power, and who has the feelings 

suggestive as to the way in which the Suttanta was put together. The 
whole chapter is an answer to a possible objection, either from out- 
siders or from weaker members of the fold, that if the Buddha were 
really so great why did he die at all. The suggested answer is that he 
could have lived on if he had so wished ; but he did not wish because 
he had certain kinds of power and insight and self-mastery which pre- 
vented him from doing so. For the purpose of this answer these 
paragraphs, already in existence among the Suttas current in the com- 
munity, and dealing with these powers, are here repeated without any 
such connecting argument as we should find under similar circum- 
stances, in a modern (written) book of apologetics. The argument 
suggested by them follows exactly the same lines as that in the Mahali 
Suttanta, translated in the former volume (Number VI of the 
' Dialogues '). 

^ Windisch, 'Mara und Buddha,' 61, adduces a number of interest- 
ing parallels, from European writers, to this curious old theory of 
earthquakes. 



D. ii. io8. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 1 5 

of his heart well under his control ; or a god or fairy 
(devata ^) of great might and power, — when such a one 
by intense meditation on the idea of the minutest por- 
tion of earth and on the idea of the widest expanse of 
water [has succeeded in realizing the comparative value 
of things] he can make this earth move and tremble 
and be shaken violently -, These are the second causes, 
proximate and remote, of the appearance of a mighty 
earthquake. 



^ Devataisa fairy, god, genius, or angel. I am at a loss how to 
render this word without conveying an erroneous impression to those 
not familiar with ancient ideas, and specially with ancient Indian ideas, 
of the spirit world. It includes gods of all sorts; tree and river 
nymphs; the kindly fairies or ghosts who haunt houses (see my 
* Buddhist Birth Stories,' Tale 40) ; spirits in the ground (see above, I, 
26); the angels who minister at the great renunciation, the temptation, 
and the death of the Buddha ; the guardian angels who watch over 
men, and towns, and countries ; and many other similar beings. 
' Celestial beings ' would be wholly inapplicable, for instance, to the 
creatures referred to in the curious passage above (I, 26). ' Super- 
human being ' would be an inaccurate rendering ; for all these light 
and airy shapes come below, and after, man in the Buddhist order of 
precedence. ' Spirit ' being used of the soul inside the human body, 
and of the hiunan soul after it has left the body, and figuratively of 
mental faculties — none of which are included under devata — would 
suggest ideas inconsistent with that of the Pali word. As there is 
therefore no appropriate general word I have chosen, for each passage 
where the expression occurs, the word used in English of the special 
class more particularly referred to in the passage of the text. Here all 
kinds of devatas being referred to, and there being no word in 
English for them all, I have ventured to put the word devata into my 
version, and to trouble the reader with this note. 

* Buddhaghosa here tells a long story how Sangharakkhita 
Samawera, the nephew of Naga Thera, attained Arahantship on the 
day of his admission to the order ; and at once proceeded to heaven, 
and standing on the pinnacle of the palace of the king of the gods, 
shook the whole place with his' big toe ; to the great consternation 
and annoyance of the exalted dwellers therein ! There is no doubt 
a real truth in the idea that deep thought can shake the universe, and 
make the palaces of the gods to tremble, just as faith is said in 
Matthew xxi. 21 to be able to remove mountains, and cause them to 
be cast into the sea. But these figurative expressions have, in 
Buddhism, become a fruitful soil for the outgrowth of superstitions and 
misunderstandings. The train of early Buddhist speculation in this 
field has yet to be elucidated. 

I 2 



Il6 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 108. 

15. ' Again, Ananda, when a Bodhisatta consciously 
and deliberately leaves his [temporary] form in the 
heaven of delight and descends into his mother's womb, 
then is this earth made to quake and tremble and is 
shaken violently. These are the third causes, proximate 
and remote, of the appearance of a mighty earthquake ^. 

16. ' Again, Ananda, when a Bodhisatta deliberately 
and consciously quits his mother's womb, then the 
earth quakes and trembles and is shaken violently. 
This is the fourth cause, proximate and remote, of the 
appearance of a mighty earthquake. 

1 7. ' Again, Ananda, when a Tathagata arrives at 
the supreme and perfect enlightenment, then this earth 
quakes and trembles and is shaken violently. This is 
the fifth cause, proximate and remote, of the appear- 
ance of a mighty earthquake. 

18. ' Again, Ananda, when a Tathagata founds the 
sublime kingdom of righteousness, then this earth 
quakes and trembles and is shaken violently. This is 
the sixth cause, proximate and remote, of the appear- 
ance of a mighty earthquake. 

1 9. * Again, Ananda, when a Tathagata consciously 
and deliberately rejects the remainder of his life, then 
this earth quakes and trembles and is shaken violently. 

^ The Bodhisatta's voluntary incarnation is looked upon by the 
Buddhists as a great act of renunciation, and curious legends have 
gathered about it. One is that on the night when she conceived his 
mother dreamt that a white elephant entered her side. The account 
will be found at length in my 'Buddhist Birth Stories ' (pp. 62-4), and 
the earthquake is there mentioned in terms identical with those in the 
text. As I have pointed out in 'Buddhism' (p. 184), the white 
elephant legend is one of those hallowed sun stories by which half- 
converted Indians strove to embellish the life-story of the Teacher 
whose followers they had become. In the Lalita Vistara (Calc. ed., 
p, 63) the entrance of the elephant into Maya precedes the dream ; 
but though the ignorant may have therefore accepted it as a fact, it is 
of course only a figure of speech — and I venture to think from the 
Indian standpoint, a beautiful figure of speech — to express the incarna- 
tion of divine mildness and majesty in a human form. The use of 
such a figure is not confined to India. In one of the Apocryphal 
Gospels, the Gospel according to the Hebrews, the incarnation of the 
divine gentleness and love is expressed by saying that a dove from 
heaven ' entered into ' the human form. 



D. ii. 109. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 117 

This is the seventh cause, proximate and remote, of the 
appearance of a mighty earthquake. 

20. ' Again, Ananda, when a Tathagata passes en- 
tirely [109] away in that utter passing away in which 
nothing whatever is left behind, then this earth quakes 
and trembles and is shaken violently. This is the 
eighth cause, proximate and remote, of the appearance 
of a mighty earthquake.' 



21. 'Now of eight kinds, Ananda, are these assem- 
blies. Which are the eight ? Assemblies of nobles, 
brahmins, householders and wanderers, and of the 
angel hosts of the Guardian Kings, of the Great 
Thirty-Three, of the Maras, and of the Brahmas. 

22. ' Now I call to mind, Ananda, how when I used 
to enter into an assembly of many hundred ^ nobles, 
before I had seated myself there or talked to them or 
started a conversation with them, I used to become in 
colour like unto their colour, and in voice like unto 
their voice. Then with religious discourse I used to 
instruct and incite, and quicken them, and fill them 
with gladness. But they knew me not when I spoke, 
and would say : — " Who may this be who thus speaks ? 
a man or a god ? " Then having instructed, incited, 
quickened, and gladdened them with religious dis- 
course, I would vanish away. But they knew me not 
even when I vanished away : and would say : — " Who 
may this be who has thus vanished away ? a man or 
a god ? " 

23. [And in the same words the Exalted One spake 
of how he had been used to enter into assemblies of 
each of the other of the eight kinds, and of how he had 
not been made known to them either in speaking or in 
vanishing away.] ' Now these, Ananda, are the eight 
assemblies.' 



^ Windisch, ' Mara und Buddha,' p. 75, makes this number refer 
to the number of entrances, and quotes Itivuttaka, p. 15, in support. 
The Singhalese version (p. 758) is as above. 



Il8 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. no. 

24. [no] ' Now these, Ananda, are the eight posi- 
tions of Mastery [over the delusion arising from the 
apparent permanence of external things ^]. What are 
the eight ? 

25. ' When a man having subjectively the idea of 
form sees forms external to himself which are finite, 
and pleasant or unpleasant to the sight, and having 
mastered them, is conscious that he knows and sees — 
this is the first position of mastery. 

26. ' When a man having subjectively the idea of 
form sees externally forms which are boundless, and 
pleasant or unpleasant to the sight, and having mas- 
tered them, is conscious that he knows and sees — this 
is the second position of mastery. 

27. ' When a man without the subjective idea of form 
sees forms external to himself which are finite, and 
pleasant or unpleasant to the sight, and having mas- 
tered them, is conscious that he knows and sees — this 
is the third position of mastery. 

28. 'When a man without the subjective idea of 
form sees externally forms external to himself which 
are boundless, and pleasant or unpleasant to the sight, 
and having mastered them, is conscious that he knows 
and sees — this is the fourth position of mastery. 

29. ' When a man without the subjective idea of 
form sees externally forms external to himself that are 
blue, blue in colour, blue in appearance, and reflecting 
blue, — just, for instance, as the flax blossom is blue in 
colour, blue in appearance, and reflecting blue ; or, again, 

* This and the next paragraph are based upon the Buddhist beUef 
as to the long-vexed question between the Indian schools who repre- 
sented more or less closely the European Idealists and Realists. 
When cleared of the many repetitions inserted for the benefit of the 
repeaters or reciters, the fundamental idea seems to be that the great 
necessity is to get rid of the delusion that what one sees and feels is 
real and permanent. Nothing is real and permanent but character. 

The so-called eight Positions of Mastery are merely an expansion of 
the first two of the following eight Stages of Deliverance, and the whole 
argument is also expressed in another form in the passage on the nine 
successive ' Cessations,' of which an abstract will be found in Childers, 
sub voce nirodha. 



D. ii. 112. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 19 

as that fine muslin of Benares, of delicate finish on both 
sides, is blue in colour, blue in appearance, and reflect- 
ing blue, — when a man without the subjective idea of 
form sees externally forms which, just in that way, are 
blue, blue in colour, blue in appearance, and reflecting 
blue, and having mastered them, is conscious that he 
knows and sees — that is the fifth position of mastery.' 
30-2, [ill] [The sixth, seventh, and eighth posi- 
tions of mastery are explained in words identical with 
those used to explain the fifth ; save that yellow, red, 
and white are respectively substituted throughout for 
blue ; and the Kanikara flower, the Bandhu-givaka 
flower, and the morning star are respectively substi- 
tuted for the flax blossom, as the first of the two 
objects given as examples.] 



33.^ [112] ' Now these stages of Deliverance, Ananda 
[from the hindrance to thought arising from the sen- 
sations and ideas due to external forms], are eight in 
number. Which are the eight ? 

* A man possessed of form sees forms — this is the 
first stage of deliverance. 

* Unaware of his own form, he sees forms external to 
himself — this is the second stage of deliverance. 

' With the thought " it is well," he becomes intent — 
this is the third stage of deliverance. 

* By passing quite beyond all idea of form, by 
putting an end to all idea of sensor^'^ impact -, by paying 
no attention to the idea of multiformity, he, thinking 
" it is all infinite space," reaches [mentally] and re- 
mains in the state of mind in which the idea of the 
infinity of space is the only idea that is present — this 
is the fourth stage of deliverance. 

' By passing quite beyond all idea of space being the 
infinite basis, he, thinking " it is all infinite reason," 

* These have already occurred in the Mahi Nidana (p. 70 of the 
text). The English version here is made somewhat fuller. 

- On these technical terms see ^Irs. Rhys Da\ids's ' Buddhist Psy- 
chology,' pp. 72, 182, 204. 



I20 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. II2. 

reaches [mentally] and remains in the state of mind to 
which the infinity of reason is alone present — this is the 
fifth stage of deliverance. 

* By passing quite beyond the consciousness of the 
infinity of reason, he, thinking " nothing at all exists," 
reaches [mentally] and remains in the state of mind to 
which nothing at all is specially present — this is the 
sixth stage of deliverance. 

* By passing quite beyond all idea of nothingness he 
reaches [mentally] and remains in the state of mind to 
which neither ideas nor the absence of ideas are speci- 
ally present — this is the seventh stage of deliverance. 

' By passing quite beyond the state of " neither ideas 
nor the absence of ideas " he reaches [mentally] and 
remains in the state of mind in which both sensations 
and ideas have ceased to be — this is the eighth stage 
of deliverance. 

' Now these, Ananda, are the eight stages of 
Deliverance.' 

34. * On one occasion, Ananda, I was resting under 
the goatherd's Nigrodha tree on the bank of the river 
Neranjara immediately after having reached the great 
ejilightenment. Then Mara, the Evil One, came, 
Ananda, to the place where I was, and standing beside 
me he addressed me in the words : — " Pass away now, 
lord, from existence ! Let the Exalted One now die ! 
Now is the time for the Exalted One to pass away ! " 

35. [113] ' And when he had thus spoken, Ananda, 
I addressed M4ra, the Evil One, and said : — " I shall 
not pass away, O Evil One ! until not only the brethren 
and sisters of the Order, but also the lay-disciples of 
either sex shall have become true hearers, wise and 
well trained, ready and learned, carrying the doctrinal 
books in their memory, masters of the lesser corollaries 
that follow from the larger doctrine, correct in life, 
walking according to the precepts — until they, having 
thus themselves learned the doctrine, shall be able to 
tell others of it, preach it, make it known, establish it, 
open it, minutely explain it and make it clear — until 



D. ii. Ii5. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 121 

they, when others start vain doctrine easy to be refuted 
by the truth, shall be able in refuting it to spread the 
wonder-working truth abroad ! I shall not die until 
this pure religion of mine shall have become successful, 
prosperous, wide-spread, and popular in all its full 
extent — until, in a word, it shall have been well pro- 
claimed among men ! " 

36. 'And now again to-day, Ananda, at Chapala's 
Shrine Mara, the Evil One, came to the place where I 
was, and standing beside me addressed me [in the same 
words], 

37. [114] * And when he had thus spoken, Ananda, I 
answered him and said : — " Make thyself happy, the 
passing away of the Tathagata shall take place before 
long. At the end of three months from this time the 
Tathagata will pass away ! " 

' And now again, Ananda, the Tathagata has to-day 
at Chapala's Shrine consciously and deliberately re- 
jected the rest of his allotted term of life.' 

38. [115] And when he had thus spoken the vener- 
able Ananda addressed the Exalted One, and said : — 
' Vouchsafe, lord, to remain during the aeon : live on 
through the kalpa, O Exalted One ! for the good and 
the happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity for 
the world, for the good and the gain and the weal of 
gods and men ! ' 

' Enough now, Ananda, beseech not the Tathaofata ! ' 
was the reply. 'The time for making such request is past.' 

39. And again, the second time, the venerable 
Ananda besought the Exalted One [in the same words. 
And he received from the Exalted One the same reply]. 

And again, the third time, the venerable Ananda 
besought the Exalted One [in the same words]. 

' Hast thou faith, Ananda, in the wisdom of the 
Tathagata ? ' 

' Even so, lord ! ' 

' Now why, then, Ananda, dost thou trouble the 
Tathagata even until the third time ? ' 

40. ' From his own mouth have I heard from the 
Exalted One, from his own mouth have I received 



122 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 115. 

this saying : — " Whosoever has developed, practised, 
dwelt on, expanded, and ascended to the very heights of 
the four paths to Iddhi, and so mastered them as to be 
able to use them as a vehicle, and as a basis, he, should 
he desire it, could remain in the same birth for an 
aeon, or for that portion of the aeon which had yet to 
run." Now the Tathagata has thoroughly practised 
and developed them [in all respects as just now fully 
described], and he could, therefore, should he desire it, 
live on yet for an aeon, or for that portion of the aeon 
which has yet to run.' 

* Hast thou faith, Ananda ? ' 

* Even so, lord ! ' 

' Then, O Ananda, thine is the fault, thine is the 
offence — in that when a suggestion so evident and a 
hint so clear were thus given thee by the Tathdgata, 
thou wast yet incapable of comprehending them, and 
thou besoughtest not the Tathagata, saying : — " Vouch- 
safe, lord, to remain during the aeon for the good and 
the happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity for 
the world, for the good and the gain and the weal of 
gods and men." If thou shouldst then have so besought 
the Tathagata, the Tathagata might have rejected 
the appeal even to the second time, but the third time 
he would have granted it. Thine, therefore, O Ananda, 
is the fault, thine is the offence ! 

41. 'On one occasion, Ananda, I was dwelling at 
Rajagaha, on the hill called the Vulture's Peak. Now 
there, Ananda, I spoke to thee, and said : — [ii6] " How 
pleasant a spot, Ananda, is Rajagaha ; how pleasant 
is this Vulture's Peak. Whosoever, Ananda, has de- 
veloped, practised, dwelt on, expanded, and ascended 
to the very heights of the four paths to Iddhi, and so 
mastered them as to be able to use them as a vehicle, 
and as a basis, he, should he desire it, could remain in 
the same birth for an aeon, or for that portion of the 
aeon which had yet to run. Now the Tathagata has 
thoroughly practised and developed them [in all re- 
spects as just now fully described], and he could, there- 
fore, should he desire it, live on yet for an aeon, or for 



D. ii. Il6. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 23 

that portion of the aeon which has yet to run." But 
even when a sueSfestion so evident and a hint so clear 
were thus given thee by the Tathagata, thou wast yet 
incapable of comprehending them, and thou besought- 
est not the Tathagata, saying : — " Vouchsafe, lord, to 
remain during the aeon. Live on, O Exalted One ! 
through the aeon for the good and the happiness of the 
great multitudes, out of pity for the world, for the good 
and the gfain and the weal of sfods and men." If thou 
shouldst then have so besought the Tathagata, the 
Tathagata might have rejected the appeal even to 
the second time, but the third time he would have 
granted it. Thine, therefore, O Ananda, is the fault, 
thine is the offence ! 

42. ' On one occasion. Ananda, I was dwelling at 
that same Rajagaha in the Banyan Grove — on one 
occasion at that same Rajagaha at the Robbers' Cliff — 
on one occasion at that same Rajagaha in the Satta- 
pa««i cave on the slope of Mount Vebhara — on one 
occasion at that same Rajagaha at the Black Rock on the 
slope of ]\Iount Isigili — on one occasion at that same 
Rajagaha in the Sitavana Grove in the mountain cave 
Sappaso^^rt^ka — on one occasion at that same Rdjagaha 
in the Tapoda Grove — on one occasion at that same 
Rajagaha in the Bambu Grove in the Squirrels' Feed- 
ing Ground — on one occasion at that same Rajagaha 
in Jivaka's Mango Grove — on one occasion at that 
same Rajagaha in the Deer Forest at Maddakucchi. 

43. ' Now there too, Ananda, I spoke to thee, and 
said : — " How pleasant, Ananda, is Rajagaha ; how 
pleasant the Vulture's Peak ; how pleasant the Banyan 
tree of Gotama ; how pleasant the Robbers' Cliff ; 
how pleasant the Sattapa?^;^i cave on the slope of 
Mount Vebhara ; how pleasant the Black Rock on 
the slope of Mount Isigili ; how pleasant the mountain 
cave of the Serpent's Pool in the Sitavana Grove ; 
how pleasant the Tapoda Grove ; how pleasant the 
Squirrels' Feeding Ground in the Bambu Grove ; how 
pleasant Jivaka's Mango Grove; how pleasant the 
Deer Forest at Maddakucchi ! " 



124 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 117. 

44. [117] ' " Whosoever, Ananda, has developed, 
practised, dwelt on, expanded, and ascended to the 
very heights of the four paths to Iddhi, and so 
mastered them as to be able to use them as a vehicle, 
and as a basis, he, should he desire it, could remain 
in the same birth for an aeon, or for that portion of 
the aeon which had yet to run. Now the Tathagata 
has thought out and thoroughly practised them [in all 
respects as just now fully described], and might, should 
he desire it, remain alive for an aeon, or for that 
portion of an aeon which has yet to run." But even 
when a suggestion so evident and a hint so clear were 
thus given thee by the Tathagata, thou wast yet 
incapable of comprehending them, and thou besought- 
est not the Tathagata, saying : — " Vouchsafe, lord, to 
remain during the aeon. Live on, O Exalted One ! 
through the aeon for the good and the happiness of 
the great multitudes, out of pity for the world, for the 
good and the gain and the weal of gods and men." 
If thou shouldst then have so besought the Tathagata, 
the Tathagata might have rejected the appeal even 
to the second time, but the third time he would have 
granted it. Thine, therefore, O Ananda, is the fault, 
thine is the offence ! 

45. * On one occasion, Ananda, I was residing here 
at Vesalt at the Udena Shrine. And there too, 
Ananda, I spoke to thee, and said : — " How pleasant, 
Ananda, is Vesali : how pleasant the Udena Ketiya. 
Whosoever, Ananda, has thought out, developed, prac- 
tised, dwelt on, expanded, and ascended to the very 
heights of the four paths to Iddhi, and so mastered 
them as to be able to use them as a vehicle, and as 
a basis, he, should he desire it, could remain in the 
same birth for an aeon, or for that portion of the 
aeon which had yet to run. Now the Tathagata has 
thought out and thoroughly practised them [in all 
respects as just now fully described], and might, should 
he desire it, remain alive for an aeon, or for that 
portion of an aeon which has yet to run." But when 
a suggestion so evident and a hint so clear were thus 



D. ii. Ii8. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 25 



given thee by the Tathagata, thou wast yet incapable 
of comprehending them, and thou besoughtest not 
the Tathagata, saying : — " Vouchsafe, Lord, to remain 
durinof the aeon. Live on. O Exalted One ! through 
the aeon for the good and the happiness of the great 
multitudes, out of pity for the world, for the good and 
the gain and the weal of gods and men." If thou 
shouldst then have so besouorht the Tathagata, the 
Tathagata might have rejected the appeal even to 
the second time, but the third time he would have 
granted it. Thine, therefore, O Ananda, is the fault, 
thine is the offence ! 

46. [lis] ' On one occasion. Ananda. I was dwelling 
here at Vesali at the Gotamaka Shrine — on one 
occasion here at Vesali at the Shrine of the Seven 
Mangoes — on one occasion here at Vesali at the 
Bahuputta Shrine — on one occasion here at Vesali 
at the Sarandada Shrine [and on each occasion I spoke 
to thee, Ananda, in the same words]. 

47. ' And now to-day, Ananda. at the Chapala 
Shrine, I^ spoke to thee, and said : — " How delightful 
a spot, Ananda, is Vesali, how charming the Udena 
Shrine, and the Gotamaka Shrine and the Shrine of 
the Seven Mangoes, and the Shrine of Many Sons, 
and the Sarandada Shrine, and the Chapala Shrine. 
Whosoever, Ananda, has developed, practised, dwelt 
on, expanded, and ascended to the very heights of the 
four paths to Iddhi. and so mastered them as to be 
able to use them as a vehicle and as a basis, he, should 
he desire it. could remain in the same birth for an 
aeon or for that portion of the aeon which had yet 
to run. Now the Tathagata has thoroughly practised 
and developed them [in all respects as just more fully 
described], and he could, therefore, should he desire it, 
live on yet for an aeon, or for that portion of the aeon 
which has yet to run." But even when a suggestion 
so evident and a hint so clear were thus given thee, 
Ananda, by the Tathagata. thou wast yet incapable 
of comprehending them, and thou besoughtest not the 
Tathagata, saying : — " Vouchsafe, lord, to remain during 



126 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. Ii8. 

the aeon. Live on, O Exalted One! through the 
aeon for the good and the happiness of the great 
multitudes, out of pity for the world, for the good and 
the gain and the weal of gods and men," If thou 
shouldst then have so besought the Tath^gata, the 
Tathagata might have rejected the appeal even to 
the second time, but the third tjme he would have 
granted it. Thine, therefore, O Ananda, is the fault, 
thine is the offence ! ' 



48. ' But now, Ananda, have I not formerly declared 
to you that it is in the very nature of all things, near 
and dear unto us, that we must divide ourselves from 
them, leave them, sever ourselves from them ? How, 
then, Ananda, can this be possible — whereas anything 
whatever born, brought into being, and organized, 
contains within itself the inherent necessity of dis- 
solution — how then can this be possible that such 
a being should not be dissolved ? No such condition 
can exist ! And that which, Ananda, has been relin- 
quished, cast away, renounced, rejected, and abandoned 
by the Tathagata — the remaining sum of life surren- 
dered by him — verily with regard to that the word 
has gone forth from the Tathagata, saying : — " The 
passing away of the Tathagata shall take place before 
long. [119] At the end of three months from this time 
the Tathagata will die ! " That the Tathagata for the 
sake of living should repent him again of that saying — 
this can no wise be ! ^ 

' Come, Ananda, let us go to the Kii/agara Hall, to 
the Mahavana.' 



^ I do not understand the connexion of ideas between this para- 
graph and the idea repeated with such tedious iteration in the 
preceding paragraphs. The two seem to be in marked contrast, if 
not in absolute contradiction. Perhaps we have here the older 
tradition ; and certainly this paragraph is more in accordance with 
the general impression of the character, and with the other sayings, of 
Gotama as handed down in the Pali Pi/akas. 



D. ii. 119. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 27 

' Even so, lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Exalted One. 

49. Then the Exalted One proceeded, and Ananda 
with him, to the Mahavana, to the Ku/agara Hall : 
and when he had arrived there he addressed the 
venerable Ananda, and said : — 

* Go now, Ananda, and assemble in the Service 
Hall such of the brethren as reside in the neighbour- 
hood of Vesali.' 

' Even so, lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Exalted One. And when he had 
assembled in the Service Hall such of the brethren 
as resided in the neighbourhood of Vesali, he went 
to the Exalted One and saluted him and stood beside 
him. And standing beside him, he addressed the 
Exalted One, and said : — 

' Lord ! the assembly of the brethren has met 
topfether. Let the Exalted One do even as seemeth 
to him fit.' 

50. Then the Exalted One proceeded to the Service 
Hall, and sat down there on the mat spread out for 
him. And when he was seated the Exalted One 
addressed the brethren, and said : — 

' Therefore, O brethren — ye to whom the truths 
I have perceived have been made known by me — 
having thoroughly made yourselves masters of them, 
practise them, meditate upon them, and spread them 
abroad ; in order that pure religion may last long and 
be perpetuated, in order that it may continue to be 
for the good and happiness of the great multitudes, 
out of pity for the world, to the good and the gain and 
the weal of gods and men ! 

'Which then, O brethren, are the truths which, 
when I had perceived. I made known to you, which 
when you have mastered it behoves you to practise, 
meditate upon, and spread abroad, in order that pure 
religion may last long and be perpetuated, in order 
that it may continue to be for the good and the happi- 
ness of the great multitude.^, out of pity for the world, to 
the good and the gain and the weal of gods and men ? 



128 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. I20. 

[120] ' They are these : — 

The four earnest meditations. 

The fourfold great struggle against evil, 

The four roads to saintship, 

The five moral powers, 

The five organs of spiritual sense. 

The seven kinds of wisdom, and 

The Aryan eightfold path. 

These, O brethren, are the truths which, when I had 
perceived, I made known to you, which when you have 
mastered it behoves you to practise, meditate upon, 
and spread abroad, in order that pure religion may 
last long and be perpetuated, in order that it may 
continue to be for the good and the happiness of the 
great multitudes, out of pity for the world, to the good 
and the gain and the weal of gods and men ! ' 

51. And the Exalted One exhorted the brethren, 
and said : — 

' Behold now, O brethren, I exhort you, saying : — 
" All component things must grow old. Work out 
your salvation with diligence. The final extinction 
of the Tath^ata will take place before long. At the 
end of three months from this time the Tathagata 
will die!" 

* My age is now full ripe, my life draws to its close : 
I leave you, I depart, relying on myself alone ! 
Be earnest then, O brethren, holy, full of thought ! 
Be steadfast in resolve ! Keep watch o'er your own 

hearts ! 
Who wearies not, but holds fast to this truth and 

law\ 
Shall cross this sea of life, shall make an end of 

grief.' 

End of the Third Portion for Recitation ^. 



^ Dhamma and vinaya. The Buddhist religion, as just sum- 
marized, and the regulations of the Crder. 

"^ It is of great interest to notice what are the points upon which 
Gotama, in this last address to his disciples, and at the solemn time, 



D. ii. I20. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 29 

when death was so near at hand, is reported to have lain such 
emphatic stress. Unfortunately we have only a fragment of the 
address, and, as it would seem from its commencement, only the 
closing fragment. This, however, is in the form of a summary, con- 
sisting of an enumeration of certain aggregates, the details of which 
must have been as familiar to the early Buddhists as the details of 
similar numerical terms — such as the ten commandments, the twelve 
tribes, the seven deadly sins, the four gospels, and so on — afterwards 
were to the Christians. This summary of the Buddha's last address 
may fairly be taken as a summary of Buddhism, which thus appears 
to be simply a system of earnest self-culture and self-control. 

The following are the details of the aggregate technical terms used 
in the above summar}-, but it will be understood that the English 
equivalents used give rather a general than an exact representation of 
the ideas expressed by the Pali ones. To attempt more would de- 
mand a treatise rather than a note. 

The four Earnest Meditations are : — 

1. Meditation on the body. 

2. Meditation on the sensations. 

3. Meditation on the ideas. 

4. Meditation on reason and character. 

The fourfold Great Struggle against evil is divided into : — 

1. The struggle to prevent evil arising. 

2. The struggle to put away evil states which have arisen. 

3. The struggle to produce goodness not previously existing. 

4. The struggle to increase goodness when it does exist. 

The four Roads to Saintship are four means by which Iddhi (see 
above, § 3, note) is to be acquired. They are : — 

1. The will to acquire it united to earnest meditation and the 
struggle against evil. 

2. The necessary exertion united to earnest meditation and the 
struggle against evil. 

3. The necessary preparation of the heart united to earnest medita- 
tion and the struggle against evil. 

4. Investigation united to earnest meditation and the struggle 
against evil. 

The five moral powers (balani) are said to be the same as the next 
class, called organs (indriyani). It is no doubt most remarkable 
that, in a summary like this, two classes out of seven should be 
absolutely identical except in name. The difference of name is 
altogether too unimportant to account, by itself, for the distinction 
made. Either the currently accepted explanation of one of the two 
aggregate terms must be incorrect, or we must look for some 
explanation of the repetition other than the mere desire to record the 
double title. Is it impossible that the one class was split into two to 
bring the number of the classes up to the sacred number seven, 
corresponding to the seven Ratanas of a Cakkavatti ? 

III. K 



130 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D.ii. 120. 

The details of both classes are : — 

I. Faith. 2. Energy. 3. Thought. 4. Contemplation. 5. Wisdom. 
The seven kinds of Wisdom are : — 

I. Energy. 2. Thought. 3. Contemplation. 4. Investigation (of 
Scripture). 5. Joy. 6. Repose. 7. Serenity. 

The Aryan Eightfold Path consists of: — 

I. Right views. 2. High aims. 3. Right speech. 4. Upright 
■conduct. 5. A harmless livelihood. 6. Perseverance in well-doing. 
7. Intellectual activity. 8. Right rapture. 



I 



CHAPTER IV. 

1, [122] Now the Exalted One early in the morning 
robed himself, and taking his bowl, entered Vesali for 
alms ; and when he had passed through Vesali, and 
had eaten his meal and was returning from his alms- 
seeking he gazed at Vesali with an elephant look ^ and 
addressed the venerable Ananda, and said : — * This 

A 

will be the last time, Ananda, that the Tathaofata 
will behold Vesali. Come, Ananda, let us go on to 
Bha?w^a-orama.' 

' Even so, lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Exalted One. 

And the Exalted One proceeded with a great com- 
pany of the brethren to Bha;z«fa-gama ; and there the 
Exalted One stayed in the village itself. 

2. There the Exalted One addressed the brethren, 
and said : — ' It is through not understanding and grasp- 
ing four truths -, O brethren, that we have had to 
run so long, to wander so long in this weary path of 
transmigration — both you and I, 

' And what are these four ? The noble conduct of 
life, the noble earnestness in meditation, the noble 
kind of wisdom, and the noble salvation of freedom. 
[123] But when noble conduct is realized and known, 
when noble meditation is realized and known, when 
noble wisdom is realized and known, when noble 
freedom is realized and known — then is the craving 
for future life rooted out, that which leads to renewed 
existence is destroyed, and there is no more birth.' 

^ Nagapalokitaw Vesaliyaw apaloketva. The Buddhas were 
accustomed, says Buddhaghosa, on looking backwards to turn the 
whole body round as an elephant does; because the bones in their 
neck were iirmly fixed, more so than those of ordinary men ! 

^ Or Conditions (Dhamma). They must, of course, be carefully 
distinguished from the better known Four Noble Truths above, 
p. 96. 

K 2 



132 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 123. 

3. Thus Spake the Exalted One ; and when the 
Happy One had thus spoken, then again the Teacher 
said ^ : — 

' Righteousness, earnest thought, wisdom, and freedom 
sublime — 

These are the truths realized by Gotama, far- 
renowned. 

Knowing them, he, the knower, proclaimed the truth 
to the brethren. 

The master with eye divine, the quencher of griefs, 
is at peace ^' 



4. There too, while staying at BhsLnda-gama., the 
Exalted One held that comprehensive religious talk 
with the brethren, saying : — ' Such and such is upright 
conduct ; such and such is earnest contemplation ; 
such and such is intelligence. Great becomes the 
fruit, great the advantage of earnest contemplation, 
when it is set round with upright conduct. Great 
becomes the fruit, great the advantage of intellect 
when it is set round with earnest contemplation. The 

' This is merely a stock phrase for introducing verses which repeat 
the idea of the preceding phrase (see above, paragraph 3 2). . It is an 
instructive sign of the state of mind in which such records are put 
together, that these verses could be ascribed to Gotama himself with- 
out any feeling of the incongruity involved. 

* The last word, Parinibbuto, was misunderstood by Childers. 
It is used in the Nikayas of living persons in the sense of set free 
(from evil), at peace. In one passage (M. I, 446) it is even used of 
a living horse. In all of these passages Childers's rendering ' ex- 
tinguished, extinct, dead ' would be quite inexplicable. Such passages 
are Majjhima I, 45, 235, 251 ; II, 102 ; Thera-gatha 5, 7, 8, 9, &c. ; 
Sutta Nipata 359, 758; Sa77iyutta III, 26, 54; Itivuttaka 52, 56; 
Dhammapada 89. The same usage is still found in later books 
(Milinda 50 ; Jataka IV, 303, 453). But, just as in the somewhat 
analogous Christian expression entered into rest, the word (still in its 
ordinary meaning as above) is once or twice used, figuratively, of 
Arahants who have died. They are at peace, set free. There is no 
word in the Buddhist phrase corresponding to the Christian ' entered.' 
The Buddhists never say entered into Nirvana of a deceased person. 
So far as I know the phrase occurs only once (Sutta Nipata 5 1 4), and 
then it is used of a living person. 



D. ii. 124. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 33 

mind set round with intelligence is set quite free from 
the Intoxications, that is to say, from the Intoxication 
of Sensuality, from the Intoxication of Becoming, from 
the Intoxication of Delusion, from the Intoxication of 
Isfnorance.' 



&' 



5, 6. Now when the Exalted One had remained at 
Bhaw^a-gama as long; as he desired, he addressed 
the venerable Ananda, and said : — ' Come, Ananda. 
let us go to Hatthi-gama.' 

[Then in similar words, end of § i and §§ 2, 3, and 4 
repeated, it is related how the Buddha went there, and 
then on to Amba-gama, and then on to Jambugama, 
at each place holding similar discourses ; and then 
went on to Bhoga-nagara.] 



7. Now there at Bhoga-nagara the Exalted One 
stayed at the Ananda Shrine. 

There the Exalted One addressed the brethren 
and said : — ' I will teach you, O brethren, these four 
Great Authorities ^ Listen thereto, and give good 
heed, and I will speak.' 

[124] ' Even so, lord ! ' said the brethren, in assent -, 
to the Exalted One, and the Exalted One spoke as 
follows : — 

8. ' In the first place, brethren, a brother may say 
thus : — " From the mouth of the Exalted One himself 



' The meaning of mahapadesa is not quite clear. Perhaps it 
shotild be rendered ' true authorities.' I have followed Buddhaghosa in 
taking apadesa as the last part of the compound. He says: — maha- 
padesa ti maha-okase maha-apadese va. Buddhadayo 
mahante mahante apadisitva vuttani mahakarawani ti attho, 
' the causes (authorities) alleged when referring to Buddha and other 
great men.' Mr. Samarasekara takes it as maha-padesa. 

^ I ought perhaps to have explained why I have ventiu-ed to differ 
from Childers in the rendering of the common word patisu«ati. 
The root sru seems to have meant ' to sound ' before it meant ' to 
hear'; and, whether this be so or not, pati-su«ati means not 
simply ' to consent,' but ' to answer (assentingly).' It has been pointed 
out to me that answer was formerly andrwerian where swerian is 
probably not unrelated to the root svar, 'to sound.' 



134 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 124. 

have I heard, from his own mouth have I received it. 
This is the truth, this the law, this the teaching of the 
Master." The word spoken, brethren, by that brother 
should neither be received with praise nor treated with 
scorn. Without praise and without scorn every word 
and syllable should be carefully understood and then 
put beside the Suttas [the stock paragraphs learnt by 
heart in the community] and compared with the Vinaya 
[the rules of the Order] \ If when so compared they 
do not harmonize with the Suttas, and do not fit in with 
the rules of the Order, then you may come to the con- 
clusion : — " Verily, this is not the word of the Exalted 
One, and has been wrongly grasped by that brother." 
Therefore, brethren, you should reject it. But if they 
harmonize with the Suttas and fit in with the rules 
of the Order, then you may come to the conclusion : — 
" Verily, this is the word of the Exalted One, and has 
been well grasped by that brother." This, brethren,, 
you should receive as the first Great Authority. 

9. ' Again, brethren, a brother may say thus : — " In 
such and such a dwelling-place there is a company 
of the brethren with their elders and leaders. From 
the mouth of that company have I heard, face to face 
have I received it. This is the truth, this the law, 
this the teaching of the Master." The word spoken, 
brethren, by that brother should neither be received 
with praise nor treated with scorn. Without praise 
and without scorn every word and syllable should be 
carefully understood, and then put beside the Suttas 
and compared with the rules of the Order. If when 
so compared they do not harmonize with the Suttas,. 
and do not fit in with the rules of the Order, then you 
may come to the conclusion : — " Verily, this is not the 
word of the Exalted One, and has been wrongly 
grasped by that company of the brethren." Therefore, 
brethren, you should reject it. But if they harmonize 



^ Sutte otaretabbani vinaye sandassetabbani, where one 
would expect to find the word Pi/aka if it had been in use when this 
passage was first written or composed. 



D. ii. 125- THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 35 

with the Suttas and fit in with the rules of the Order, 
then you may come to the conclusion : — [125] " Verily, 
this is the word of the Exalted One, and has been 
well grasped by that company of the brethren." This, 
brethren, you should receive as the second Great 
Authority. 

10. ' Again, brethren, a brother may say thus : — '* In 
such and such a dwelling-place there are dwelling 
many elders of the Order, deeply read, holding the 
faith as handed down by tradition, versed in the 
truths, versed in the regulations of the Order, versed 
in the summaries of the doctrines and the law. From 
the mouth of those elders have I heard, from their 
mouth have I received it. This is the truth, this the 
law, this the teaching of the Master." The word 
spoken, brethren, by that brother should neither be 
received with praise nor treated with scorn. Without 
praise and without scorn every word and syllable 
should be carefully understood, and then put beside 
the Suttas and compared with the rules of the Order. 
If when so compared they do not harmonize with the 
Suttas and do not fit in with the rules of the Order, 
then you may come to the conclusion : — " Verily, this 
is not the word of the Exalted One, and has been 
wrongly grasped by those elders." Therefore, brethren, 
you should reject it. But if they harmonize with the 
Suttas and fit in with the rules of the Order, then you 
may come to the conclusion : — " Verily, this is the word 
of the Exalted One, and has been well grasped by 
those elders." This, brethren, you should receive as 
the third Great Authority. 

II.' Again, brethren, a brother may say : — " In such 
and such a dwelling-place there is there living a 
brother, deeply read, holding the faith as handed 
down by tradition, versed in the truths, versed in the 
regulations of the Order, versed in the summaries of 
the doctrines and the law. From the mouth of that 
elder have I heard, from his mouth have I received it. 
This is the truth, this the law, this the teaching of 
the Master." The word spoken, brethren, by that 



136 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 125. 

brother should neither be received with praise nor 
treated with scorn. Without praise and without scorn 
every word and syllable should be carefully understood, 
and then put beside the Suttas and compared with the 
rules of the Order. If when so compared they do not 
harmonize with the Suttas, and do not fit in with the 
rules of the Order, then you may come to the con- 
clusion : — " Verily, this is not the word of the Exalted 
One, and has been wrongly grasped by that brother." 
Therefore, brethren, you should reject it. But if they 
harmonize with the Suttas and fit in with the rules of 
the Order, then you may come to the conclusion : — 
[126] " Verily, this is the word of the Exalted One, and 
has been well grasped by that brother." This, brethren, 
you should receive as the fourth Great Authority. 
' These, brethren, are the Four Great Authorities.' 



1 2. There too, the Exalted One held that comprehen- 
sive religious talk with the brethren, saying : — ' Such 
and such is upright conduct ; such and such is earnest 
contemplation ; such and such is intelligence. Great 
becomes the fruit, great the advantage of earnest 
contemplation, when it is set round with upright con- 
duct. Great becomes the fruit, great the advantage 
of intellect when it is set round with earnest con- 
templation. The mind set round with intelligence 
is set quite free from the Intoxications, that is to 
say, from the Intoxication of Sensuality, from the 
Intoxication of Becoming, from the Intoxication of 
Delusion, from the Intoxication of Ignorance.' 



13. Now when the Exalted One had remained as 
long as he^ desired at Bhoga-gama, he ^addressed the 
venerable Ananda, and said : — ' Come, Ananda, let us 
go on to Pava.' 

' Even so, lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent to the Exalted One. And the Exalted One 
proceeded with a great company of the brethren to 
Pava. 



D. ii. 127. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 37 

And there at Pava the Exalted One stayed at the 
Mango Grove of Chunda, who was by family a smith. 



1 4. Now Chunda, the worker in metals, heard that the 
Exalted One had come to Pava, and was staying there 
in his Mango Grove. 

And Chunda, the worker in metals, went to the place 
where the Exalted One was, and saluting him took 
his seat respectfully on one side. And when he was 
thus seated, the Exalted One instructed, aroused, 
incited, and gladdened him with religious discourse. 

15. Then he. instructed, aroused, incited, and glad- 
dened by the religious discourse, addressed the Exalted 
One, and said : — ' May the Exalted One do me the 
honour of taking his meal together with the brethren, 
at my house to-morrow ? ' 

And the Exalted One signified, by silence, his 
consent. 

16. Then seeinof that the Exalted One had con- 
sented, [l27] Chunda, the worker in metals, rose from 
his seat and bowed down before the Exalted One. 
and keeping him on his right hand as he passed him, 
departed thence. 

1 7. Now at the end of the night, Chunda, the worker 
in metals, made ready in his dwelling-place sweet rice 
and cakes, and a quantity of truffles \ And he 



^ Sfikara-maddava. See the note in my translation of the 
Milinda (1890), Vol. I, p. 244. Dr. Hoey informs me that the 
peasantry in these districts are still very fond of a bulbous root, a sort 
of truffle, found in the jungle, and called sukara-kanda. !Mr. K. E. 
Neumann, in his translation of the Majjhima (1896), p. xx, has 
collected several similar instances of truffle-like roots, or edible plants, 
having such names. The Sinhalese translation of the Digha (London 
and Colombo, 1905), p. 796, simply repeats the Pali word. Buddhists 
do not attach much importance to the point. They have been mostly 
vegetarians, and are increasingly so. But their scheme of ethics works 
from within; and the Buddha expressly refused, in the case of 
Devadatta's schism, to lay down any hard and fast rule as to abstinence 
from flesh as food. It is perhaps of importance that the food prepared 
by Chunda and eaten by the Buddha is called Bhatta (below, § 21) : 
this is not used elsewhere of meat. 



«3 



8 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. I3- 



announced the hour to the Exalted One, saying : — 'The 
hour, lord, has come, and the meal is ready.' 

1 8. And the Exalted One robed himself early in 
the morning, and taking his bowl, went with the 
brethren to the dwelling-place of Chunda, the worker in 
metals. When he had come thither he seated himself 
on the seat prepared for him. And when he was 
seated he addressed Chunda, the worker in metals, and 
said : — ' As to the truffles you have made ready, serve 
me with them, Chunda : and as to the other food, the 
sweet rice and cakes, serve the brethren with it.' 

' Even so, lord ! ' said Chunda, the worker in metals, 
in assent, to the Blessed One. And the truffles he 
had made ready he served to the Exalted One ; whilst 
the other food, the sweet rice and cakes, he served to 
the members of the Order. 

19. Now the Exalted One addressed Chunda, the 
worker in metals, and said: — 'Whatever truffles, 
Chunda, are left over to thee, those bury in a hole. I see 
no one, Chunda, on earth nor in Mara's heaven, nor in 
Brahma's heaven, no one among Sama/^as and Brah- 
ma;2as, among gods, and men, by whom, when he has 
eaten it, that food can be properly assimilated, save by 
a Tathagata.' 

' Even so, lord ! ' said Chunda, the worker in metals, 
in assent, to the Exalted One. And whatever truffles 
remained over those he buried in a hole. And he 
went to the place where the Exalted One was ; and 
when he had come there, took his seat respectfully on 
one side. And when he was seated, the Exalted One 
instructed and aroused and incited and gladdened 
Chunda, the worker in metals, with religious discourse. 
And the Exalted One then rose from his seat and 
departed thence. 

20. Now when the Exalted One had eaten the rice 
prepared by Chunda, the worker in metals, there fell 
upon him a dire sickness, the disease of dysentery, and 
sharp pain came upon him, even unto death. [128] But 
the Exalted One, mindful and self-possessed, bore it 
without complaint. 



D. ii. 129- THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 39 

AndtheExalted Oneaddressed the venerable Ananda, 
and said : — ' Come, Ananda, let us go on to^ Kusin^ra.' 

'Even so, lord!' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Exalted One. 

' When he had eaten Chunda's food, 
The copper-smith's — thus have I heard — 
He bore with fortitude the pain. 
The sharp pain even unto death ! 

When he had eaten, from the truffles in the food 

There fell upon the teacher sickness dire. 

Then after nature was relieved the Exalted One 

announced and said : 
' I now am Sfoinof on to Kusinara ^.' 



I 



21. Now the Exalted One went aside from the path 
to the foot of a certain tree; and when he had come there 
he addressed the venerable Ananda, and said : — ' Fold, 
I pray you, Ananda. the robe^ in four ; and spread it 
out for me. I am weary, Ananda, and must rest 
awhile ! ' 

' Even so, lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Exalted One. and spread out the robe 
folded fourfold. 

22. And the Exalted One seated himself on the 
seat prepared for him ; and when he was seated, he 
addressed the venerable i\nanda, and said : — ' Fetch 
me, I pray you, Ananda, some water. I am thirst)', 
Ananda, and would drink.' 

When he had thus spoken, the venerable Ananda 
said to the Exalted One : — ' But just now, lord, about 
five hundred carts have orone over. That water stirred 
up by the wheels has become shallow and flows fouled 
and turbid. [129] This river Kaku////a, lord, not far 
off, is clear and pleasant, cool and transparent, easy to 

^ 'It should be understood,' says Buddhaghosa, 'that these are 
verses by the Theras who held the council.' And he repeats this at 
§§ 38, 41. These here seem to be two different versifications of the 
same legend. 



140 XVI, MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 129. 

get down into, and delightful. There the Exalted 
One may both drink the water, and cool his limbs.' 

23. Again the second^ time the Exalted One 
addressed the venerable Ananda, and said : — * Fetch 
me, I pray you, Ananda, some water. I am thirsty, 
Ananda, and would drink.' 

And again the second time the venerable Ananda 
said to the Exalted One : — ' But just now, lord, about 
five hundred carts have gone over. That water stirred 
up by the wheels has become shallow and flows fouled 
and turbid. This river Kaku///^a, lord, not far off, is 
clear and pleasant, cool and transparent, easy to get 
down into, and deligfhtful. There the Exalted One 
may both drink the water, and cool his limbs. 

24. Again the third time the Exalted One addressed 
the venerable Ananda, and said : — ' Fetch me, I pray 
you, Ananda, some water. I am thirsty, Ananda, and 
would drink.' 

' Even so, lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Exalted One : and taking a bowl he 
went down to the streamlet. And lo ! the streamlet 
which, stirred up by the wheels, was but just now 
become shallow, and was flowing fouled and turbid, 
had begun, when the venerable Ananda came up to it, 
to flow clear and bright and free from all turbidity. 

25. Then Ananda thought : — ' How wonderful, how 
marvellous is the great might and power of the Tatha- 
gata ! ^ For this streamlet which, stirred up by the 
wheels, was but just now become shallow and was 
flowing foul and turbid, now, as I come up to it, is 
flowing clear and bright and free from all turbidity/ 

And taking water in the bowl he returned towards 
the Exalted One ; and when he had come where the 
Exalted One was he said to him : — ' How wonderful, 

^ This is a most unusual way of speaking of the Buddha. In the 
Suttantas believers are represented as addressing him as bhante, lord 
or sir (the same form as that used by junior members of the Order in 
addressing their seniors) ; and as speaking of him by the epithet 
Bhagava the Exalted One. Unbelievers address him as bho 
Gotama, and speak of him as the Samara Gotama. 



D.i!. 130. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. I4I 

how marvellous is the great might and power of the 
Tathagata ! For this streamlet which, stirred up by 
the wheels, was but just now become shallow and was 
flowing foul and turbid, now, as I come up to it, is 
flowing clear and bright and free from all turbidity. 
Let the Exalted One drink the water ! Let the Happy 
One drink the water ! ' 

Then the Exalted One drank of the water. 



I 



26. [i30] Now at that time a man named Pukkusa ^, 
a young Mallian, a disciple of A/ara Kalama's, was 
passing along the high road from Kusinara to Pava. 

And Pukkusa, the young INIallian, saw the Exalted 
One seated at the foot of a tree. On seeing him, he 
went up to the place where the Exalted One was, and 
when he had come there he saluted the Exalted One, 
and took his rest respectfully on one side. And when 
he was seated Pukkusa, the young Mallian, said to the 
Exalted One: — ' How wonderful a thing it is, lord! 
and how marvellous, that those who have gone forth 
out of the world should pass their time in a state of 
mind so calm ! 

27. 'Formerly, lord, A/ara Kalama was once walk- 
ing along the high road ; and leaving the road he sat 
himself down under a certain tree to rest during the 
heat of the day. Now, lord, five hundred carts passed 
by one after the other, each close to A/ara Kalama. 
And a certain man, who was following close behind 
that caravan of carts, went up to the place where A/ara 
Kalama was, and when he was come there he spake as 
follows to A/ara Kalama : — 

* " But, lord, did you see those five hundred carts 
goby?" 

* " No, indeed, I saw them not." 

^ The Pukkusas were one of the despised tribes. Compare 'SI. II, 
152; A. 11,85; PP- ^^\ 19; Jat. IV, 205, 306; Lalita Vistara 
XXI, 17. But Buddhaghosa says Pukkusa must here be simply 
a name, as the INIallas were Khattiyas. He adds that this Pukkusa 
was the owner of the five himdred carts that had just passed by ; and 
that A/ara Kalama was called A/ara because he was Digha-pingalo, 
Kalama being his family name. 



142 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 130. 

' " But, lord, did you hear the sound of them ? " 

' " No, indeed, sir, I heard not their sound." 

' " But, lord, were you then asleep ? " 

' " No, sir, I was not asleep." 

' " But, lord, were you then conscious ? " ' 

* " Even so, sir." 

' " So that you, lord, though you were both conscious 
and awake, neither saw, nor heard the sound of five 
hundred carts passing by, one after the other, and each 
close to you. Why, lord, even your robe was 
sprinkled over with the dust of them ! " ' 

' " It is even so, sir." ' 

' Then thought that man : — " How wonderful a thing 
is it, and how marvellous, that those who have gone 
forth out of the world should pass their time in a state 
of mind so calm ! [i3i] So much so that a man though 
being both conscious and awake, neither sees, nor hears 
the sound of five hundred carts passing by, one after 
the other, and each close to him." 

' And after giving utterance to his deep faith in 
A/ara Kalama, he departed thence.' 

28. ' Now what think you, Pukkusa, which is the 
more difficult thing either to do or to meet with — that 
a man, being conscious and awake, should neither see, 
nor hear the sound of five hundred carts passing by, 
one after the other, close to him, — or that a man, being 
conscious and awake, should neither see, nor hear the 
sound thereof when the falling rain goes on beating 
and splashing, and the lightnings are flashing forth, and 
the thunderbolts are crashing ? ' 

29. ' What in comparison, lord, can these five 
hundred carts do, or six or seven or eight or nine or 
ten hundred, yea, even hundreds and thousands of 
carts ? That certainly is more difficult, both to do and 
to meet with, that a man, being conscious and awake, 
should neither see, nor hear the sound thereof when 
the falling rain goes on beating and splashing, and the 
lightnings are flashing forth, and the thunderbolts are 
crashing.' 

30. ' Now on one occasion, Pukkusa, I was dwelling 



D. ii*l32. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. I43 

at Atuma, and was at the Threshing-floor. And at 
that time the falling rain began to beat and to splash, 
and the lightnings to flash forth, and the thunderbolts 
to crash ; and two peasants, brothers, and four oxen 
were killed. Then, Pukkusa,a great multitude of people 
went forth from Atuma, and went up to the place where 
the two peasants, brothers, and the four oxen, lay killed.' 

31. 'Now at that time, Pukkusa, I had gone forth 
from the Threshing-floor, and was walking up and down 
thinking at the entrance to the Threshing-floor. And 
a certain man came, Pukkusa, out of that great 
multitude of people, up to the place where I was ; and 
when he came up he saluted me, and took his place 
respectfully on one side. And as he stood there, 
Pukkusa, I said to the man : — 

32. ' *' Why then, sir, is this great multitude of 
people assembled together?'" 

[132] ' " But just now, the falling rain began to beat 
and to splash, and the lightnings to flash forth, and the 
thunderbolts to crash ; and two peasants, brothers, 
were killed, and four oxen. Therefore is this great 
multitude of people gathered together. But where, 
lord, were you ? " ' 

* " I, sir, have been here all the while." 

' " But, lord, did you see it ? " 

* " I, sir, saw nothing." 

' " But, lord, did you hear it ? " 
' " I, sir, heard nothingf." 

* " Were you then, lord, asleep ? " 
' " I, sir, was not asleep." 

' " Were you then conscious, lord.-*" 

' " Even so, sir." 

* " So that you, lord, being conscious and awake, 
neither saw, nor heard the sound thereof when the 
falling rain went on beating and splashing, and the 
lightnings were flashing forth, and the thunderbolts 
were crashing.'" 

' "That is so, sir." 

T,;^. ' Then, Pukkusa, the thought occurred to that 
man : — 



144 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 132. 

' " How wonderful a thing is it, and marvellous, that 
those who have gone forth out of the world should 
pass their time in a state of mind so calm ! — so that 
a man, being conscious and awake, neither sees, nor 
hears the sound thereof when the falling rain is beat- 
ing and splashing, and the lightnings are flashing forth, 
and the thunderbolts are crashing." And after giving 
utterance to his deep faith in me, he departed from me 
[with the customary demonstrations of respect].' 

34. And when he had thus spoken, Pukkusa, the 
young Mallian, addressed the Blessed One in these 
words : — ' Now I, lord, as to the faith that I had in 
A/ara Kalama, that I winnow away as in a mighty 
wind, and wash it away as in a swiftly running stream. 
Most excellent, lord, are the words of thy mouth, most 
excellent ! Just as if a man were to set up that which 
is thrown down, or were to reveal that which is hidden 
away, or were to point out the right road to him who 
has gone astray, or were to bring a lamp into the dark- 
ness, so that those who have eyes can see external 
forms — just even so, lord, has the truth been made 
known to me, in many a figure, by the Exalted One. 
[133] And I, even I, betake myself, lord, to the Ex- 
alted One as my refuge, to the Truth, and to the 
Brotherhood. May the Exalted One accept me as a 
disciple, as a true believer, from this day forth, as long 
as life endures ! ^ ' 

35. Now Pukkusa, the young Mallian, addressed a 
certain man and said : — ' Fetch me, I pray you, my 
good man. a pair of robes of cloth of gold, burnished 
and ready for wear.' 

' So be it, sir ! ' said that man, in assent, to Pukkusa, 
the young Mallian ; and he brought a pair of robes of 
cloth of gold, burnished and ready for wear. 



^ This is a stock phrase constituting the final answer of a hitherto 
unconverted man at the end of one of those argumentative dialogues by 
which Gotama overcame opposition or expounded the truth. After 
a discussion of exalted themes it fits in very appropriately ; here and 
elsewhere it is incongruous and strained. See below, V, 50. 



D. ii. 133- THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 45 

And the Mallian Pukkusa presented the pair of robes 
of cloth of gold, burnished and ready for wear, to the 
Exalted One, saying : — ' Lord, this pair of robes of bur- 
nished cloth of gold is ready for wear. May the Ex- 
alted One show me favour and accept it at my hands ! ' 

' In that case, Pukkusa, robe me in one, and Ananda 
in one.' 

' Even so, lord ! ' said Pukkusa, in assent, to the Ex- 
alted One ; and in one he robed the Exalted One, and 
in one, Ananda. 

36. Then the Exalted One instructed and aroused 
and incited and gladdened Pukkusa, the young Mallian, 
with religious discourse. And Pukkusa, the young 
Mallian, when he had been instructed and aroused and 
incited and gladdened by the Exalted One with reli- 
gious discourse, arose from his seat, and bowed down 
before the Exalted One ; and keeping him on his right 
hand as he passed him, departed thence. 



37. Now not long after the Mallian Pukkusa had 
gone, the venerable Ananda placed that pair of robes 
of cloth of gold, burnished and ready for wear, on the 
body of the Exalted One ; and when it was so placed on 
the body of the Exalted One it appeared to have lost 
its splendour ^ ! 

And the venerable Ananda said to the Exalted One: — 
* How wonderful a thing is it, lord, and how marvellous, 
that the colour of the skin of the Exalted One should 

^ To understand what is here represented to have happened one 
must understand the mode in which the Buddhist Wanderers wore 
their robes. There was no tailoring at all. The set of three robes 
was simply three lengths of cotton cloth about a yard wide. One 
piece, folded in half, was wrapped round the body. Another piece 
covered the limbs from the waist to the ankles. It was supported by 
a girdle and went three or four times round. The third piece was put 
on over this last, went twice round the legs, and then the rest of it 
was thrown over the left shoulder, and passed under the right arm 
across the body. See below, ch. V, § 19. 

Pukkusa had placed the two lengths of cloth, shawl-wise, over the 
shoulders of the recipients. When he left them Ananda assisted the 
Buddha to put them on as Nos. i and 3 of a set of robes. 

III. L 



146 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 133. 

be SO clear, so exceeding bright ! For when I placed 
even this pair of robes of burnished cloth of gold and 
ready for wear on the body [l34] of the Exalted One, 
lo ! it seemed as if it had lost its splendour ! ' 

'It is even so, Ananda. There are two occasions, 
Ananda, on which the colour of the skin of a Tathagata 
becomes clear and exceeding bright. What are the 
two ? 

' On the night, Ananda, on which a Tathagata attains 
to the supreme and perfect insight, and on the night in 
which he passes finally away in that utter passing away 
which leaves nothing whatever to remain — on these two 
occasions the colour ^of the skin of the Tathagata be- 
comes clear and exceeding bright. 

38. ' And now this day, Ananda, at the third watch 
of the night, in the Upavattana of Kusinara, in the 
Sala Grove of the Mallians, between the twin Sala 
trees, the utter passing away of the Tathagata will 
take place. Come, Ananda ! Let us go on to the river 
Kakuttha.* 

* Even so, lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Exalted One. 

The pair of robes of cloth of gold, 
All burnished, Pukkusa had brought, 
Clad on with them the Master then 
Shone forth in colour like to gold ^ ! 



39. Now the Exalted One with a great com- 
pany of the brethren went on to the river Kakuttha ; 
and when he had come there, he went down into the 
water, and bathed, and drank. And coming up out 
again on the other side he went on to the Mango 
Grove. 

' We have here the commencement of the legend which afterwards 
grew into an account of an actual 'transfiguration' of the Buddha. 
It is very curious that it should have taken place soon after the Buddha 
had announced to Ananda his approaching death, and that in the 
Buddhist Sutta it should be connected so closely with that event ; for 
a similar remark applies also to the Transfiguration mentioned in the 
Gospels. 



D. ii. 135- THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. I47 

And when he was come there he addressed the 
venerable Chundaka, and said : — ' Fold, I pray you, 
Chundaka, a robe in four and spread it out. I am 
we3.ry, Chundaka, and would lie down.' 

* Even so, lord ! ' said the venerable Chundaka, in 
assent, to the Exalted One. And he folded a robe 
in four, and spread it out. 

40. And the Exalted One laid himself down on his 
right side, with one foot resting on the other ; and 
calm and self-possessed he meditated, intending to 
rise up again in due time. [l35] And the venerable 
Chundaka seated himself there in front of the Exalted 
One. 

41. The Buddha to Kakuttha's river came, 
Whose clear and pleasant waters limpid flow. 
He plunged beneath the stream wearied and worn, 
The Buddha without equal in the v/orld ! 
When he had bathed and drunk, the teacher then 
Crossed o'er, the brethren thronging round his steps ; 
The Blessed Master, preaching the while the truth, 
The Mighty Sage came to the Mango Grove. 
There spake he to the brother Chundaka : — 

* Spread me the fourfold robe out as a couch.' 
Urged by the Holy One, he quickly spread 
The fourfold robe in order on the ground. 
The Master laid him down, wearied and worn ; 
And there, before him, Chunda took his seat. 



42. And the Exalted One addressed the venerable 
Ananda, and said : — ' Now it may happen, Ananda, 
that some one should stir up remorse in Chunda the 
smith, by saying : — " This is evil to thee, Chunda, and 
loss to thee in that when the Tathagata had eaten his 
last meal from thy provision, then he died." Any such 
remorse, Ananda, in Chunda the smith should be 
checked by saying: — "This is good to thee, Chunda, and 
gain to thee, in that when the Tathagata had eaten his 
last meal from thy provision, then he died. From the 
very mouth of the Exalted One, Chunda, have I heard, 

L 2 



148 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 135. 

from his own mouth have I received this saying : — 
' These two offerings of food are of equal fruit, and of 
equal profit, and of much greater fruit and much greater 
profit than any other — and which are the two ? [l36] 
The offering of food which, when a Tathagata has 
eaten, he attains to supreme and perfect insight ; and 
the offering of food which, when a Tathagata has 
eaten, he passes away by that utter passing away in 
which nothing whatever remains behind — these two 
offerings of food are of equal fruit and of equal profit, 
and of much greater fruit and much greater profit than 
any others. There has been laid up by Chunda the 
smith a karma redounding to length of life, redounding 
to good birth, redounding to good fortune, redounding to 
good fame, redounding to the inheritance of heaven, and 
of sovereign power.' " In this way, Ananda, should be 
checked any remorse in Chunda the smith ^' 

43. Then the Exalted One, perceiving how the 
matter stood, uttered on that occasion this hymn of 
exultation : — 

' To him who gives shall virtue be increased ; 
In him who curbs himself, no anger can arise ; 
The righteous man casts off all evil ways. 
And by the rooting out of lust, and bitterness, 
And all infatuation, is at peace ! ' 

End of the Fourth Portion for Recitation, containing 
The Episode of A/ara. 

^ Here, and above pp. 137-9, we have spelt the name of the smith, 
in English, as it is pronounced in Pali, and should be pronounced in 
English. 



CHAPTER V. 

I. [137] Now the Exalted One addressed the vener- 
able Ananda, and said : — ' Come, Ananda, let us go on 
to the Sala Grove of the Mallas, the Upavattana of 
Kusinara, on the further side of the river Hiranya- 
vati.' 

' Even so, lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Exalted One. 

And the Exalted One proceeded with a great com- 
pany of the brethren to the Sala Grove of the Mallas, 
the Upavattana of Kusinara, on the further side of the 
river Hiranyavati : and when he had come there he 
addressed the venerable Ananda, and said : — 

'Spread over for me, I pray you, Ananda, the couch 
with its head to the^ north, between the twin Sala 
trees \ I am weary, Ananda, and would lie down.' 

' Even so, lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Exalted One. And he spread a covering 
over the couch with its head to the north, between the 
twin Sala trees. And the Exalted One laid himself 
down on his right side, with one leg resting on the 
other ; and he was mindful and self-possessed. 



2. Now at that time the twin Sala trees were all 
one mass of bloom with flowers out of season ; and 

• According to the commentator 'tradition says that there was 
a row of Sala trees at the head (sis'a) of that couch, and another at 
its foot, one young Sala tree being close to its head, and another 
close to its foot. The twin Sala trees were so called because the two 
trees were equally grown in respect of the roots, trunks, branches, 
and leaves. There was a couch there in the park for the special use 
of the (periodically elected) chieftain of the Mallas, and it was this 
couch which the Exalted One asked Ananda to make ready.' 

There is no further explanation of the term uttara-sisakaw, 
which may have been the name for a slab of wood or stone reserved 
on great occasions for the use of the leaders of the neighbouring 
republic, but available at other times for passers-by. 



1 50 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 137. 

all over the body of the Tathagata^ these dropped 
and sprinkled and scattered themselves, out of rever- 
ence for the successor of the Buddhas of old. And 
heavenly Mandarava flowers, too, and heavenly sandal- 
wood powder came falling from the sky, and all over 
the body of the Tathagata they descended and sprinkled 
[l38] and scattered themselves, out of reverence for 
the successor of the Buddhas of old. And heavenly 
music was sounded in the sky, out of reverence for 
the successor of the Buddhas of old. And heavenly 
songs came wafted from the skies, out of reverence 
for the successor of the Buddhas of old ! 

3. Then the Exalted One addressed the venerable 
Ananda and said : — ' The twin Sala trees are all one 
mass of bloom with flowers out of season ; all over the 
body of the Tathagata these drop and sprinkle and 
scatter themselves, out of reverence for the successor 
of the Buddhas of old. And heavenly Mandarava 
flowers, too, and heavenly sandal-wood powder come 
falling from the sky, and all over the body of the 
Tathagata they descend and sprinkle and scatter them- 
selves, out of reverence for the successor of the 
Buddhas of old. And heavenly music sounds in the 
sky, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas 
of old. And heavenly songs come wafted from the 
skies, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas 
of old ! 

' Now it is not thus, Ananda, that the Tathagata is 
rightly honoured, reverenced, venerated, held sacred 
or revered. But the brother or the sister, the devout 
man or the devout woman, who continually fulfils all 
the greater and the lesser duties, who is correct in life, 
walking according to the precepts — it is he who rightly 
honours, reverences, venerates, holds sacred, and 
reveres the Tathagata with the worthiest homage. 



* We have here the unusual case of the Buddha being called Tatha- 
gata, not by himself, but by a third person, the compiler of the 
Suttanta. The paragraph is perhaps moulded by inadvertence on the 
next one. But see § 10. Compare the note above on IV, 25. 



D. ii. 139. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 5 1 

Therefore, O Ananda, be ye constant in the fulfilment 
of the greater and of the lesser duties, and be ye 
correct in life, walking according to the precepts ; and 
thus Ananda, should it be taught.' 

4. Now at that time the venerable Upava^^a was 
standing in front of the Exalted One, fanning him. 
And the Exalted One was not pleased with Upavawa, 
and he said to him : — ' Stand aside, O brother, stand 
not in front of me ! ' 

Then this thought sprang up in the mind of the 
venerable Ananda : — [l39] ' This venerable Upavawa 
had long been in close personal attendance and service 
on the Exalted One. And now, at the last moment, 
the Exalted One is not pleased with Upava;/a, and 
has said to him : — " Stand aside, O brother, stand not 
in front of me ! " What may be the cause and what 
the reason that the Exalted One is not pleased with 
Upava;/a, and speaks thus with him ? ' 

5. And the venerable Ananda said to the Exalted 
One : — ' This venerable Upavawa has long been in close 
personal attendance and service on the Exalted One. 
And now, at the last moment, the Exalted One is not 
pleased with Upavawa, and has said to him : — " Stand 
aside, O brother, stand not in front of me ! " What 
may be the cause and what the reason that the Exalted 
One is not pleased with Upava;^a, and speaks thus 
with him ? ' 

' In great numbers, Ananda, are the gods of the ten 
world-systems assembled together to behold the 
Tathagata. For twelve leagues, Ananda, around the 
Sala Grove of the Mallas, the Upavattana of Kusinara, 
there is no spot in size even as the pricking of the 
point of the tip of a hair which is not pervaded by 
powerful spirits ^ And the spirits, Ananda, are mur- 

* Buddhaghosa explains that even twenty to sixty angels or gods 
(devatayo) could stand aragga-ko/i-nittQdana- (MS. nittad- 
dana-) matte pi, 'on a point pricked by the extreme point of a 
gimlet,' without inconveniencing one another (anfiam arinam avya- 
bidhenti). It is most curious to find this exact analogy to the 
notorious discussion as to how many angels could stand on die point 



152 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 139. 

muring, and say : — " From afar have we come to behold 
the Tathagata. Few and far between are the Tathd- 
gatas, the Arahant Buddhas who appear in the world : 
and now to-day, in the last watch of the night, the 
death of a Tathagata will take place ; and this eminent 
brother stands in front of the Tathagata, concealing 
him, and in his last hour we are prevented from 
beholding the Tathagata " ; thus, Ananda, do the 
spirits murmur.' 

6. ' But of what kind of spirits is the Exalted One 
thinking ? ' 

* There are spirits, Ananda, in the sky, but of 
worldly mind, who dishevel their hair and weep, who 
stretch forth their arms and weep, [l40] who fall 
prostrate on the ground, and roll to and fro in anguish 
at the thought : — " Too soon will the Exalted One die ! 
Too soon will the Exalted One pass away ! Full 
soon will the Light of the world vanish away ^ ! " 

' There are spirits, too, Ananda, on the earth, 
and of worldly mind, who tear their hair and weep, 
who stretch forth their arms and weep, who fall pros- 



of a needle in a commentary written at just that period of Buddhist 
history which corresponds to the Middle Ages of Christendom. The 
passage in the text does not really imply or suggest any such doctrine, 
though the whole episode is so absurd that the author of the text 
could not have hesitated to say so, had such an idea been the common 
belief of the early Buddhists. With these sections should be com- 
pared the similar sections in Chapter VI, of which these are perhaps 
merely an echo. 

There is no comment on nittfidana, but there can be little doubt 
that Childers's conjectural reading is correct. 

^ It is literally, ' the Eye in the world will vanish away,' where Eye 
is of course used figuratively of that by the aid of which spiritual truths 
can be perceived, corresponding exactly to the similar use in Europe 
of the word Light. The Master is often called ' He with the Eye,' 
' He of the Spiritual Eye ' (see, for instance, the last verses in this 
Book), and here by a bold figure of speech he is called the Eye itself, 
which was shortly about to vanish away from the world, the means 
of spiritual insight which was no longer to be available for the common 
use of all men. But this is, it will be noticed, only the lament of the 
foolish and ignorant. 



D. ii. I40. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 153 

trate on the ground, and roll to and fro in anguish 
at the thought : — " Too soon will the Exalted One die ! 
Too soon will the Happy One pass away ! Full soon 
will the Eye of the world disappear from sight." 

' But the spirits who are free from passion bear 
it, calm and self-possessed, mindful of the saying which 
begins : — " I mpermanent indeed are all component things. 
How then is it possible [whereas anything whatever, 
when born, brought into being, and organized, contains 
within itself the inherent necessity of dissolution — 
how then is it possible that such a being should not 
be dissolved ? No such condition can exist ^ ! "] 

7. ' In times past, lord, the brethren, when they 
had spent the rainy season in different districts, used 
to come to see the Tathagata, and we used to receive 
those very reverend brethren to audience, and to wait 
upon the Exalted One. But, lord, after the end of 
the Exalted One, we shall not be able to receive those 
very reverend brethren to audience, and to wait upon 
the Exalted One.' 

8. ' There are these four places, Ananda, which 
the believing clansman should visit with feelings of 
reverence. Which are the four ? 

' The place, Ananda, at which the believing man can 
say : — " Here the Tathagata was born! " is a spot to 
be visited with feelinsfs of reverence. 

' The place, Ananda, at w^hich the believing man can 
say : — " Here the Tathagata attained to the supreme 
and perfect insight ! " is a spot to be visited with 
feeling;s of reverence. 

' The place, Ananda, at which the believing man 
can say: — " Here was the kingdom of righteousness set 
on foot by the Tathagata ! " is a spot to be visited 
with feelings of reverence. 

' The place, Ananda, at which the believing man can 
say : — " Here the Tathagata passed finally away in that 
utter passing away which leaves nothing whatever to 



^ The words in brackets have been inserted from par. Ill, 48 above. 
See par. VI, 19 below. 



1 54 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBAnA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 140. 

remain behind ! " is a spot to be visited with feelings 
of reverence. [i4l] These are the four places, Ananda, 
which the believing clansman should visit with feelings 
of reverence. 

' And there will come, Ananda, to such spots, 
believers, brethren and sisters of the Order, or devout 
men and devout women, and will say : — " Here was the 
Tathagata born ! " or, " Here did the Tathagata attain 
to the supreme and perfect insight!" or, " Here was 
the kingdom of righteousness set on foot by the 
Tathagata ! " or, " Here the Tathagata passed away 
in that utter passing away which leaves nothing what- 
ever to remain behind ! " 

' And they, Ananda, who shall die while they, with 
believing heart, are journeying on such pilgrimage, 
shall be reborn after death, when the body shall 
dissolve, in the happy realms of heaven.' 



9. ' How are we to conduct ourselves, lord, with 
regard to womankind ? ' 

' As not seeing them, Ananda.' 

' But if we should see them, what are we to do ? ' 

' No talking, Ananda.' 

' But if they should speak to us, lord, what are we 
to do ? ' 

' Keep wide awake, Ananda.' 



10. 'What are we to do, lord, with the remains of 
the Tathagata ? ' 

' Hinder not yourselves, Ananda, by honouring the 
remains of the Tathagata. Be zealous, I beseech you, 
Ananda, in your own behalf! Devote yourselves to 
your own good ! Be earnest, be zealous, be intent 
on your own good ! There are wise men, Ananda, 
among the nobles, among the brahmins, among the 
heads of houses, who are firm believers in the Tatha- 
gata ; and they will do due honour to the remains 
of the Tathaorata.' 



D. ii. 142. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 55 

II. 1 ' But what should be done, lord, with the 
remains of the Tathagata ? ' 

' As men treat the remains of a king of kings, so. 
Ananda, should they treat the remains of a Tathagata.' 

' And how. lord, do they treat the remains of a 
king of kings - ? ' 

' They wrap the body of a king of kings. Ananda. 
in a new^ cloth. When that is done they wrap it in 
carded cotton wool ^. When that is done they wrap 
it in a new cloth. [i42] and so on till they have wTapped 
the body in five hundred successive layers of both 
kinds. Then they place the body in an oil vessel 
of iron, and cover that close up with another oil vessel 
of iron*. They then build a funeral pyre of all kinds 



^ This conversation occurs also below (VI, 17), and the older tradi- 
tion probably had it only in that connexion. 

' King of kings is an adequate rendering of the * King of the Roll- 
ing Wheel,' the wheels of whose chariot roll unhindered through the 
land ; that is to say, a king whose power no other king can dispute, 
who is an acknowledged overlord. The idea, which is explained very 
fully in the next Suttanta, may have arisen with the rise of the Kosala 
power ; but it may also be later. If we could trace its history it would 
afford us a guide to the date at which the Maha Parinibbana Suttanta 
assumed its present form. 

^ Buddhaghosa explains this passage thus : — * As Benares cloth, by 
reason of its fineness of texture, does not take the oil, he therefore 
says: — "with vihata cotton wool," that is, with cotton wool that has 
been well forced asunder.' The technical use of the word, as applied 
to cotton wool, has only been found in this passage. It usually means 
' torn ' with grief. 

* Ayasaya tela-do«iya, where one would expect ayasaya, but 
my MS. of the Digha Nikaya confirms twice over here, and twice again 
below (VI, 33, 35) the reading given by Childers, Buddhaghosa says 
the word here means gold. Ay a 5 was originally used for bronze, and 
only later for iron also, and at last exclusively of iron. As kaz«sa is 
already a common word for bronze in very early Buddhist Pali texts. 
I think ayasa (not ay as a) would here mean ' of iron.' When Buddha- 
ghosa says it is here' a name for gold, we can only conclude that iron 
had become, in his time, a metal which he might fairly consider too 
base for the purpose proposed. The whole process as described is 
not very intelligible; and one might suppose that ayasa after all had 
nothing to do with any metal, and was a technical term descriptive of 
some particular size or shape or colour of oil vessel. But it is fre- 
quently found in the MSS. when iron is clearly meant. Thus in the 



156 XVI MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 142. 

of perfume, and burn the body of the king of kings. 
And then at the four cross roads they erect a cairn ' 
to the king of kings. This, Ananda, is the way in 
which they treat the remains of a king of kings. 

' And as they treat the remains of a king of kings, 
so, Ananda, should they treat the remains of the 
Tathagata. At the four cross roads a cairn should 
be erected to the Tathagata. And whosoever shall 
there place garlands or perfumes or paint, or make 
salutation there, or become in its presence calm in 
heart — that shall long be to them for a profit and 
a joy.' 

12. ' The men, Ananda, worthy of a cairn, are four 
in number. Which are the four ? 

' A Tathagata, an Able Awakened One, is worthy 
of a cairn. One awakened for himself alone is 
worthy of a cairn ^. A true hearer of the Tathagata 
is worthy of a cairn. A king of kings is worthy of a 
cairn. 

' And on account of what circumstance, Ananda, is 
a Tathagata, an Able Awakened One, worthy of a 
cairn ? 

' At the thought, Ananda : — " This is the cairn of that 
Exalted One, of that Able Awakened One," the hearts 
of many shall be made calm and happy ; and since 
they there had calmed and satisfied their hearts they 
will be reborn after death, when the body has dis- 
solved, in the happy realms of heaven. It is on 
account of this circumstance, Ananda, that a Tatha- 
gata, an Able Awakened One, is worthy of a cairn. 

popular verse at Sawzyutta I, 77 on which a Jataka is based (II, 140), 
which is inserted in the ' Anthologies ' (Dhammapada 345, Khar. MS. 
No. 102), and twice quoted in the Netti (35, 153), the MSS. have both 
forms in spite of the metre favouring the long vowel. In this passage 
both Pafifiananda's Colombo edition of 1877, and Samarasekara's 
version (Col. and Lond. 1 905) have the short vowel only. 

^ Thupa. A solid mound or tumulus or barrow, in the midst of 
which the bones and ashes are to be placed. The dome of St. Paul's 
as seen from the Thames Embankment gives a very good idea of one 
of the later of these Buddhist monumental mounds. 



D. ii. 143- THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. I57 

' And on account of what circumstance, Ananda, is 
one awakened for hirnself alone ^ worthy of a cairn ? 

* At the thought, Ananda : — " This is the cairn of 
that Exalted One awakened for himself alone " [l43] 
the hearts of many shall be made calm and happy ; and 
since they there had calmed and satisfied their hearts 
they will be reborn after death, when the body has 
dissolved, in the happy realms of heaven. It is on 
account of this circumstance, Ananda, that one awakened 
for himself alone is worthy of a cairn. 

' And on account of what circumstance, Ananda, is 
a true hearer of the Exalted One, the Able Awakened 
One, worthy of a cairn ? 

' At the thought, Ananda : — " This is the cairn of that 
true hearer of the Exalted Able Awakened One," the 
hearts of many shall be made calm and happy ; and 
since they there had calmed and satisfied their hearts 
they will be reborn after death, when the body has 
dissolved, in the happy realms of heaven. It is on 
account of this circumstance, Ananda, that a true 
hearer of the Exalted One, the Able Awakened One. 
is worthy of a cairn. 

' And on account of what circumstance, Ananda, is 
a king of kings worthy of a cairn ? 

' At the thought, Ananda : — " This is the cairn of that 
righteous king who ruled in righteousness," the hearts 
of many shall be made calm and happy ; and since 
they there had calmed and satisfied their hearts they 
will be reborn after death, when the body has dis- 
solved, in the happy realms of heaven. It is on 
account of this circumstance, Ananda, that a king of 
kings is worthy of a cairn. 

'These four, Ananda, are the persons worthy of a cairn.' 

13. 'Now the venerable Ananda went into the 
Vihara -, and stood leaning against the lintel of the 

* Pacceka-buddho. One who has a'.tained to the supreme and 
perfect insight ; but dies \\-ithout proclaiming the truth to the world. 

' The expression that Ananda went * into the Vihara ' at the end of 
a conversation represented as having taken place in the Sala Grove, 



158 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 143. 

door, and weeping at the thought : — ' Alas ! I remain 
still but a learner, one who has yet to work out his 
own perfection ^ And the Master is about to pass 
away from me — he who is so kind ! ' 

Now the Exalted One called the brethren, and 
said : — ' Where then,^ brethren, is Ananda ? ' 

' The venerable Ananda, lord, has gone into the 
Vihara, and stands leaning against the lintel of the 
door, and weeping at the thought : — " Alas ! I remain 
still but a learner, one who has yet to work out his 
own perfection. And the Master is about to pass 
away from me — he who is so kind ! " ' 

And the Exalted One called a certain brother, and 
said : — ' Go now, brother, and call Ananda in my name, 
and say : — " Brother Ananda, the Master calls for thee " ' 

[144]. 

' Even so, lord ! ' said that brother, in assent, to 
the Exalted One. And he went up to the place where 
the Exalted One was : and when he had come there, 
he said to the venerable Ananda : — ' Brother Ananda, 
the Master calls for thee.' 

' Very well, brother,' said the venerable Ananda, 
in assent, to that brother. And he went up to the 
place where the Exalted One was, and when he had 
come there, he bowed down before the Exalted One, 
and took his seat respectfully on one side. 

14. Then the Exalted One said to the venerable 
Ananda, as he sat there by his side : — ' Enough, 
Ananda! Do not let yourself be troubled; do not 
weep ! Have I not already, on former occasions, 
told you that it is in the very nature of all things 

would seem to point to the fact that this episode originally stood in 
some other connexion. Buddhaghosa attempts to explain away the 
discrepancy by saying that Vihara here means Mawc^ala. As the 
spot was the place for the performance of the communal ceremonies 
of the clan there was most hkely a Ma«d?ala there, and there must, 
from the context below, § 25, have been also some small closed-in 
building, a hut or cottage. It is only this latter that could have been 
called a Vihara. 

^ Ananda had entered the Noble Path, but had not yet reached the 
end of it. He had not attained to Nirvana. 



D. ii.i45- THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 59 

most near and dear unto us that we must divide our- 
selves from them, leave them, sever ourselves from 
them ? How, then, Ananda, can this be possible — 
whereas an)i:hing whatever born, brought into being, 
and organized, contains within itself the inherent 
necessity of dissolution — how, then, can this be pos- 
sible, that such a being should not be dissolved ? No 
such condition can exist ! For a long time, Ananda, 
have you been very near to me by acts of love, kind 
and ofood, that never varies \ and is beyond all 
measure. For a long time, Ananda, have you been 
very near to me by words of love, kind and good, that 
never yaries, and is beyond all measure. For a long 
time, Ananda, have you been very near to me by 
thoughts of love, kind and good, that never varies, 
and is beyond all measure. You have done well, 
Ananda ! Be earnest in effort, and you too shall soon 
be free from the Intoxications — [of sensuality, and 
individuality, and delusion, and ignorance.] ^ ! ' 



15. Then the Exalted One addressed the brethren, 
and said : — ' Whosoever, brethren, have been Able 
Awakened Ones through the long ages of the past, 
they also had servitors just as devoted to those Exalted 
Ones as Ananda has been to me. 

' He is a clever man, brethren, is Ananda, and 
wise^. He knows when it is the rig-ht time for the 
brethren or for the sisters of the Order, for devout 
men [l45] and devout women, for a king, or for a king's 
ministers, or for other teachers or for their disciples, 
to come and visit the Tathaofata. 

16. ' Brethren, there are these four wonderful and 
marvellous qualities in Ananda. Which are the four ? 

^ Advayena, which Buddhaghosa explains as not being thai kind 
of love which is now one thing and now another, or which varies in 
the presence or the absence of the object loved. 

^ That is, you too shall become an Arahant, shall attain Nirvana in 
this life. 

^ A word has here slipped out of the text, medhavi should stand 
before janati. 



l6o XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 145. 

' If, brethren, a number of the brethren of the Order 
should come to visit Ananda, they are filled with joy 
on beholding him ; and if Ananda should then preach 
the truth to them, they are filled with joy at the 
discourse ; while the company of brethren is ill at ease, 
brethren, when Ananda is silent. 

' If, brethren, a number of the sisters of the Order, 
... or of devout^ men, ... or of devout women, should 
come to visit Ananda,^ they are filled with joy on 
beholding him ; and if Ananda should then preach the 
truth to them, they are filled with joy at the discourse; 
while the company of sisters is ill at ease, brethren, 
when Ananda is silent. 

' Brethren, there are these four wonderful and mar- 
vellous qualities in a king of kings. What are the four? 

' If, brethren, a number of nobles, or brahmins, or 
heads of houses, or members of a reliofious order should 
come to visit a king of kings, they are filled with joy 
on beholding him ; and if the king of kings should 
then speak, they are filled with joy at what is said ; 
while they are ill at ease, brethren, when the king of 
kings is silent [l46]. 

'Just so, brethren, are the four wonderful and mar- 
vellous qualities in Ananda. 

' If, brethren, a number of the brethren of the Order, 
or of the sisters of the Order, or of devout men, or of 
devout women, should come to visit Ananda, they are 
filled with joy on beholding him ; and if Ananda 
should then preach the truth to them, they are filled 
with joy at the discourse ; while the company of 
brethren is ill at ease, brethren, when Ananda is silent. 

' Now these, brethren, are the four wonderful and 
marvellous qualities that are in Ananda.' 



1 7. When he had thus spoken, ^ the venerable Ananda 
said to the Exalted One: — 

* From here down to the end of section 18 is found also, nearly 
word for word, in the beginning of the Maha-Sudassana Suttanta, 
translated below. 



D.ii. 147- THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. l6l 

' Let not the Exalted One die in this little wattle- 
and-daub town, in this town in the midst of the jung-le, 
in this branch township \ For. lord, there are other 
great cities, such as Champa, Rajagaha. Savatthi. 
Saketa, Kosambi, and Benares. Let the Exalted One 
die in one of them. There there are many wealthy 
nobles and brahmins and heads of houses, believers in 
the Tathagata, who will pay due honour to the remains 
of the Tathaorata-.' 

' Say not so, Ananda 1 Say not so, Ananda, that 
this is but a small wattle-and-daub town, a town in the 
midst of the jungle^^ a branch township. 

1 8. ' Long ago, Ananda. there was a king, by name 
Maha-Sudassana. a kinof of king-s, a rig-hteous man who 
ruled in righteousness, Lord of the four quarters of the 
earth, conqueror, the protector of his people, possessor 
of the seven royal treasures. This Kusinara, Ananda, 
was the royal city of King Maha-Sudassana, under the 
name of Kusavati, and on the east and on the west it 
was twelve leagues in length, and on the north and on 
the south it was seven leaofues in breadth. 

' That royal city Kusavati, Ananda, was mighty and 
prosperous [147] and full of people, crowded with men, 
and provided with all things for food. Just, Ananda, 
as the royal city of the gods, A/akamanda by name, is 
mighty, prosperous, and full of people, crowded with 
the gods, and provided with all kinds of food. so. 

' Ku</</a-nagarake ti pa/irupake sambadhe khuddakana- 
gare. Uggangala-nagarake ti visama-nagarake (S. V, fol. 
thau) Ku^fl^a, if this explanation be right, seems to be merely an old 
and unusual form for kshudra, and the Burmese correction into 
khudda to be unnecessary: but I venture to think it is more likely 
to be = ku^ya, and to mean a wall built of mud and sticks, or what 
is called in India, of wattle and daub. When Buddhaghosa explains 
u^^angala as 'lawless,' he is expressing his view that a town in the 
jungle is likely to be a heathen, pagan sort of place. 

^ With reference to Childers's note in his Dictionary on mahasala, 
with which every one must entirely agree, Buddhaghosa's explanation 
of the word will be interesting as a proof (if proof be needed) that the 
Ceylon scholars are not always trustworthy. He says: — Khattiya- 
mahasala ti khattiya-mahasara, sarapatta mahakhattiya. 
Eso nayo sabbatha. 

HI. M 



1 62 XVI. MAHA PARINIBbAnA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 147. 

Ananda, was the royal city Kusavati mighty and pros- 
perous, full of people, crowded with men, and provided 
with all kinds of food. 

' Both by day and by night, Ananda, the royal city 
Kusavati resounded with the ten cries ; that is to say, 
the noise of elephants, and the noise of horses, and the 
noise of chariots ; the sounds of the drum, of the tabor, 
and of the lute ; the sound of singing, and the sounds 
of the cymbal and of the gong ; and lastly, with the 
cry : — " Eat, drink, and be merry ! " ' 



19. ' Go now, Ananda, and enter into Kusinara, and 
inform the Mallas of Kusinara, saying : — " This day, 
O Vase/Z/ms, in the last watch of the night, the final 
passing away of the Tathagata will take place. Be 
favourable herein, O Vase/fMas, be favourable. Give 
no occasion to reproach yourselves hereafter, saying: — 
' In our own village did the death of our Tathagata 
take place, and we took not the opportunity of visiting 
the Tathagata in his last hours.' " ' 

' Even so, lord,' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Exalted One ; and he robed himself and 
taking his bowl, entered into Kusinara attended by 
another member of the order^. 

20. Now at that time the Mallas of Kusinard were 
assembled in the council hall on some [public] affair 2. 



^ Literally ' Put on his under-garment, and taking his upper- 
garment and his bowl, &c.' This sounds complicated; and why 
should he take his bowl ? The Wanderers when at their lodging 
places on their travels lived (naturally in that beautiful climate) in 
undress — with only one robe on, the one from the waist to the feet. 
When they set out for the village on a visit, or on any ceremonious 
occasion, they put on the second robe, and (just as a European often 
carries his great-coat on his arm) carried the third with them. At 
some convenient spot near the village they would put this also on, and 
enter — so to speak — in full canonicals. And the bowl belonged to, 
formed part of, their official costume. See J. I, 55 ; III, 379 ; Sum. I, 
45, 186; and the note above on Ch. IV, § 37, p. 145. 

- Kena>tid eva kara??tyena. Professor Pischel, in his edition of 
the AssalSyana Sutta (p. i), prints this expression kena^i devakara- 
«Jyena, and translates it (p. 28), ' for some religious purpose.' It 



D. ii. 148- THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 63 

And the venerable Ananda went to the council hall 
of the Mallas of Kusinara ; and when he had arrived 
there, he informed them, saying : — ' This day, O Vase- 
/Mas, in the last watch of the night, the final passing 
away of the Tathagata will take place. Be favourable 
herein, O Vise///^as, be favourable. Give no occasion 
to reproach yourselves hereafter, saying : — " In our own 
village [148] did the death of our Tathagata take place, 
and we took not the opportunity of visiting the Tatha- 
ofata in his last hours." ' 

21. And when they had heard this saying of the 
venerable Ananda, the Mallas with their young men 
and maidens and their wives were grieved, and sad, 
and afflicted at heart. And some of them wept, 
dishevelling their hair, and stretched forth their arms 
and wept, fell prostrate on the ground, and rolled to 
and fro in anguish at the thought : — ' Too soon will the 
Exalted One die ! Too soon will the Happy One pass 
away! Full soon will the Light of the world vanish 
away ! ' 

Then the Mallas, with their young men and maidens 
and their wives, being grieved, and sad, and afflicted at 
heart, went to the Sala Grove of the Mallas, to the 
Upavattana, and to the place where the venerable 
Ananda was. 

22. Then the venerable Ananda thouofht : — ' If 
I allow the Mallas of Kusinara, one by one, to pay 
their respects to the Exalted One, the whole of the 
Mallas of Kusinara will not have been presented to 
the Exalted One until this night brightens up into the 
dawn. Let me, now, cause the Mallas of Kusinara to 
stand in groups, each family in a group, and so present 
them to the Exalted One, saying : — " Lord ! a Malla of 
such and such a name, with his children, his wives, his 
retinue, and his friends, humbly bows down at the feet 
of the Exalted One." ' 

And the venerable Ananda caused the Mallas of 

seems to me that he has been misled by the commentary, which really 
presupposes the more correct division. 

M 2 



1 64 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 148. 

Kusinara to stand in groups, each family in a group, 
and so presented them to the Exalted One, and said : — 
' Lord ! a Malla of such and such a name, with his 
children, his wives, his retinue, and his friends, humbly 
bows down at the feet of the Exalted One.' 

And after this manner the venerable Ananda 
presented all the Mallas of Kusinara to the Exalted 
One in the first watch of the night. 



23. Now at that time a Wanderer named Subhadda, 
who was not a believer, was dwelling at Kusinara. 
And the Wanderer Subhadda heard the news : — ' This 
very day, they say, in the third watch of the night, will 
take place the final passing away of the Sama/^a 
Gotama.' 

[149] Then thought the Wanderer Subhadda : — ' This 
have I heard from fellow Wanderers old and well 
stricken in years, teachers and disciples, when they 
said : — " Sometimes and full seldom do Tathagatas 
appear in the world, the Able Awakened Ones." Yet 
this day, in the last watch of the night, the final passing 
away of the Sama;2a Gotama will take place. Now 
a certain feeling of uncertainty has sprung up in my 
mind ; and this faith have I in the Sama?2a Gotama, 
that he, methinks, is able so to present the truth that 
I may get rid of this feeling of uncertainty.' 

24. Then the Wanderer Subhadda went to the S^la 
Grove of the Mallas, to the Upayattana of Kusinar^, 
to the place where the venerable Ananda was. 

And^ when he had come there he said to the vener- 
able Ananda : — ' Thus have I heard from fellow 
Wanderers, old and well stricken in years, teachers and 
disciples, when they said : — " Sometimes and full 
seldom do Tathagatas appear in the world, the Able 
Awakened Ones." Yet this day, in the last watch of 
the night, the final passing away of the Sama;2a Gotama 
will take place. Now a certain feeling of uncertainty 
has sprung up in my mind ; and this faith have I in 
the Sama^^a Gotama, that he, methinks, is able so to 
present the truth that I may get rid of this feeling of 



D. ii. I50. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 65 

uncertainty. O that I, even I, Ananda, might be 
allowed to see the Sama;^a Gotama ! ' 

And when he had thus spoken the venerable Ananda 
said to the Wanderer Subhadda : — ' Enough ! friend 
Subhadda. Trouble not the Tathagata. The Exalted 
One is weary.' 

And again the Wanderer Subhadda [made the same 
request in the same words, and received the same 
reply] : and the third time the W'^nderer Subhadda 
[made the same request in the same words, and received 
the same reply], [iso] 

25. Now the Exalted One overheard this conver- 
sation of the venerable Ananda with the Wanderer 
Subhadda. And the Exalted One called the venerable 
Ananda, and said : — ' It is enough, Ananda! Do not 
keep out Subhadda. Subhadda, Ananda, may be 
allowed to see the Tathagata. Whatever Subhadda 
may ask of me, he will ask from a desire for know- 
ledge, and not to annoy me. And whatever I may 
say in answer to his questions, that he will quickly 
understand.' 

Then the venerable Ananda said to Subhadda. the 
Wanderer : — ' Enter in, friend Subhadda ; for the 
Exalted One gives you leave.' 

26. Then Subhadda, the Wanderer, went in to the 
place where the Exalted One was, and saluted him 
courteously, and after exchanging with him the com- 
pliments of esteem and of civility, he took his seat on 
one side. And when he was thus seated, Subhadda, 
the Wanderer, said to the Exalted One : — ' The leaders 
in religious life ^ who are heads of companies of 

' Sama«a-brahnia«a, which compound may possibly mean 
Samanas and Brahmanas as it has usually been rendered, but I think 
not necessarily. Not one of those here specified were brahmins by 
birth, as is apparent from the Sumangala Vilasini on the Samanfia- 
Phala Suttanta, §§3-7. Compare the use of Kshatriya-brahmano, 
• a soldier priest,' a Kshatriya who offered sacrifice ; and of Brahmawo. 
absolutely, as an epithet of an Arahant. In the use of the word 
sama«a there seems to me to be a hopeless confusion between, 
a complete mingling of the meanings of, the two roots sram and sam 
(which, in Pali, would both become sam). It connotes both asceticism 



l66 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. I), ii. 150, 

disciples and students, teachers of students, well 
known, renowned, founders of schools of doctrine, 
esteemed as good men by the multitude — to wit, 
Pura;^a Kassapa, Makkhali of the cattle-pen, A^ita of 
the garment of hair, Ka/^>^dyana of the Pakudha tree, 
San^aya the son of the Bela/Mi slave-girl, and 
Niga;e//^a of the Nitha clan [i5l] — have they all, 
according to their own assertion, thoroughly under- 
stood things ? or have they not ? or are there some 
of them who have understood, and some who have 
not?' 

' Enough, Subhadda ! Let this matter rest whether 
they, according to their own assertion, have thoroughly 
understood things, or whether they have not, or 
whether some of them have understood and some 
have not ! The truth, Ananda, will I teach you. 
Listen well to that, and give ear attentively, and 
I will speak ! ' 

' Even so, lord ! ' said the Wanderer Subhadda, in 
assent, to the Exalted One. 

27. And the Exalted One spake: — ' In whatsoever 
doctrine and discipline, Subhadda, the Aryan eightfold 
path is not found, neither in it is there found a man of 
true saintliness of the first, or of the second, or of the 
third, or of the fourth degree. And in whatsoever 
doctrine and discipline, Subhadda, the Aryan eightfold 
path is found, in it is found the man of true saintliness 
of the first, and the second, and the third, and the 
fourth degree ^ Now in this doctrine and discipline, 
Subhadda, is found the Aryan eightfold path, and in it 

and inward peace, and might best be rendered ' devotee,' were it not 
for the intellectual inferiority implied by that word in our language. 
A Samawa-brahmin should therefore mean a man of any birth, who by 
his saintliness of life, by his renunciation of the world, and by his 
reputation as a religious thinker, had acquired the position of a quasi- 
brahmin and was looked up to by the people with as much respect as 
they looked up to a brahmin by birth. Compare further my ' Buddhist 
Birth Stories,' vol. I, p. 260; and see J. I, 57, 187; M. I, 285-6, 
400; II, 54; A. I, 180; III, 228. 

' On these degrees in the religious life, see M. I, 63 ; A. II, 238. 
They are described in my ' Buddhism' (21st ed., pp. 108 foil.). 



D. ii. 152. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 67 

too, are found, Subhadda, the men of true saintliness 
of all the four degrees. Void are the systems of 
other teachers — void of true saints. And in this 
one, Subhadda, may the brethren live the Life that's 
Right, so that the world be not bereft of Arahants ^ 

' But twenty-nine was I when I renounced 
The world, Subhadda, seeking after Good. 
For fifty years and one year more, Subhadda, 
Since I went out, a pilgrim have I been 
Through the wide realm of System and of Law — 
Outside of that no victory can be won ! - 

' Yea, not of the first, [l52] nor of the third, nor of the 
fourth degree. Void are the systems of other teachers 
— void of true saints. But in this one, Subhadda, may 
the brethren live the perfect life, that the world be not 
bereft of Arahants.' 



' Arahants are those who have reached Nirvana, the ' supreme 
goal, the highest fruit ' of the Aryan Eightfold Path. To live ' the 
Life that's Right' (samma) is to Hve in the Noble Path, each of the 
eight divisions of which is to be samma, round, right and perfect, 
normal and complete. To live right (samma) is therefore to have : — 
(i ) Right views, free from superstition ; (2) right aims, high and worthy 
of the intelligent and earnest man; (3) right speech, kindly, open, 
truthful ; (4) right conduct, in all concerns of life ; (5) right livelihood, 
bringing hurt or danger to no li\ing thing; (6) right perseverance, in 
all the other seven; (7) right mindfulness, the watchful, active mind; 
(8) right contemplation, earnest thought on the deep mysteries of life. 
In each of these the word right is samma, and the whole paragraph 
being on the Aryan Path, the allusion is certainly to this central 
doctrine of the Buddhist Dhamma. 

Buddhaghosa says that bhikkhu samma viharati, who, having 
himself entered the Aryan Path, leads his brother into it, and this is, 
no doubt, good Buddhism. But it is a practical application of the 
text, a theological exegesis, and not a philological explanation. Even 
so it seems to lay the stress too much on ' bereft,' and too little on 
' Arahants.' 

- Literally ' There is no samawa.' See note on § 26. I have 
followed, though with some doubt, Childers's punctuation. Buddha- 
ghosa refers padesa-vatti to samawo ; and ito, not to padesa, but 
to magga, understood; and it is quite possible that this is the correct 
explanation. On samadhikani see the comment at Jataka II, 383 : 
Watters, ' On Yuan Chwang,' II, 33, and Ed. Hardy, ' Buddhismus,' 
p. 44. Both Pafinananda and Samarasekhara render it as above. 



r68 XVi. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D.ii. 152. 

28. And when he had thus spoken, Subhadda, the 
Wanderer, said to the Exahed One : — ' Most excellent, 
lord, are the words of thy mouth, most excellent ! Just 
as if a man were to set up that which is thrown down, 
or were to reveal that which is hidden away, or were 
to point out the right road to him who has gone astray, 
or were to bring a lamp into the darkness, so that 
those who have eyes can see external forms; — just even 
so, lord, has the truth been made known to me, in 
many a figure, by the Exalted One. And I, even I, 
betake myself, lord, to the Exalted One as my refuge, 
to the truth, and to the Order. I would fain be accepted 
as a probationer under the Exalted One, as a full 
member in his Order.' 

29. ' Whosoever, Subhadda, has formerly been a 
follower of another doctrine, and thereafter desires to 
be received into the higher or the lower grade in this 
doctrine and discipline, he remains on probation for the 
space of four months ; and at the end of the four 
months, the brethren, exalted in spirit, receive him 
into the lower or into the hiorher orrade of the order. 
Nevertheless in this case I acknowledge the difference 
in persons.' 

'If, lord, whosoever has formerly been a follower 
of another doctrine, and then desires to be received 
into the hig-her or the lower orrade in this doctrine 
and discipline, — if, in that case, such a person remains 
on probation for the space of four months ; and at 
the end of the four months, the brethren, exalted in 
spirit, receive him into the lower or into the higher 
grade of the Order — I too, then, will remain on proba- 
tion for the space of four months ; and at the end of 
the four months let the brethren, exalted in spirit, 
receive me into the lower or into the higher grade of 
the Order ! ' 

But the Exalted One called the venerable Ananda, 
and said : — ' As it is, Ananda, receive Subhadda into 
the Order ! ' 

' Even so, lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Exalted One. 



D. ii. 153- THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 169 

30. And Subhadda, the Wanderer, said to the 
venerable Ananda : — ' Great is your gain,^ friend 
Ananda, great is your good fortune, friend Ananda, 
in that you all have been sprinkled with the sprinkling 
of discipleship in this brotherhood at the hands of the 
Master himself! ' 

[153] So Subhadda, the Wanderer, was received 
into the higrher crrade of the Order under the Exalted 
One ; and from immediately after his ordmation the 
venerable Subhadda remained alone and separate, 
earnest, zealous, and resolved. And ere long he 
attained to that supreme goal of the higher life \ for 
the sake of which the clansmen go out from all and 
every household gain and comfort to become houseless 
wanderers — yea, that supreme goal did he, by himself, 
and while yet in this visible world, bring himself to 
the knowledge of, and continue to realize, and to see 
face to face ! And he became conscious that birth 
was at an end, that the higher life had been fulfilled, 
that all that should be done had been accomplished, 
and that after this present life there would be no 
beyond ! 

So the venerable Subhadda became yet another 
among the Arahants ; and he was the last disciple 
whom the Exalted One himself converted ^. 



End of the H irafifiavatiya portion, being the 
Fifth Portion for Recitation. 



^ That is. Nirvana. Compare Mangala Sutta 10, 11, and the 
Dhammapada, verses 180, 354, and above, Chap. I, § 7. 

- Buddhaghosa says that the last five words in the text (the last 
twelve words in my translation) were added by the Theras who held 
the Council. On Subhadda's ordination he has the following interest- 
ing note : — ' The Thera (that is, Ananda), they say, took him on one 
side, poured water over his head from a water vessel, made him repeat 
the formula of meditation on the impermanency of the body (see my 
"Buddhist Birth Stories," p. 161), shaved off his hair and beard, clad 
him in the yellow robes, made him repeat the " Three Refuges," and 
led him back to the Exalted One. The Exalted One himself admitted 
him then into the higher rank of the brotherhood, and pointed out to 



1 70 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 153. 

him a subject for meditation (kamma///zana). He accepted this, 
and walking up and down in a quiet part of the grove, he thought 
and meditated upon it, till overcoming the Evil Spirit, he had acquired 
Arahantship, and with it the discriminating knowledge of all the 
Scriptures (Pa/isambhida). Then, returning, he came and took his 
seat beside the Exalted One.' 

According to this, no set ceremony for ordination (Sahgha- 
ka.mma.m), as laid down in the Vinaya, took place; and it is other- 
wise probable that no such ceremony was usual in the earliest days of 
Buddhism. 



CHAPTER VI. 

I. [i54] Now the Exalted One addressed the vener- 
able Ananda, and said : — ' It may be, Ananda, that in 
some of you the thought may arise, " The word of the 
master is ended, we have no teacher more ! " But it is 
not thus, Ananda, that you should regard it. The 
Truths, and the Rules of the Order, which I have set 
forth and laid down for you all. let them, after I am 
gone, be the Teacher to you.' 



2. ' Ananda I when I am gone address not one 
another in the vv^ay in which the brethren have hereto- 
fore addressed each other — with the epithet that is, of 
"Avuso" (Friend). A younger brother may be 
addressed by an elder with his name, or his family 
name, or the title " Friend." But an elder should be 
addressed by a younger brother as "Sir " or as 
" Venerable Sir \" " 



3. * When I am gone, Ananda, let the Order, if it 
should so wish, abolish all the lesser and minor 
precepts -.' 

4. ' When I am gone, Ananda, let the higher penalty 
be imposed on brother Channa.* 

' But what, lord, is the higher penalty ? \ 

' Let Channa say whatever he may like. Ananda, the 



^ Bhante or ayasma. This question has been fully discussed by 
Prof. Franke in the ' Journal of the Pali Text Society,' 1908. 

^ According to tradition (trans, by Rhys Davids and Oldenberg, 
' Vinaya Texts,' III, 377 foil.) the Order considered this matter shortly 
after the Buddha's death, and declined to avail themselves of this 
permission. As to what these lesser precepts were see Rhys Davids, 
' Questions of King Milinda,' I, 202 foil. 



172 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 154. 

brethren should neither speak to him, nor exhort him, 
nor admonish him \' 



5, Then the Exalted One addressed the brethren, 
and said: — 'It may be, brethren, that there may be 
doubt or misgiving in the mind of some brother as to 
the Buddha, or the doctrine, or the path, or the method^ 
Inquire, brethren, freely. Do not have to reproach 
yourselves [i55] afterwards with the thought : — " Our 
teacher was face to face with us, and we could not 
bring ourselves to inquire of the Exalted One when 
we were face to face with him.'" 

And when he had thus spoken the brethren were 
silent. 

And again the second and the third time the Exalted 
One addressed the brethren, and said : — ' It may be, 
brethren, that there may be doubt or misgiving in the 
mind of some brother as to the Buddha, or the doctrine, 
or the path, or the method. Inquire, brethren, freely. 
Do not have to reproach yourselves afterwards with 
the thought : — " Our teacher was face to face with us, 
and we could not bring ourselves to inquire of the 
Exalted One when we were face to face with him." ' 

And even the third time the brethren were silent. 

Then the Exalted One addressed the brethren, and 
said : — ' It may be, brethren, that you put no questions 
out of reverence for the teacher. Let one friend com- 
municate to another.' 

And when he had thus spoken the brethren were 
silent. 

6. And the venerable Ananda said to the Exalted 



* This brother is represented as an obstinate, perverse man; so 
destitute of the proper espri'f de corps that he dared to take part with 
the sisterhood, and against the brotherhood, in a dispute which had 
arisen between them. But after the social penalty here referred to 
had been duly imposed upon him, even his proud and independent 
spirit was tamed ; he became humble ; his eyes were opened ; and he, 
also, attained to the 'supreme goal' of the Buddhist faith. (The 
passages are shown in the index to ' Vinaya Texts.') 

- Comp. D. II, 287. 



D. ii. 156. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 73 

One : — ' How wonderful a thing is it, lord, and how 
marvellous ! Verily, I believe that in this whole 
assembly of the brethren there is not one brother who 
has any doubt or misgiving as to the Buddha, or the 
doctrine, or the path, or the method ! ' 

'It is out of the fullness of faith that thou hast 
spoken, Ananda ! But, Ananda. the Tathagata knows 
for certain that in this whole assembly of the brethren 
there is not one brother who has any doubt or mis- 
giving as to the Buddha, or the doctrine, or the path. 
or the method I For even the most backward. Ananda. 
of all these five hundred brethren has become con- 
verted, is no longer liable to be born in a state of 
suffering", and is assured of hereafter attainino- to the 
Enlightenment [of Arahantship] \ 

7. Then the Exalted One addressed the brethren, 
and said : — [l56] ' Behold now. brethren, I exhort you, 
saying: — " Decay is inherent in all component things! 
Work out your salvation with diligence I " ' 

This was the last word of the Tathaeata ! 



8. Then the Exalted One entered into the first stao-e 
of Rapture -. And rising out of the first stage he 
passed into the second. And rising out of the second 
he passed into the third. And rising out of the third 
stage he passed into the fourth. And rising out of 
the fourth stage of Rapture, he entered into the state 
of mind to which the infinity of space is alone present ^. 
And passing out of the mere consciousness of the 
infinity of space he entered into the state of mind 
to which the infinity of thought is alone present. 
And passing out of the mere consciousness of the 



* Compare above. Chap. II, § 7. By ' the most^ backward ' accord- 
ing to Buddhaghosa. the Exalted One referred to Ananda, and he said 
this to encourage him. 

- The full text and an explanation of this Rapture will be found in 
the translator's 'Buddhism,' pp. 174-6. 

^ Compare above, Chap. Ill, § 33, p. 119. 



1 74 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 156. 

infinity of thought he entered into a state of mind to 
which nothing at all was specially present. And 
passing out of the consciousness of no special object 
he fell into a state between consciousness and uncon- 
sciousness. And passing out of the state between 
consciousness and unconsciousness he fell into a state 
in which the consciousness both of sensations and of 
ideas had wholly passed away \ 

Then the venerable Ananda said to the venerable 
Anuruddha : — ' O my lord, O Anuruddha, the Exalted 
One is dead ! ' 

' Nay ! brother Ananda, the Exalted One is not 
dead. He has entered into that state in which both 
sensations and ideas have ceased to be ! ' 

9. Then the Exalted One passing out of the state 
in which both sensations and ideas have ceased to be, 
entered into the state between consciousness and un- 
consciousness. And passing out of the state between 
consciousness and unconsciousness he entered into 
the state of mind to which nothing at all is specially 
present. And passing out of the consciousness of no 
special object he entered into the state of mind to 
which the infinity of thought is alone present. And 
passing out of the mere consciousness of the infinity 
of thought he entered into the state of mind to which 
the infinity of space is alone present. And passing 
out of the mere consciousness of the infinity of space 
he entered into the fourth stage of Rapture. And 
passing out of the fourth stage he entered into the 
third. And passing out of the third stage he entered 
into the second. And passing out of the second he 
entered into the first. And passing out of the first 
stage of Rapture he entered into the second. And 
passing out of the second stage he entered into the 

^ These nine states are called in the Milinda, p. 176, the nine 
Anupubba-Viharas. We have therefore, in this list, a technical, 
scholastic, attempt to describe the series of ideas involved in what was 
considered the highest thougftt. No one, of course, can have known 
what actually did occur ; and the eight boundary lines between the 
nine states are purely conjectural. 



D. ii. 157. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 75 



third. And passing out of the third stage he entered 
into the fourth stage of Rapture. And passing out 
of the last stage of Rapture he immediately expired. 



10. When the Exalted One died there arose, at the 
moment of his passing out of existence, a mighty earth- 
quake, terrible and awe-inspiring : and the thunders 
of heaven burst forth [l57]. 

When the Exalted One died, Brahma Sahampati. 
at the moment of his passing away from existence, 
uttered this stanza : — 

' They all, all beings that have life, shall lay 

Aside their complex form — that aggregation 

Of mental and material qualities, 

That orives them, or in heaven or on earth, 

^ ..... 1 
Their fleeting individualitv ' 

E'en as the teacher — being such a one, 

Unequalled among all the men that are, 

Successor of the prophets of old time, 

Mighty by wisdom, and in insight clear — 

Hath died!^' 

When the Exalted One died, Sakka, the king of 
the gods, at the moment of his passing away from 
existence, uttered this stanza : — 

' They're transient all, each being's parts and powers, 
Growth is their very nature, and decay. 



* Brahma, the first cause, the highest result of Indian theological 
speculation, the one God of the Indian Pantheists, is represented as 
using expressions full of deep allusions to the most characteristic 
Buddhist doctrines. The Samussaya is the result of the temporary 
collocation of the 'aggregations' (khandha) of mental and material 
qualities which give to each being (bhuto, that is, man, animal, 
god, ghost, fairy, or what not) its outward and visible shape, its 
individuality. Loka is here not the world in our sense, but the 
' locality ' in the Buddhist universe which such an individual occupies 
until it is dissolved. (Comp. Chap. II, §§ 12, 26.) Brahma appears 
therefore as a veritable Doctor in theology, and I have been obliged 
to expand the translation to bring out all the meaning in the text. 



176 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 157. 

They are produced, they are dissolved again : 
To bring them all into subjection — that is bliss \ 

When the Exalted One died, the venerable Anu- 
ruddha, at the moment of his passing away from 
existence, uttered these stanzas : — 

' When he who from all cravino- want was free. 
Who to Nirvana's tranquil state had reached, 
When the great sage finished his span of life, 
No gasping struggle vexed that steadfast heart ! 

All resolute, and with unshaken mind, 
He calmly triumphed o'er the pain of death. 
E'en as a bright flame dies away, so was 
The last emancipation of his heart.' 



^ On this celebrated verse see below the Introduction to Maha- 
Sudassana-Suttanta. It must be the original of the first verse in the 
Chinese work, Fa Kheu Pi Hu (Beal, Dhammapada, p. 32), though it 
is there so changed that every clause has lost its point. 

' Whatever exists is without endurance, 
And hence the terms ' flourishing ' and * decaying.' 
A man is born, and then he dies. 
Oh, the happiness of escaping from this condition ! ' 

The very meaning which is here the most essential connotation of 
sahkhara is lost in the phrase 'whatever exists.' By a misappre- 
hension of the, no doubt, difficult word Dhamma, which, however, 
never means 'term,' the second clause has lost its point. And by 
a grammatical blunder the third clause in the Chinese confines the 
doctrine, erroneously, to man. In a Chinese tale, called Ngan shih 
niu, translated by Mr. Beal, in the ' Indian Antiquary ' for May, 1880, 
the following verses occur; and they are possibly another reflection of 
this stanza : — 

'All things that exist are transitory, 
They must of necessity perish and disappear; 
Though joined together, there must be separation ; 
Where there is life there must be death.' 

Compare the constantly repeated phrase : — ' Whatsoever hath an 
origin in that is inherent the necessity of dissolution.' The per- 
ception of this is emphatically called the Eye for the Truth ; and the 
doctrine is referred to in the next section. 



D. ii. i:<8. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 177 



When the Exalted One died, the venerable Ananda, 
at the moment of his passing away from existence, 
uttered this stanza : — 

' Then was there terror ! 
Then stood the hair on end ! 
When he endowed with every grace — 
The supreme Buddha — died ! ^ ' 

2 When the Exalted One died, of those of the 
brethren who were not yet free from the passions, 
some stretched out their arms and wept, and some fell 
headlong on the ground, rolling to and fro in anguish 
at the thought : — [iss] ' Too soon has the Exalted One 
died! Too soon has the Happy One passed away! 
Too soon has the Li^ht orone out in the world ! ' 

But those of the brethren who were free from the 
passions [the Arahants] bore their grief collected and 
composed at the thought : — ' Impermanent are all com- 
ponent things ! How is it possible that [they should 
not be dissolved] ? ' 

1 1. Then the venerable Anuruddha exhorted the 
brethren, and said : — ' Enough, my brethren ! Weep 
not, neither lament ! Has not the Exalted One formerly 
declared this to us, that it is in the very nature of all 
things near and dear unto us, that we must divide our- 
selves from them, leave them, sever ourselves from 
them ? How then, brethren, can this be possible — 
that whereas anything whatever born, brought into 
being, and organized, contains within itself the inherent 
necessity of dissolution — how then can this be possible 
that such a being should not be dissolved ? No such 



^ In these four stanzas we seem to have the way in which the 
death of the Buddha would be regarded, as the early Buddhist 
thought, by four representative persons — the exalted God of the 
theologians ; the Jupiter of the multitude (allowing in the case of 
each of these for the change in character resulting from their con- 
\ ersion to Buddhism) ; the holy, thoughtful Arahant ; and the loving, 
childlike disciple. 

^ Nearly = V, § 6; and below, VI, 19. 
III. N 



178 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 158. 

condition can exist ! Even the spirits, brethren, will 
reproach us ^.' 

' But of what kind of spirits, Sir, is the venerable 
Anuruddha thinking ? ' 

* There are spirits, brother Ananda, in the sky, but 
of worldly mind, who dishevel their hair and weep, 
and stretch forth their arms and weep, fall prostrate 
on the ground, and roll to and fro in anguish at the 
thought : — " Too soon has the Exalted One died ! Too 
soon has the Light gone out in the world ! " 

* There are spirits, too, Ananda, on the earth, and 
of worldly mind, who tear their hair and weep, and 
stretch forth their arms and weep, fall prostrate on the 

' U^^y^ayanti. I have followed the reading of my own MS., 
which is confirmed by the Sumangala Vilasini and the Malalahkara- 
vatthu. Vi^^^ayanti, which Childers reads, would be questionable 
Buddhism. The spirits do not become extinct ; that is, not as 
a general rule, as would be implied by the absolute statement : — ' Even 
the spirits, brethren, become extinct.' It is no doubt true that all 
spirits, from the lowest to the highest, from the most insignificant 
fairy to the God of theological speculation, are regarded as temporary. 
But when they cease to exist as gods or spirits (devata), they do not 
go out, they are not extinguished (vi^^//ayanti); they continue to 
exist in some other form. And though that other form would, from 
the European point of view, be a different being, as there would be no 
continuity of consciousness, no passage of a ' soul ' from the one to 
the other; it would, from the Buddhist point of view, be the same 
being, as it would be the resultant effect of the same Karma. There 
would follow on the death of a devata, not extinction, but a trans- 
mutation of force, a transmigration of character, a passing on, an 
inheritance of Karma. Only in the exceedingly rare case of an 
anagamin, of which an instance will be found above Chap. II, § 7, 
could it be said that a spirit becomes extinct. 

The expression ' of worldly mind,' here and above in V, 6, is in 
PaU pa/^avi-safifiiiniyo, an ambiguous phrase which has only 
as yet been found in this connexion. The word is here opposed to 
vttaraga, 'free from passion,' and I have therefore taken it in 
a spiritual sense. There is another possibility, viz. that it is used in 
an intellectual sense, ' making the idea of earth present to their mind' ; 
and this would be in accordance with the use of safifii in the 
Kasiwa meditations, in which spirits, like men, were supposed to 
indulge; see Digha II, 108. But how easily, especially in Buddhism, 
the intellectual merges into the religious may be seen from such 
a Kasiwa phrase as mara«a-safifiino, used at Mahavawsa V, 159, 
of good men. 



D. iL 159. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 79 



ground, and roll to and fro in anguish at the thought : — 
" Too soon has the Blessed One died ! Too soon has 
the Happy One passed away! Too soon has the 
Light gone out in the world ! " 

' But the spirits who are free from passion bear it, 
calm and self-possessed, mindful of the saying which 
begins : — " Impermanent indeed are all component 
things. How then is it possible [. . . that such a being 
should not be dissolved] ? ^ " ' 



12. Now the venerable Anuruddha and the venerable 
Ananda spent the rest of that night in religious dis- 
course. Then the venerable Anuruddha^ said to the 
venerable Ananda : — ' Go now, brother Ananda, into 
Kusinara and inform the Mallas of Kusinara, saying: — 
" The Exalted One, O Vase///^as, is dead ; do, then, 
whatever seemeth to you fit ! " ' 

' Even so. lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the venerable Anuruddha. And having 
robed himself early in the morning, he took his bowl, 
and went into Kusinara with one of the brethren as 
an attendant [is 9]. 

Now at that time the Mallas of Kusinara were 
assembled in the council hall concerning that very 
matter. 

And the venerable Ananda went to the council hall 
of the Mallas of Kusinara ; and when he had arrived 
there, he informed them, sa)ing : — ' The Blessed One. 
O V^se///^as, is dead ; do. then, whatever seemeth to 
you fit ! ' 

And when they had heard this saying of the vener- 
able Ananda, the Mallas, with their young men and 
their maidens and their wives, were grieved, and sad, 
and afflicted at heart. And some of them wept, 
dishevelling their hair, and some stretched forth their 
arms and wept, and some fell prostrate on the ground, 
and some reeled to and fro in anguish at the thought : — 
* Too soon has the Exalted One died ! Too soon has 



See the end of the first paragraph of this section. 
N 2 



l8o XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 159. 



the Happy One passed away! Too soon has the 
Light gone out in the world ! ' 

13. Then the Mallas of Kusinara gave orders to 
their attendants, saying : — ' Gather together perfumes 
and garlands, and all the music in Kusinara ! ' 

And the Mallas of Kusinara took the perfumes and 
garlands, and all the musical instruments, and five 
hundred suits of apparel, and went to the Upavattana, 
to the Sala Grove of the Mallas, where the body of 
the Exalted One lay. There they passed the day in 
paying honour, reverence, respect, and homage to the 
remains of the Exalted One with dancing, and hymns, 
and music, and with garlands and perfumes ; and in 
making canopies of their garments, and preparing 
decoration wreaths to hang thereon \ 

Then the Mallas of Kusinara thought : — 
* It is much too late to burn the body of the Exalted 
One to-day. Let us now perform the cremation 
to-morrow.' And in paying honour, reverence, respect, 
and homage to the remains of the Exalted One with 
dancing, and hymns, and music, and with garlands and 
perfumes ; and in making canopies of their garments, 
and preparing decoration wreaths to hang thereon, 
they passed the second day too, and then the third day, 
and the fourth, and the fifth, and the sixth day also. 

14. Then on the seventh day the Mallas of Kusi- 
nara [leo] thought : — 



^ The dress of the Mallas consisted probably of mere lengths of 
muslin or cotton cloth ; and a suit of apparel consisted of two or, at 
the outside, of three of these — one to wrap around the loins, one to 
throw over the shoulders, and one to use as a turban. To make 
a canopy on occasions of state they would join such pieces together ; 
to make the canopy into a tent they would simply add walls of the 
same material ; and the only decoration, as simple as it is beautiful, 
would be wreaths of flowers, or single lotuses, hanging from the roof, 
or stretched along the sides. Every civil servant travelling on duty 
in remote districts in Ceylon has such a tent or canopy put up for him 
by the peasantry. 



D. ii. l6o. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 8 1 



' Let us carry the body of the Exalted One, by the 
south and outside, to a spot on the south, and outside 
of the city, — paying it honour, and reverence, and 
respect, and homage, with dance, and song, and music, 
with garlands and perfumes, — and there, to the south 
of the city, let us perform the cremation ceremony ! ' 

And thereupon eight chieftains among the Mallas 
bathed their heads, and clad themselves in new grar- 
ments with the intention of bearing the body of the 
Exalted One. But, behold, they could not lift it up ! 

Then the IMallas of Kusinara said to the venerable 
Anuruddha : — ' What, lord, can be the reason, what 
can be the cause, that eight chieftains of the Mallas 
who have bathed their heads, and clad themselves in 
new garments with the intention of bearing the body 
of the Exalted One, are unable to lift it up ? ' 

' It is because you, O Vase/Z/^as, have one purpose, 
and the spirits have another purpose.' 

1 5. ' But what, lord, is the purpose of the spirits ? ' 

' Your purpose, O \''ase////as, is this : — Let us carry 
the body of the Exalted One, by the south and outside, 
to a spot on the south, and outside of the city, — paying 
it honour, and reverence, and respect, and homage, 
with dance, and song, and music, with garlands and 
perfumes, — and there, to the south of the city, let us 
perform the cremation ceremony. But the purpose of 
the spirits, \^ase////as, is this : — Let us carry the body 
of the Exalted One by the north to the north of the 
city, and entering the city by the north gate, let us 
bring it through the midst of the city into the midst 
thereof And going out again by the eastern gate, — 
paying honour, and reverence, and respect, and homage 
to the body of the Exalted One, with heavenly dance, 
and song, and music, and garlands, and perfumes, — 
let us carry it to the shrine of the Mallas called 
Maku/a-bandhana, to the east of the city, and there 
let us perform the cremation ceremony,' 

* Even according to the purpose of the spirits, so. 
lord, let it be.' 



1 82 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. i6o. 



1 6. Then immediately all Kusinara down even to 
the dust bins and rubbish heaps became strewn knee- 
deep with Mandarava flowers from heaven ! and while 
both the spirits from the skies, and the Mallas of 
Kusinara upon earth, paid honour, and reverence, and 
respect, and homage to the body of the Exalted One, 
with dance, and song, and music, [l6l] with garlands, 
and with perfumes, they carried the body by the north 
to the north of the city ; and entering the city by the 
north gate they carried it through the midst of the 
city into the midst thereof; and going out again b)- 
the eastern gate they carried it to the shrine of the 
Mallas, called Maku/a-bandhana ; and there, to the 
east of the city, they laid down the body of the Exalted 
One^ 

172. Then the Mallas of Kusinara said to the vener- 
able Ananda : — ' What should be done, lord, with the 
remains of the Tathagata ? ' 

' As men treat the remains of a king of kings, 
so, YaseU/ms, should they treat the remains of a 
Tathagata.' 

' And how, lord, do they treat the remains of a king 
of kings? ' 

* They wrap the body of a king of kings, Vase//^as, 
in a new cloth. When that is done they wrap it in 
carded cotton wool. When that is done they wrap it 
in a new cloth, — and so on till they have wrapped the 
body in five hundred successive layers of both kinds. 
Then they place the body in an oil vessel of iron, 
and cover that close up with another oil vessel of iron. 
They then build a funeral pyre of all kinds of perfumes, 

^ The point of this interesting legend is that the inhabitants of an 
Indian village of that time would have considered it a desecration or 
pollution to bring a dead body into or through their village. 
Authorities differ as to the direction in which it should be taken to 
avoid this. The old custom, according to Caland (p. 23) was to take 
it to the East or the West. Later priestly books (INIanu, for instance, 
V, 92) say to the North. The Mallas wanted to go to the South. 
The remedy proposed by the spirits who are shocked at this im- 
propriety, is more shocking still. 

^ Compare Chap. V, §§ ir, 12. 



D. ii. l62. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 183 

and burn the body of the king of kings. And then at 
the four cross roads they erect a cairn to the king of 
kings. This, Vase//-^as, is the way in which they 
treat the remains of a king of kings. 

' And as they treat the remains of a king of kings, 
so, Vase//^as, should they treat the remains of the 
Tathagata. At the four cross roads a cairn should be 
erected to the Tathagata. And whosoever shall there 
place garlands or perfumes or paint, or make salutation 
there, or become in its presence calm in heart — that 
shall long be to them for a profit and a joy.' 

18. Therefore the Mallas gave orders to their 
attendants, saying : — ' Gather together all the carded 
cotton wool of the Mallas ! ' 

Then the Mallas of Kusinara wrapped the body of 
the Exalted One in a new cloth. And when that was 
done, they wrapped it in carded cotton wool. And 
when that was done, they wrapped it in a new cloth, 
[162] — and so on till they had wrapped the body of the 
Exalted One in five hundred layers of both kinds. 
And then they placed the body in an oil vessel of iron, 
and covered that close up with another oil vessel of 
iron. And then they built a funeral pyre of all kinds 
of perfumes, and upon it they placed the body of the 
Exalted One. 



19. Now at that time the venerable Maha Kassapa 
was journeying along the high road from Pava to 
Kusinara with a great company of the brethren, with 
about five hundred of the brethren. And the vener- 
able Maha Kassapa left the high road, and sat himself 
down at the foot of a certain tree. 

Just at that time a certain naked ascetic ^ who had 
picked up a Mandarava flower in Kusinara was coming 
along the high road to Pava. 

Now the venerable Maha Kassapa saw the naked 
ascetic coming in the distance ; and when he had seen 
him he said to that naked ascetic : — 



^ An Ajivaka. See the note above at Vol. I, p. 71. 



184 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 162. 

' O friend ! surely thou knowest our Master ? ' 

' Yea, friend ! I know him. This day the Samara 
Gotama has been dead a week ! That is how 
I obtained this Mandarava flower.' 

On that of those of the brethren who were not yet 
free from the passions, some stretched out their arms 
and wept, and some fell headlong on the ground, and 
some reeled to and fro in anguish at the thought: — 'Too 
soon has the Exalted One died ! Too soon has the 
Happy One passed away ! Too soon has the Light 
gone out in the world ! ' 

But those of the brethren who were free from the 
passions [the Arahants] bore their grief self-possessed 
and composed at the thought : — ' Impermanent are all 
component things! How is it possible that [they 
should not be dissolved] ? ' 



20. Now at that time a brother named Subhadda, 
who had been received into the Order in his old age, 
was seated in that company ^ 

And Subhadda the recruit in his old age said to 
those brethren : — ' Enough, sirs ! Weep not, neither 
lament ! We are well rid of the great Sama;^a. We 
used to be annoyed by being told : — " This beseems you, 
this beseems you not." But now we shall be able to 
do whatever we like ; and what we do not like, that 
we shall not have to do ! ' 

But the venerable Maha Kassapa exhorted the 
brethren : — ' Enough, my brethren ! Weep not, neither 
lament! [163] Has not the Exalted One formerly 
declared this, that it is in the very nature of all things 
near and dear unto us that we must divide ourselves 



^ At p. xxvi of the Introduction to his edition of the Vinaya, 
Prof. Oldenberg identifies this Subhadda with Subhadda the last 
convert, mentioned above at the end of Chap. V. They are different 
persons; the last convert being represented as a man of high 
character, incapable of the conduct here ascribed to this Subhadda. 
The last convert was a brahmin, traditionally supposed to be younger 
brother to Afifia Kondafifia, the first convert ; this Subhadda had been 
a barber in the village Atuma. 



D. ii. 163. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 85 

from them, leave them, sever ourselves from them ? 
How then, brethren, can this be possible — whereas 
anything whatever born, brought into being, and 
organized contains within itself the inherent necessity' 
of dissolution — how then can this be possible that such 
a being should not be dissolved ? No such condition 
can exist ! ' 



21. Now just at that time four chieftains of the 
Mallas had bathed their heads and clad themselves in 
new garments with the intention of setting on fire the 
funeral pyre of the Exalted One. But, behold, they 
were unable to set it alight ! 

Then the Mallas of Kusinara said to the venerable 
Anuruddha : — ' What, lord, can be the reason, and 
what the cause [of this] ? ' 

' The purpose of the spirits, O Vase////as, is 
different' 

' But what, sir, is the purpose of the spirits ? ' 

' The purpose of the spirits, O Vase///^as, is this : — 
That venerable brother Maha Kassapa is now journey- 
ing along the way from Pava to Kusinara with a great 
company of the brethren, with five hundred brethren. 
The funeral pyre of the Exalted One shall not catch 
fire until the venerable Maha Kassapa shall have been 
able reverently to salute the feet of the Exalted One.' 

' Even according to the purpose of the spirits so, sir, 
let it be!' 

22. Then the venerable Maha Kassapa went on to 
Maku/a-bandhana of Kusinara, to the shrine of the 
Mallas, to the place where the funeral p}Te of the 
Exalted One was. And when he had come up to it 
he arranged his robe on one shoulder ; and after bow- 
ing down with clasped hands, he thrice walked 
reverently round the pyre, and then, uncovering the 
feet, he bowed down in reverence at the feet of the 
Exalted One. 

And those five hundred brethren arranored their 
robes on one shoulder ; and bowing down with clasped 



t86 XVI. MAHA PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA. D. 11.163. 

hands, they thrice walked reverently round the pyre, 
and then bowed down in reverence at the feet of the 
Exalted One [164]. 

And when the homage of the venerable Maha 
Kassapa and of those five hundred brethren was ended, 
the funeral pyre of the Exalted One caught fire of 
itself '. 

23. Now as the body of the Exalted One burned 
itself away, from the skin and the integument, and the 
flesh, and the nerves, and the fluid of the joints, neither 
soot nor ash was seen. Only the bones remained 
behind. Just as one sees no soot or ash when ghee 
or oil is burned ; so, as the body of the Exalted One 
burned itself away, from the skin and the integument, 
and the flesh, and the nerves, and the fluid of the 
joints, neither soot nor ash was seen. Only the bones 
remained behind. And of those five hundred pieces 
of raiment the very innermost and outermost were both 
consumed. 

And when the body of the Exalted One had been 
burnt up, there came down streams of water from the 
sky and extinguished the funeral pyre of the Exalted 
One ; and there burst forth streams of water from the 
storehouse of the waters [beneath the earth], and 
extinguished the funeral pyre of the Exalted One. 
The Mallas of Kusindra also brought water scented 



^ It is possible that we have here the survival of some ancient 
custom. Spence Hardy appropriately refers to a ceremony among 
Jews (of what place or time is not mentioned) in the following terms : — 
' Just before a Jew is taken out of the house to be buried, the relatives 
and acquaintances of the departed stand round the coffin ; when the 
feet are uncovered ; and each in rotation lays hold of the great toes, 
and begs pardon for any offence given to tlie deceased, and requests 
a favourable mention of them in the next world ' (' Manual of 
Buddhism,' p. 348). 

The Buddhist bhikkhus in Siam and the great majority of those in 
Ceylon (the adherents of the Siyam-samagama) always keep one 
shoulder uncovered. It is evident that the bhikkhus in Burma and 
those in Ceylon, who belong to theAmara-pura-samagama, are 
more in accordance with ancient custom in wearing the robe 
ordinarily over both shoulders. 



D. ii. 165. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 87 



with all kinds of perfumes, and extinguished the 
funeral pyre of the Exalted One '. 

Then the Mallas of Kusinara surrounded the 
bones of the Exalted One in their council hall with 
a lattice work of spears, and with a rampart of bows ; 
and there for seven days they paid honour, and rever- 
ence, and respect, and homage to them with dance, and 
song, and music, and with garlands and perfumes. 

24. Now the king of Magadha, Ajatasattu, the son 
of the queen of the Videha clan, heard the news that 
the Exalted One had died at Kusinara. 

Then the king of Magadha, Ajatasattu, the son of 
the queen of the V^ideha clan, sent a messenger to the 
Mallas, saying, — ' The Exalted One was a Kshatriya 
and so am I. I am worthy to receive a portion of the 
relics of the Exalted One. Over the remains of the 
Exalted One will I put up a sacred cairn, and in their 
honour will I celebrate a feast ! ' 

And the Licchavis of Vesali heard the news that the 
Exalted One had died at Kusinara. And the Licchavis 
of Vesali sent a messenger to the Mallas, saying: — 'The 
Exalted One was a Kshatriya and so are we [IQS]. 
We are worthy to receive a portion of the relics of the 
Exalted One. Over the remains of the Exalted One 
will we put up a sacred cairn, and in their honour will 
we celebrate a feast ! ' 

And the Sakiyas of Kapila-vatthu heard the news 
that the Exalted One had died at Kusinara. And the 



^ There is something very quaint in the way in which the faithful 
Mallas are here represented as bringing coals to Newcastle. The 
'storehouse of the waters' is in Pali udaka-sala, on which Buddha- 
ghosa has two theories : first, that the Sala trees around shed down 
a miraculous rain from their trunks and branches and leaves; and 
next, that the waters burst up from the earth and became as it were 
a diadem of crystal round the pyre. On the belief that water thus 
burst up miraculously through the earth, see ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' 
pp. 64, 67. If the reading be correct it is scarcely possible that sala 
can here have anything to do with Sala trees ; but the other interpreta- 
tion is open to the objections that sala means an open hall rather 
than a storehouse, and that the belief in a ' storehouse of water ' has 
not, as yet, been found elsewhere. 



1 88 XVI. mahA parinibbAna suttanta. d. u. 165. 



Sakiyas of Kapila-vatthu sent a messenger to the 
Mallas, saying : — ' The Exalted One was the pride of 
our race. We are worthy to receive a portion of the 
relics of the Exalted One. Over the remains of the 
Exalted One will we put up a sacred cairn, and in their 
honour will we celebrate a feast ! ' 

And the Bulis of Allakappa heard the news that the 
Exalted One had died at Kusinara. And the Bulis of 
Allakappa sent a messenger to the Mallas, saying: — 'The 
Exalted One was a Kshatriya and so are we. We are 
worthy to receive a portion of the relics of the Exalted 
One. Over the remains of the Exalted One will we 
put up a sacred cairn, and in their honour will we 
celebrate a feast ! ' 

And the Koliyas of Ramagama heard the news that 
the Exalted One had died at Kusinira. And the 
Koliyas of Ramagama sent a messenger to the Mallas, 
saying: — 'The Exalted One was a Kshatriya and so are 
we. We are worthy to receive a portion of the relics 
of the Exalted One. Over the remains of the Exalted 
One will we put up a sacred cairn, and in their honour 
will we celebrate a feast ! ' 

And the brahmin of Ve//^adipa heard the news that 
the Exalted One had died at Kusinara. And the 
brahmin of Ve^/^adipa sent a messenger to the Mallas, 
saying: — ' The Exalted One was a Kshatriya, and I am 
a brahmin. I am worthy to receive a portion of the 
relics of the Exalted One. Over the remains of the 
Exalted One will I put up a sacred cairn, and in their 
honour will I celebrate a feast ! ' 

And the Mallas of Pava heard the news that the 
Exalted One had died at Kusinara. 

Then the Mallas of Pava sent a messenger to the 
Mallas, saying : — ' The Exalted One was a Kshatriya 
and so are we. We are worthy to receive a portion of 
the relics of the Exalted One. Over the remains of 
the Exalted One will we put up a sacred cairn, and in 
their honour will we celebrate a feast ! ' 



D. ii. i66. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 1 89 



25. When they heard these things the Mallas of 
Kusinara spoke to the assembled crowds, saying : — 
[166] ' The Exalted One died in our village domain. 
We will not give away any part of the remains of 
the Exalted One ! ' 

When they had thus spoken, Dona, the brahmin 
addressed the assembled crowds, and said : — 

' Hear, gracious sirs, one single word from me. 
Forbearance was our Buddha wont to teach. 
Unseemly is it that over the division 
Of the remains of him who was the best of beings 
Strife should arise, and wounds, and war I 
Let us all, sirs, with one accord unite 
In friendly harmony to make eight portions. 
Wide spread let cairns spring up in every land 
That in the Light of the world mankind may trust ! ' 

' Do thou then, O brahmin, thyself divide the remains 
of the Exalted One equally into eight parts, with fair 
division ^.' 

' Be it so, sirs ! ' said Dowa the brahmin, in assent, to 
the assembled brethren. And he divided the remains 
of the Exalted One equally into eight parts, with fair 
division. And he said to them : — ' Give me, sirs, this 
vessel, and I will set up over it a sacred cairn, and in 
its honour will I establish a feast.' 

And they gave the vessel to Do«a the brahmin. 



26. And the Moriyas of Pipphalivana heard the 
news that the Exalted One had died at Kusinara. 

Then the Moriyas of Pipphalivana sent a messenger 
to the Mallas, saying : — ' The Exalted One was a 
Kshatriya and so are we. We are worthy to receive 
a portion of the relics of the Exalted One. Over the 
remains of the Exalted One will we put up a sacred 
cairn, and in their honour will we celebrate a feast ! ' 

And when they heard the answer, saying: — 'There is 



^ Here again the commentator expands and adds /o the com- 
paratively simple version of the text. 



I90 XVI. MAHA PARINTBBANA S'UTTANTA. D. ii. i66. 



no portion of the remains of the Exalted One left over. 
The remains of the Exalted One are all distributed,' 
then they took away the embers. 

27. So the king of Magadha, Ajatasattu, the son of 
the queen of the Videha clan, made a cairn in Rajagaha 
over the remains of the Exalted One, and celebrated 
a feast [167], 

And the Licchavis of Vesali made a cairn in Vesali 
over the remains of the Exalted One, and celebrated 
a feast. 

And the Sakiyas of Kapila-vatthu made a cairn in 
Kapila-vatthu over the remains of the Exalted One, 
and celebrated a feast. 

And the Bulis of Allakappa made a cairn in Alla- 
kappa over the remains of the Exalted One, and 
celebrated a feast. 

And the Koliyas of Ramagama made a cairn in 
Ramagama over the remains of the Exalted One, and 
celebrated a feast. 

And Ve//^adipaka the brahmin made a cairn in 
Ve/Z/adipa over the remains of the Exalted One, and 
celebrated a feast. 

And the Mallas of Pava made a cairn in Pava over 
the remains of the Exalted One, and celebrated 
a feast. 

And the Mallas of Kusinara made a cairn in 
Kusinara over the remains of the Exalted One, and 
celebrated a feast. 

And Do;^a the brahmin made a cairn over the vessel 
[in which the remains had been collected] and celebrated 
a feast. 

And the Moriyas of Pipphalivana made a cairn over 
the embers, and celebrated a feast. 

Thus were there eight cairns (Thupas) for the 
remains, and one for the vessel, and one for the embers. 
This was how it used to be \ 



^ Here closes Buddhaghosa's long and edifying commentary. He 
has no note on the following verses, which he says were added by 



p. ii. 167. THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. I9I 

[28. Eight measures of relics there were of him of 

the far-seeing eye, 
Of the best of the best of men. In India seven are 

worshipped, 
And one measure in Ramagama, by the kings of the 

serpent race. 
One tooth, too, is honoured in heaven, and one in 

Gandhara's city. 
One in the Kalinga realm, and one more by the 

Naga race. 
Through their glory the bountiful earth is made 

bright with offerings painless — 
For with such are the Great Teacher's relics best 

honoured by those who are honoured. 
By gods and by Nagas and kings, yea, thus by the 

noblest of humans — 
Bow down with clasped hands ! 
Hard, hard is a Buddha to meet with through 

hundreds of ages !] 

End of the Book of the Great Decease. 



Theras in Ceylon. The additional verse found in the Phayre MS. 
Avas in the same way probably added in Burma. 



INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

mahA-sudassana-suttanta. 

This Suttanta is an expansion of the conversation recorded 
in the Book of the Great Decease (above, Ch. V, § 17). 

The same legend recurs as the Maha-Sudassana Jataka, 
No. 95 in Mr. Fausboll's edition. As the latter differs in 
several important particulars from our Suttanta, it is probably 
not taken directly from it, but is merely derived from the 
same source. To facilitate comparison between the two I add 
here a translation of the Jataka. 

The part enclosed in square brackets [ ] is the so-called 
Story of the Present : and the whole was probably written in 
Ceylon in the fifth century of our era. There is every reason 
to believe, for the reasons given in my * Buddhist India ' 
(pp. 201-7), that the stories themselves belong to a very early 
period in the history of Buddhism and are, many of them, older 
even than Buddhism. We may be sure that if this particular 
story had been abstracted by the author of the commentary 
from our Suttanta, he would not have ventured to introduce 
such serious changes into what he regarded as sacred writ. 

MAHA-SUDASSANA jAtaka. 

[' How transient arc all component things.' This the Master 
told when lying on his death-couch, concerning that word 
of Ananda the Thera, when he said : — ' Do not, O Exalted One, 
die in this little town,' and so on. 

When the Tathagata was at the Jetavana^ he thought: — 



^ It is not easy with our present materials to reconcile the apparent!}- 
conflicting statements with regard to the Buddha's last journey. 
According to the Malalahkara-vatthu this refers here to a residence at 
the jetavana, which took place between the end of § 23 in Chap. II in 
the Book of the Great Decease, and the beginning of § 24. 

Mr. Fausboll, by his punctuation, includes these words in the 
following thought ascribed to the Exalted One, but I think they only 
describe the time at which the thought is supposed to have arisen. 



INTRODUCTION. 1 93 



'The Thera Sariputta, who was born at Xalagama, has died, 
on the day of the full moon in the month of Kattika, in the 
chamber in which he had been born ^ ; and Maha-Moggallana 
in the latter, the dark half of that same month. As my two 
chief disciples are thus dead, I too will pass away at Kusinara.' 
Thereupon he proceeded straight on to that place, and lay 
down on the Uttarasisaka couch, between the twin Sala trees, 
never to rise again. 

Then the venerable Ananda besought him, saying: — 'Let not 
the Exalted One die in this little township, in this little town 
in the jungle, in this branch township. Let the Exalted One 
die in one of the other great cities, such as Rajagaha, and the 
rest ! ' 

But the Master answered : — ' Say not, Ananda, that this is 
a little township, a little town in the jungle, a branch township. 
I was dwelling formerly in this town at the time when I was 
Sudassana, the king of kings ; and then it was a great city, 
surrounded by a jewelled rampart, twelve leagues in length ! ' 

And at the request of the Thera, he, telling the tale, uttered 
the Maha-Sudassana-Sutta ^.j 

Now on that occasion when Queen Subhadda saw Maha- 
Sudassana when he had come down out of the Palace of 
Righteousness, and was lying down, not far off, on the 
appropriate couch, spread out in the grove of the seven kinds 
of gems, and when she said : — ' Thine, O king, are these four 
and eighty thousand cities, of which the chief is the royal city 
of Kusavati. Set thy heart on these ' ; — 

Then replied Maha-Sudassana: 'Speak not thus, O queen! 
but exhort me rather, saying : — " Cast away desire for these, 
long not after them ^." ' 

* The text reads 'at Varaka.' But this is a mistake. The word 
which has puzzled Mr. Fausboll is o varaka. The modem name of 
the village, afterwards the site of the famous Buddhist university of 
Nalanda, is Baragaon. The full-moon day in Kattika is the first of 
December, An account of the death of Sariputta will be found in the 
Malalahkara-vatthu (Bigandet, 'Legend,' &c., 3rd ed., II, 1-25), and 
of the murder of IMoggallana by the Niga«//ias in the Dhammapada 
commentar)- (Fausboll, p. 298 seq.), of which Spence Hardy's account 
(' iNIanual of Buddhism,' p. 338) is nearly a translation ; and Bigandet's 
account (loc. cit., pp. 25-7) is an abridgement. 

'^ In the earliest description of this conversation (above, ' Book of 
the Great Decease,' V, 17) there is no mention of this. But it is 
inserted most incongruously in the present Suttanta, 

^ Both these speeches are different from those given on the same 
occasion in the Suttanta below. 

III. O 



1 94 INTRODUCTION. 



And when she asked : — ' Why so, O king ? ' ' To-day my 
time is come, and I shall die ! ' was his reply ^. 

Then the weeping queen, wiping her eyes, brought herself 
with difficulty and distress to address him accordingly. And 
having spoken, she wept, and lamented ; and the other four 
and eighty thousand women wept too, and lamented ; and 
of the attendant courtiers not one could restrain himself, but 
all also wept. 

But the Bodisat stopped them all, saying : — ' Enough, my 
friends ! Be still ! ' And he exhorted the queen, saying : — 
' Neither do thou, O queen, weep : neither do thou lament. 
For down even unto a grain of sesamum fruit there is no such 
thing as a compound which is permanent ! All are transient, 
all have the inherent quality of dissolution ! ' 

And when he had so said, he further uttered this stanza : — 

' How transient are all component things ! 
Growth is their nature and decay : 
They are produced, they are dissolved again : 
To bring them into full subjection, that is bliss ^.' 

[In these verses the words * How transient are all component 
things ! ' mean ' Dear lady Subhadda, wheresoever and by 
whatsoever causes made or come together, compounds ^, — that 
is, all those things which possess the essential constituents 
[whether material or mental] of existing things^, — all these 
compounds are impermanence itself. For of these form^ is 
impermanent, reason^ is impermanent, the [mental] eye^ is 
impermanent, and qualities ^ are impermanent. And whatever 
treasure there be, whether conscious or unconscious, that is 
transitory. Understand therefore " How transient are all 
component things ! " 

' And why ? " Growth is their nature and decay." These, 
all, have the inherent quality of coming into [individual] 
existence, and have also the inherent quality of growing old ; 
or [in other words] their very nature is to come into existence 
and to be broken up. Therefore should it be understood that 
they are impermanent. 

' And since they are impermanent, when " they are produced, 
they are dissolved again." Having come into existence, 

' This question and answer are not in the Suttanta. 

^ All this is omitted in the Suttanta. It is true the verse occurs 
there, but it is placed in the mouth of the Teacher, after the account of 
Maha-Sudassana's death. 

' Sankhara. * Khandayatanadayo. ^ Rfipam. 

" Vinfianam. ' Cakkhum. ^ Dhamma. 



INTRODUCTION. 1 95 



having reached a state \ they are surely dissolved. For all 
these things come into existence, taking an individual form ; 
and are dissolved, being broken up. To them as soon as there 
is birth, there is what is called a state ; as soon as there is 
a state, there is what is called disintegration -. For to the 
unborn there is no such thing as state, and there is no such 
thing as a state which is without disintegration. Thus are all 
compounds, having attained to the three characteristic marks 
[of impermanency, pain, and want of any abiding principle], 
subject, in this way and in that way, to dissolution. All 
these component things therefore, without exception, are 
impermanent, momentary, despicable, unstable, disintegrating, 
trembling, quaking, unlasting, sure to depart ", only for a time *, 
and without substance ; - as temporary as a phantom, as the 
mirage, or as foam ! 

' How then in these, dear lady Subhadda, can you feel any 
sign of satisfaction ? Understand rather than " to bring them 
into subjection, that is bliss." For to bring them into subjection, 
since it involves mastery over the whole circle of transmigration, 
is the same as Nirvana. That and this are one \ And there 
is no other bliss than that.'] 

And when Maha-Sudassana had thus brought his discourse 
to a point with the ambrosial great Nirvana, and had made 
exhortation also to the rest of the great multitude, saying: — 
' Give gifts ! Observe the precepts ! Keep the sacred days ** ! ' 
he became an inheritor of the world of the gods. 

[When the Master had concluded this lesson in the truth, he 
summed up the Jataka, saying: — ' She who was then Subhadda 
the queen was the mother of Rahula, the great adviser was 
Rahula, the rest of the retinue the Buddha's retinue, and 
Maha-Sudassana I myself.'] 



The word translated ' component things ' or ' compounds ' is 
sahkhara, literally confections, from kar, 'to make,' and sam, 
'together.' It is a word very frequently used in Buddhist 
writings, and a word consequently of many different connota- 
tions ; and there is, of course, no exactly corresponding word 

' Thiti. 2 Bhango. 

^ Payata, literally 'departed.' The forms payati and payato, 
given by ChUders, should be corrected into payati and payato. 

* Tavakalika. See Jataka I, 121, where the word is used of 
a cart let out on hire for a time only. 

^ Tadevekamekazw, which is not altogether without ambiguity. 

•^ This paragraph, too, is omitted in the Suttanta. 

O 2 



1 96 INTRODUCTION. 



in English, ' Production ' would often be very nearly correct, 
although it fails entirely to give the force of the preposition 
sam ; but a greater objection to that word is the fact that it is 
generally used, not of things that have come into being of 
themselves, but of things that have been produced by some one 
else. It suggests, if it does not imply, a producer ; which is 
contrary to the whole spirit of the Buddhist passages in which 
the word sankhara occurs. In this important respect the 
word ' compound ' is a much more accurate translation, though 
it lays somewhat too much stress on the sam. 

The term Confections (to coin a rendering) is sometimes 
used to denote all things which have been brought together, 
made up, by pre-existing causes ; phenomena in general. 
In this sense it includes, as the commentator here points out, 
all those material or mental qualities which unite to form an 
individual, a separate thing or being, whether conscious or 
unconscious. 

It is more usually used, (with special reference to their origin 
from pre-existing causes, and with allusion to the wider mean- 
ings just above explained), of the mental confections only, 
the mental constituents, of all sentient beings generally, or of 
man alone. In this sense it forms by itself one of the five 
classes or aggregates (khandha) into which the material and 
mental qualities of each separate individual are divided in 
Buddhist writings — the class of dispositions, capabilities, and 
all that goes together to make what we call character. This 
class has naturally enough been again divided and subdivided ; 
and a full list of the Confections in this sense, as now 
acknowledged by orthodox Buddhists, will be found in my 
manual ' Buddhism' (pp. 91, 92). At the time when the Five 
Nikayas reached their present form, no such elaborate list 
of Confections in detail seems to have been made ; but the 
general sense of the word was, as is quite clear from the 
passages in which it occurs, the idea which these details 
together convey. It is this second and more usual meaning 
of the term which is more especially emphasized in the 
concluding verse of the above stanza. 

Turning now to the Suttanta itself, we find that the portion 
of the legend omitted in the Jataka throws an unexpected 
light upon the tale ; for it commences with a long description 
of the riches and glory of Maha-Sudassana, and reveals in its 
details the instructive fact that the legend is nothing more nor 
less than a spiritualized sun-myth. 

It cannot be disputed that the sun-myth theory has become 
greatly discredited, and with reason, by having been used too 



INTRODUCTION. 1 97 



carelessly and freely as an explanation of religious legends 
of different times and countries which have really no historical 
connexion with the earlier awe and reverence inspired by the 
sun. The very mention of the word sun-myth is apt to call 
forth a smile of incredulity, and the indubitable truth which 
s the basis of the theory has not sufficed to protect it from 
the shafts of ridicule. The ' Book of the Great King of Glory ' 
seems to afford a useful example both of the extent to which 
the theory may be accepted, and of the limitations under 
which it should always be applied. 

It must at once be admitted that whether the whole story 
is based on a sun-story, or whether certain parts or details 
of it are derived from things first spoken about the sun, or not, 
it is still essentially Buddhistic. A large proportion of its 
contents has nothing at all to do with the worship of the sun ; 
and even that which has, had not, in the mind of the author, 
when the book was put together. Whether indebted to a 
sun-myth or not, it is therefore perfectly true and valid evidence 
of the religious belief of the people among whom it was 
current ; and no more shows that the Buddhists were un- 
conscious sun-worshippers than the story of Samson, under 
any theory of its possible origin, would prove the same of 
the Jews. 

What we really have is a kind of wonderful fairy tale, 
a gorgeous poem, in which an attempt is made to describe in 
set terms the greatest possible glory and majesty of the 
greatest possible king, in order to show that all is vanity, save 
only righteousness — just such a poem as a Jewish prophet 
might have written of Solomon in all his glory. It would 
have been most strange, perhaps impossible, for the author 
to refrain from using the language of the only poets he knew, 
who had used their boldly figurative language in an attempt 
to describe the appearance of the sun. 

To trace back all the rhetorical phrases of our Sutta to their 
earliest appearance in the Vedic hymns would be an interest- 
ing task of historical philology, though it would throw more 
light upon Buddhist forms of speech than upon Buddhist forms 
of belief. In M. Senart's valuable work, 'La Legende du 
Bouddha,' he has already done this with regard to the seven 
treasures (mentioned in the early part of the Suttanta) on the 
basis of the corresponding passage in the later Buddhist 
Sanskrit poem called the Lalita Vistara. The description 
of the royal city and of its wondrous Palace of Righteousness 
has been probably originated by the author, though on the 
same lines ; and it reminds one irresistibly, in many of its 
expressions, of the similar, but simpler and more beautiful 



198 INTRODUCTION. 



poem in which a Jewish author, some three or four centuries 
afterwards, described the heavenly Jerusalem. 

When the Northern Buddhists, long afterwards, had smothered 
the simple teaching of the founder of their religion under the 
subtleties of theological and metaphysical speculation, and had 
forgotten all about the Aryan Path, their goal was no longer 
a change of heart in the Arahantship to be reached on earth, 
but a life of happiness, under a change of outward condition, 
in a heaven of bliss beyond the skies. One of the most popular 
books among the Buddhists of China and Japan is a description 
of this heavenly paradise of theirs, called the Sukhavati-vyuha, 
the ' Book of the Happy Country.' It is instructive to find 
that several of the expressions used are word for word the 
same as the corresponding phrases in our much older ' Book 
of the Great King of Glory.' 

Incidentally the details given in this Suttanta enable us to 
judge as to what was considered, at the time when it was put 
together, to be the greatest possible luxury and glory of the 
mightiest and most righteous king. In spite of the exuberance 
of some of the language used, the luxury is after all curiously 
simple, and mostly of an out-of-door kind. A summary of the 
conclusions which can be drawn from the sacred books of the 
Buddhists as to the social and economic condition of the Ganges 
valley, at the time when those books were composed, will be 
found in my ' Buddhist India,' ch. IV-VI. The very simple 
character of the luxury here depicted is in accordance with the 
evidence there given. 



[XVII. mahA-sudassana-suttanta. 

The Great King of Glory \ 
CHAPTER I.J 

1. [169] Thus have I heard. The Exalted One was 
once staying at Kusinara in the Upavattana, the Sala 
ofTove of the Mallas, between the twin Sala trees, at 
the time of his death. 

2. Now the venerable Ananda went up to the place 
where the Exalted One was, and bowed down before 
him, and took his seat respectfully on one side. And 
when he was so seated, the venerable Ananda said to 
the Exalted One : — 

' Let not the Exalted One die in this little wattle-and- 
daub town, in this town in the midst of the jungle, in 
this branch township. For, lord, there are other 
great cities, such as Champa, Rajagaha, Savatthi, Sa- 
keta, Kosambi, and Benares. Let the Exalted One 
die in one of them. There there are many wealthy 
nobles and brahmins and heads of houses, believers in 
the Tathagata, who will pay due honour to the remains 
of the Tathagata.' 

3. ' Say not so, Ananda ! Say not so, Ananda, that 
this is but a small wattle-and-daub town, a town in the 
midst of the jungle, a branch township. Long ago, 
Ananda, there was a king, by name Maha-Sudassana, 
a king of kings, a righteous man who ruled in righteous- 
ness, an anointed Kshatriya -, Lord of the four quarters 

^ Sudassana means ' beautiful to see, having a glorious appearance,' 
and is the name of many kings and heroes in Indian legend. 

- Khattiyo muddhavasitto, which does not occur in the IMaha- 
parinibbana, the Mahapadana, and the Lakkha^a Suttantas, and other 
places where this stock description of a king of kings is found. It is 
omitted also in the Lalita Vistara. The Burmese Phayre MS. of the 



200 XVII. MAHA-SUDASSANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 169. 

of the earth, conqueror, the protector of his people, 
possessor of the seven royal treasures. [i7o] This 
Kusinara, Ananda, was the royal city of king Maha- 
Sudassana, under the name of Kusavati, and on the 
east and on the west it was twelve leagues in length, 
and on the north and on the south it was seven leagues 
in breadth. That royal city Kusavati, Ananda, was 
mighty, and prosperous, and full of people, crowded 
with men, and provided with all things for food. Just, 
Ananda, as the royal city of the gods, A/akamandd by 
name, is mighty, prosperous, and full of people, crowded 
vyith the gods, and provided with all kinds of food, so, 
Ananda, was the royal city Kusivati mighty and pros- 
perous, full of people, crowded with men, and provided 
Avith all kinds of food. Both by day and by night, 
Ananda, the royal city Kusavati resounded with the ten 
cries ; that is to say, the noise of elephants, and the 
noise of horses, and the noise of chariots ; the sounds 
of the drum, of the tabor, and of the lute ; the sound of 
singing, and the sounds of the cymbal and of the gong ; 
and lastly, with the cry : — " Eat, drink, and be merry ^ ! 



4. ' The royal city Kusavati, Ananda, was surrounded 
by Seven Ramparts. Of these, one rampart was of 
gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, and one 
of crystal, and one of agate, and one of coral, and 
one of all kinds of orems ! 

O A 

5. ' To the royal city Kusavati, Ananda, there were 
Gates of four colours. One gate was of gold, and one 
of silver, and one of jade, and one of crystal. [i7l] At 
each gate seven pillars were fixed ; in height as three 
times or as four times the height of a man. And one 
pillar was of gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, 
and one of crystal, and one of agate, and one of coral, 
and one of all kinds of gems. 



India Office reads here mudddbhisitto, but this is an unnecessary 
correction. The epithet is probably inserted here from § 7 below. 

^ This enumeration is found also at Jataka I, 3, only that the chank 
is added there — wrongly, for that makes the number of cries eleven. 



D. ii. 172. THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. 20I 

6. 'The royal city Kusavati, Ananda, was surrounded 
by Seven Rows of Palm Trees. One row was of 
palms of gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, and 
one of crystal, and one of agate, and one of coral, and 
one of all kinds of gems. 

' And the Golden Palms had trunks of gold, and 
leaves and fruits of silver. And the Silver Palms had 
trunks of silver, and leaves and fruits of gold. And 
the Palms of Beryl had trunks of beryl, and leaves and 
fruits of crystal. And the Crystal Palms had trunks 
of crystal, and leaves and fruits of ber}l. And the 
Apfate Palms had trunks of aoate, and leaves and fruits 
of coral. And the Coral Palms had trunks of coral, 
and leaves and fruits of agate. And the Palms of 
every kind of Gem had trunks and leaves and fruits 
of every kind of gem. 

' ' And when those rows of palm trees, Ananda, 
were shaken by the wind, there arose a sound sweet, 
and pleasant, and charming, and intoxicating. 

'Just. Ananda, as the seven kinds of instruments 
yield, when well played upon, to the skilful man, a 
sound sweet, and pleasant.^ and charming, and intoxi- 
cating — [172] just even so, Ananda, when those rows of 
palm trees were shaken by the wind, there arose a 
sound sweet, and pleasant, and charming, and intoxi- 
cating. 

' And whoever, Ananda. in the royal city Kusavati 
were at that time oramblers. drunkards, and ofiven to 



^ This section should be compared with one in the Sukhavati- 
vyuha, translated by Professor Max Miiller as follows (' Journal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society,' 1880, p. 170): — 

' And again, O Sariputra, when those rows of palm trees and strings 
of bells in that Buddha country are moved by the wind, a sweet and 
enrapturing sound proceeds from them. Yes, O Sariputra, as from 
a heavenly musical instrument consisting of a hundred thousand kotis 
of sounds, when played by Aryas, a sweet and enrapturing sound pro- 
ceeds ; a sweet and enrapturing sound proceeds from those rows of 
palm trees and strings of bells moved by the wind. 

' And when the men there hear that sound, reflection on Buddha 
arises in their body, reflection on the Law, reflection on the Assembly.' 

Compare also below, § 32, and Jataka I, 32. 



202 XVII. MAHA-SUDASSANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 172. 

drink, they used to dance round together to the sound 
of those palms when shaken by the wind.' 



7. ' The Great King of Glory, Ananda, was the 
possessor of Seven Precious Things, and was gifted 
with Four Marvellous Powers. 

' What are those seven ? 

^ ' In the first place, Ananda, when the Great King 
of Glory, on the Sabbath day ^, on the day of the full 
moon, had purified himself, and had gone up into the 
upper story of his palace to keep the sacred day, there 
then appeared to him the heavenly Treasure of the 
Wheel,^ with its nave, its tire, and all its thousand 
spokes complete. 

' When he beheld it the Great King of Glory 
thought : — 

' " This saying have I heard, ' When a king of the 
warrior race, an anointed king, has purified himself on 
the Sabbath day, on the day of the full moon, and has 
gone up into the upper story of his palace to keep the 
sacred day ; if there appear to him the heavenly Trea- 
sure of the Wheel, with its nave, its tire, and all its 
thousand spokes complete — that king becomes a king 
of kings invincible.' May I, then, become a king of 
kings invincible ^" 

8. ' Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory rose 
from his seat, and reverently uncovering from one 
shoulder his robe, he held in his left hand a pitcher, 
and with his right hand he sprinkled water up over the 
Wheel, as he said : — 

' " Roll onward, O my lord, the Wheel ! O my lord, 
go forth and overcome ! " 

' Then the wondrous Wheel, Ananda, rolled onwards 

* The following enumeration is found word for word in several 
other Pali Suttas, and occurs also, in almost identical terms, in the 
Lalita Vistara (Calcutta edition, pp. 14-19). 

^ Uposatha, a weekly sacred day ; being full-moon day, new-moon 
day, and the two equidistant intermediate days. Comp. § 12. 
^ This is the disk of the sun. 

* A king of the rolling wheel. 



D. u. 174. THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. 203 

towards the region of the East, and after it went the 
Great King of Glor}^ and with him his army, horses, 
and chariots, and elephants, and men, [l73] And in 
whatever place, Ananda, the Wheel stopped, there the 
Great King of Glory took up his abode, and with him 
his army, horses, and chariots, and elephants, and men. 

9. ' Then, Ananda. all the rival kings in the region 
of the East came to the Great King of Glory and 
said : — 

' " Come, O mighty king ! Welcome, O mighty 
king ! All is thine. O mighty king ! Do thou. O 
mighty king, be a Teacher to us ! " 

'Thus spake the Great King of Glor}^ : — " Ye shall 
slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has 
not been griven. Ye shall not act wronMv touchino^ the 
bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink 
no maddening drink. Ye shall eat as ye have eaten ^." 

' Then, Ananda, all the rival kinofs in the region of 
the East became subject unto the Great King of 
Glory. 

10. ' But the wondrous Wheel, Ananda, having 
plunged down into the great waters in the East, rose 
up out again, and rolled onward to the region of the 
South [and there all happened as had happened in the 
region of the East. And in like manner the wondrous 
Wheel rolled onward to the extremest boundary of the 
West and of the North ; and there, too, all happened 
as had happened in the region of the East]. 

1 1. [174] ' Now when the wondrous Wheel, Ananda, 
had gone forth conquering and to conquer over the 
whole earth to its very ocean boundary, it returned 
back again to the royal city of Kusavati and remained 
fixed on the open terrace in front of the entrance to 
the inner apartments of the Great King of Glory, as 



^ Yathabhuttam bhunjatha. Buddhaghosa has no comment on 
this. I suppose it means, ' Observe the rules current among you 
regarding clean and unclean meats.' If so, the Great King of Glor)- 
disregards the teaching of the Amagandha Sutta (translated in my 
'Buddhism,' p. 131). 



204 XVII. MAHA-SUDASSANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 174. 

a glorious adornment to the inner apartments of the 
Great King of Glory. 

' Such, Ananda, was the wondrous Wheel which 
appeared to the Great King of Glory.' 

12. 'Now further, Ananda, there appeared to the 
Great King of Glory the Elephant Treasure \ all white, 
seven-fold firm ^, wonderful in power, flying through 
the sky — the Elephant-King, whose name was " The 
Changes of the Moon ^." 

' When he beheld it the Great King of Glory was 
pleased at heart at the thought : — 

' " Auspicious were it to ride upon the Elephant, if 
only it would submit to be controlled ! " 

' Then, Ananda, the wondrous Elephant — like a fine 
elephant of noble blood long since well trained — sub- 
mitted to control. 

' And long ago, Ananda, when the Great King of 
Glory, to test that wondrous Elephant, had mounted 
on to it early in the morning, it passed over along the 
broad earth to its very ocean boundary, and then re- 
turned again, in time for the morning meal, to the royal 
city of Kusavati ^. 

' Such, Ananda, was the wondrous Elephant that 
appeared to the Great King of Glory. 

13. 'Now further, Ananda, there appeared to the 
Great King of Glory the Horse Treasure"', all white 

' Hatthi-ratana. 

- Satta-ppatittho, that is, perhaps, in regard to its four legs, two 
tusks, and trunk. The expression is curious, and Buddhaghosa has 
no note upon it. It is quite possible that it merely signifies ' exceed- 
ing firm,' the number seven being used without any hard and fast 
interpretation. 

" Uposatho. In the Lalita Vistara its name is 'Wisdom' 
(Bodhi). Uposatha is the name for the sacred day of the moon's 
changes — first, and more especially the full-moon day ; next, the new- 
moon day ; and lastly, the days equidistant between these two. It was, 
therefore, a weekly sacred day, and, as Childers says, may often be 
well rendered ' Sabbath.' 

* Compare on this and § 29 my 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 85, 
where a similar phrase is used of Kanthaka. 

'" Assa-ratanam. 



D. ii. 175. THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. 205 

with a crow-black head, and a dark mane, wonderful 
in power, flying through the sky — the Charger-King, 
whose name was *' Thunder-cloud \" 

' When he beheld it, the Great King of Glory was 
pleased at heart at the thought : — 

' " Auspicious were it to ride upon that Horse if only 
it would submit to be controlled ! " 

[175] ' Then. Ananda. the wondrous Horse — like a 
fine horse of the best blood long since well trained — 
submitted to control.^ 

' W^en long ago. Ananda, the Great King of Glory, 
to test that wondrous Horse, mounted on to it early in 
the morning, it passed over along the broad earth to its 
very ocean boundary and then returned again, in time 
for the morning meal, to the royal city of Kusavati. 

' Such, Ananda. was the wondrous Horse that ap- 
peared to the Great King of Glory. 

14. 'Now further, Ananda, there appeared to the 
Great King of Glory the Gem-Treasure -. That Gem 
was the Ve/uriya, bright, of the finest species, with 
eight facets, excellently wrought, clear, transparent, per- 
fect in every way. 

' The splendour, Ananda. of that wondrous Gem 
spread round about a league on every side. 

' When, long ago, Ananda, the Great King of Glory, 
to test that wondrous Gem, set all his fourfold army in 
array and raised aloft the Gem upon his standard top, 
he was able to march out in the gloom and darkness of 
the night. 

' And then too, Ananda. all the dwellers in the 
villages round about, set about their daily work, 
thinking : — " The daylight hath appeared." 

^ Valahako. Compare the Valahassa-Jataka (Fausboll, No. 196), 
of which the Chinese story translated by Mr. Beal at pp. 332-40 of his 
' Romantic Histor)-,' &c., is an expanded and altered version. In the 
Valahaka SaOT\aitta of the Sa;7iyutta Nikaya the spirits of the skies are 
divided into U«ha-valahaka Deva, Sita-valahaka Deva, Abbha- 
valahaka Deva, Vata-valahaka Deva, and Vassa-valahaka 
Deva, that is, the cloud-spirits of cold, heat, air, wind, and rain 
respectively. 

* INIawi-ratanaw. 



206 XVII. MAHA-SUDASSANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 175. 

' Such, Ananda, was the wondrous Gem that ap- 
peared to the Great King of Glory.' 



15. ' Now further, Ananda, there appeared to the 
Great King of Glory the Woman-Treasure \ graceful in 
figure, beautiful in appearance, charming in manner, 
and of the most fine complexion ; neither very tall, nor 
very short ; neither very stout, nor very slim ; neither 
very dark, nor very fair ; surpassing human beauty, she 
had attained unto the beauty of the gods ^. 

' The touch too, Ananda, of the skin of that wondrous 
Woman was as the touch of cotton or of cotton wool ; 
in the cold her limbs were warm, in the heat her limbs 
were cool ; while from her body was wafted the perfume 
of sandal wood and from her mouth the perfume of the 
lotus. 

' That Pearl among Women too, Ananda, used to 
rise up before the Great King of Glory, [i76] and after 
him retire to rest ; pleasant was she in speech, and ever 
on the watch to hear what she might do in order so to 
act as to give him pleasure. 

' That Pearl among Women too, Ananda, was never, 
even in thought, unfaithful to the Great King of Glory — 
how much less then could she be so with the body ! 

' Such, Ananda, was the Pearl among Women who 
appeared to the Great King of Glory.' 



16. ' Now further, Ananda, there appeared unto the 
Great King of Glory a Wonderful Treasurer^, possessed, 

' Itthi-ratana;«. 

- The above description of an ideally beautiful woman is of frequent 
occurrence. 

^ Gahapati-ratanaw/. The word gahapati has been hitherto 
usually rendered ' householder,' but this may often, and would certainly 
here, convey a wrong impression. There is no single word in English 
which is an adequate rendering of the term, for it connotes a social 
condition now no longer known among us. The gahapati was the 
head of a family, the representative in a village community of a family, 
the pater familias. So the god of fire, with allusion to the sacred 
fire maintained in each household, is called in the Rig-veda the 
grz'hapati, the pater familias, of the human race. It is often 



D. ii. 177. THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. 207 

through good deeds done in a former birth, of a mar- 
vellous power of vision by which he could discover 
treasure, whether it had an owner or whether it had 
not. 

' He went up to the Great King of Glory, and said : — 

' *' Do thou, O King, take thine ease ! I will deal 
with thy wealth even as wealth should be dealt 
with." 

' Long ago, Ananda, the Great King of Glory, to test 
that wonderful Treasurer, went on board a boat, and 
had it pushed out into the current in the midst of the 
river Ganofes. Then he said to the wonderful steward : — 

' " I have need, O Treasurer, of yellow gold ! " 

' " Let the ship then. O Great King, go alongside 
either of the banks." 

' " It is here, O Treasurer, that I have need of yellow 
gold." 

' Then the wonderful Treasurer reached down to the 
water with both his hands, and drew up a jar full of 
yellow gold, and said to the Great King of Glory : — 

'"Is that enough, O Great King? Have I done 
enough, O Great King ? " 

* And the Great King of Glory replied : — 

' '* It is enough, O Treasurer. You have done 
enough, O Treasurer. You have offered me enough, 
O Treasurer ! " [l77] 

' Such was the wonderful Treasurer, Ananda, who 
appeared to the Great King of Glory.' 



used in opposition to brahmawa very much as we used 'yeoman' 
in opposition to 'clerk' (Jataka I, 83); and the two combined are 
used in opposition to people of other ranks and callings held to be 
less honourable than that of clerk or yeoman (Jataka I, 218). The 
compound brahma«a-gahapatika as a collective term comes to 
be about equivalent to ' priests and laymen ' (see, for instance, below, 
§ 21, and Vinaya I, 35, 36). Then again the gahapati is distinct from 
the subordinate members of the family, who had not the control and 
management of the common property (Samanna Phala Suttanta 133, 
= Tevijja Suttanta I, 47); and it is this implication of the term that 
is emphasized in the text. Buddhaghosa uses, as an explanatory 
phrase, the words se//Ai-gahapati. 



208 XVII. MAHA-SUDASSANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 177. 

17. 'Now further, Ananda, there appeared to the 
Great King of Glory a Wonderful Adviser \ learned, 
clever, and wise ; and qualified to lead the Great King 
of Glory to undertake what he ought to undertake, and 
to leave undone what he ought to leave undone. 

' He went up to the Great King of Glory, and said : — 

' " Do thou, O King, take thine ease ! I will be thy 
guide." 

' Such, Ananda, was the wonderful Adviser who 
appeared to the Great King of Glory. 

' The Great King of Glory was possessed of these 
Seven Precious Things. 

18. * Now, further, Ananda, the Great King of Glory 
was ofifted with Four Marvellous Gifts ^. 

' What are the Four Marvellous Gifts ? 

' In the first place, Ananda, the Great King of Glory 
was graceful in figure, handsome in appearance, pleas- 
ing in manner, and of most beautiful complexion, beyond 
what other men are. 

' The Great King of Glory, Ananda, was endowed 
with this First Marvellous Gift. 

19. ' And besides that, Ananda, the Great King of 
Glory was of long life, and of many years, beyond those 
of other men. 

' The Great King of Glory, Ananda, was endowed 
with this Second Marvellous Gift. 

20. ' And besides that, Ananda, the Great King of 
Glory was free from disease, and free from bodily 
suffering ; and his internal fire was neither too hot nor 
too cold, but such as to promote good digestion, beyond 
that of other men ^ 

^ Pari«ayaka-ratana;;i. Buddhaghosa says that he was the 
eldest son of the king. The Lalita Vistara makes him a general. 

^ The Four Iddhis. Here again, as elsewhere, it will be noticed 
that there is nothing supernatural about these four Iddhis. See the 
passages quoted above, Vol. I, pp. 272 foil. They are merely attri- 
butes accompanying or forming part of the majesty (iddhi) of the 
King of kings. 

^ The same thing is said of Ra/Z/zapala in the Ra/Z^apala Sutta, 
where Gogerly renders the whole passage : — ' Ra///zapala is healthy, free 
from pain, having a good digestion and appetite, being troubled M'ith 



D. ii. 178. THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. 2O9 



' The Great King of Glory, Ananda, was endowed 
with this Third Marvellous Gift. 

21. [178] 'And besides that, Ananda, the Great 
King of Glory was beloved and popular with priests 
and with laymen alike. Just, Ananda, as a father is 
near and dear to his own sons, just so, Ananda, was the 
Great King of Glory beloved and popular with priests 
and with laymen alike. And just, Ananda, as his sons 
are near and dear to a father, just so, Ananda, were 
priests and laymen alike near and dear to the Great 
King of Glory. 

' Once, Ananda, the Great King of Glory marched 
out with all his fourfold army to the pleasure ground. 
There, Ananda. the priests and laymen went up to the 
Great King of Glory, and said : — 

' " O King, pass slowly by, that we may look upon 
thee for a longer time ! " 

' But the Great King of Glory, Ananda, addressed 
his charioteer, and said : — 

* " Drive on the chariot slowly, charioteer, that I may 
look upon my people [priests and laymen] for a longer 
time ! " 

' This was the Fourth Marvellous Gift, Ananda. 
with which the Great King of Glory was endowed. 

' These are the Four Marvellous Gifts, Ananda. 
with which the Great King of Glory was endowed.' 



22. ' Now to the Great King of Glory, Ananda. 



there occurred the thought : — 



no excess of either heat or cold ' (' Journal of the Ceylon Asiatic 
Society,' 1847-8, p. 98). The gaha«i is a supposed particular 
organ or function situate at the junction of the stomach and intestines. 
Moggallana explains it, udare tu tatha pacanalasmiw gahawi 
(Abhidhana-ppadipika 972), where Subhuti's Sinhalese version is 
'kukshi, pakagni,' and his English version, ' the belly, the internal 
fire which promotes digestion.' Buddhaghosa explains samavipakiya 
kammaga-tejo-dhatuya, and adds : — 'If a man's food is dissolved 
the moment he has eaten it, or if it remains like a lump, he has not the 
samavepakini gahawi, but he who has appetite (bhattacchando) 
when the time for food comes round again, he has the samavepakini 
gaha«i,' — which is delightfully nai've. 
III. P 



2IO XVII. MAHA-SUDASSANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 178- 



' " Suppose, now, I were to make Lotus-ponds in the 
spaces between these palms, at every hundred bow- 
lengths." 

* Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory, in the 
spaces between those palms, at distances of a hundred 
bow-lengths, made Lotus-ponds. 

' And those Lotus-ponds, Ananda, were faced with 
tiles of four kinds. One kind of tile was of gold, and 
one of silver, and one of beryl, and one of crystal. 

* And to each of those Lotus-ponds, Ananda, there 
were four flights of steps, of four different kinds. 
One flight of steps was of gold, and one of silver, and 
one of beryl, and one of crystal. [179] The flight of 
golden steps had balustrades of gold, with the cross 
bars and the figure-head of silver. The flight of silver 
steps had balustrades of silver, with the cross bars and 
the figure-head of gold. The flight of beryl steps had 
balustrades of beryl, with the cross bars and the figure- 
head of crystal. The flight of crystal steps had balus- 
trades of crystal, with cross bars and figure-head of 
beryl. 

' And round those Lotus-ponds there ran, Ananda, 
a double railing. One railing was of gold, and one was 
of silver. The golden railing had its posts of gold, and 
its cross bars and its capitals of silver. The silver 
railing had its posts of silver, and its cross bars and its 
capitals of gold ^ 

^ Pokkharawi, the word translated Lotus-pond, is an artificial pool 
or small lake for water-plants. There are some which are probably 
nearly as old as this passage still in good preservation in Anuradliapura 
in Ceylon. Each is oblong, and has its tiles and its four flights of steps, 
and some had railings. The balustrades, cross bars, figure-head, and 
raiUngs are in Pali thambha, siiciyo, unhisa, and vedika, of the 
exact meaning of which I am not quite confident. They do not occur 
in the description of the Lotus-lakes in Sukhavati. General Cunningham 
says that the cross bars of the Buddhist railings are called sficiyo in 
the inscriptions at Bharahat ('The Stupa of Bharhut,' p. 127). 
Buddhaghosa, who is good enough to tell us the exact number of the 
ponds — to wit, 84,000, has no explanation of these words, merely 
saying that of the two vedikas one was at the limit of the tiles and 
one at the hmitof the pari vena. See below § 31 ; and Rhys Davids, 
'■ Buddhist India,' Figures 6, 7 ; pp. 74-6. 



D. ii. l8o. THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. 211 



23. ' Now, to the Great King of Glory, Ananda, 
there occurred the thought : — 

' " Suppose, now, I were to have flowers of every 
season planted in those Lotus-ponds for all the people 
to have garlands to put on^ — to wit, blue water-lilies and 
blue lotuses, white lotuses and white water-lilies." 

[And the king had such flowers planted there 
accordingly.] 

' Now, to the Great King of Glory, Ananda, oc- 
curred the thought : — 

' " Suppose, now, I were to place bathing-men on the 
banks of those Lotus-ponds, to bathe such of the people 
as come there from time to time." 

[And the king had such bathing-men placed there 
accordingly.] 

' Now, to the Great King of Glory, Ananda, occurred 
the thought : — 

' " Suppose, now, I were to establish a perpetual 
grant by the banks of those Lotus-ponds — to wit, food 
for the hungry, drink for the thirsty, raiment for the 
naked, means of conveyance for those who have need 
of it, couches for the tired, wives for those who want 
wives, gold for the poor, and money for those who are 
in want." 

[180] ' Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory 
established a perpetual grant by the banks of those 
Lotus-ponds — to wit, food for the hungry, drink for the 
thirsty, raiment for the naked, means of conveyance for 
those who needed it, couches for the tired, wives for 
those who wanted wives, gold for the poor, and 
money for those who were in want.' 

24. ' Now, Ananda, the people [priests and laymen] 
went to the Great King of Glory, taking with them 
much wealth. And they said : — 

' " This abundant wealth, O King, have we brought 

^ Literally 'have garlands planted for all the people to put on' — an 
elliptical expression revealing the ideas of that early time as to the 
only possible use of flowers. I think the reading should be 
anavaraz«. 

P 2 



212 XVII. MAHA-SUDASSANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. i8o. 



here for the use of the King of kings. Let the King 
accept it of us ! " 

* " I have enough wealth, my friends, laid up for 
myself, the produce of righteous taxation. Do you 
keep this, and take away more with you ! " 

' When those men were thus refused by the King 
they went aside and considered together, saying : — 

* " It w^ould not beseem us now, were we to take back 
this wealth to our own houses. Suppose, now, we 
were to build a mansion for the Great King of Glory." 

' Then they went to the Great King of Glory, and 
said : — 

' " A mansion would we build for thee, O King ! " 

' Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory signified, 
by silence, his consent.' 



25. ' Now, Ananda, when Sakka, the king of the 
gods, became aware in his mind of the thoughts that 
were in the heart of the Great King of Glory, he 
addressed Vissakamma the god, and said : — 

* " Come now, Vissakamma, create me a mansion for 
the Great King of Glory — a palace which shall be called 
* Righteousness '." 

* " Even so, lord ! " said Vissakamma, in assent, 
Ananda, to Sakka, the king of the gods. [l8l] And as 
instantaneously as a strong man might stretch forth 
his folded arm, or draw in his arm again when it was 
stretched forth, so quickly did he vanish from the 
heaven of the Great Thirty-Three, and appeared before 
the Great King of Glory. 

* Then, Ananda, Vissakamma the god said to the 
Great King of Glory : — 

' " I would create for thee, O King, a mansion — a 
palace which shall be called ' Righteousness ' ! " 

' Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory signified, 
by silence, his consent. 

' So Vissakamma the god, Ananda, created for the 
Great King of Glory a mansion — a palace to be called 
" Righteousness ".' 



D. ii. 182. THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. 2 I 3 

26. ' The Palace of Righteousness, Ananda, was 
on the east and on the west a league in length, 
and on the north and on the south half a league in 
breadth. 

' The ground-floor, Ananda, of the Palace of Right- 
eousness, in height as three times the height to which a 
man can reach, was built of bricks, of four kinds. One 
kind of brick was of gold, and one of silver, and one 
of beryl, and one of crystal. 

' To the Palace of Righteousness, Ananda, there 
were eighty-four thousand pillars of four kinds. One 
kind of pillar was of gold, and one of silver, and one of 
beryl, and one of crystal. 

' The Palace of Righteousness, Ananda, was fitted 
up with seats of four kinds. One kind of seat was of 
gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, and one of 
crystal. 

' In the Palace of Righteousness, Ananda, there were 
twenty-four staircases of four kinds. One staircase was 
of gold, and one of silver, and one of ber}4, and one of 
cr^^stal. The staircase of gold had balustrades of gold, 
with the cross bars and the figure-head of silver. The 
staircase of silver had balustrades of silver, with the 
cross bars and the figure-head of gold. [l82] The 
staircase of beryl had balustrades of beryl, with the 
cross bars and the figure-head of crystal. The stair- 
case of crystal had balustrades of crystal, with cross 
bars and figure-head of ber}'^!. 

' In the Palace of Righteousness, Ananda, there were 
eighty-four thousand chambers of four kinds. One 
kind of chamber was of gold, and one of silver, and one 
of ber}'l, and one of crystal. 

' In the golden chamber a silver couch was spread : 
in the silver chamber a golden couch ; in the beryl 
chamber a couch of ivory ; and in the crystal chamber 
a couch of coral. 

' At the door of the golden chamber there stood a 
palm tree of silver; and its trunk was of silver, and its 
leaves and fruits of silver. 

' At the door of the beryl chamber there stood a palm 



214 XVII. MAHA-SUDASSANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 182. 

tree of crystal ; and its trunk was of crystal, and its 
leaves and fruits of beryl. 

' At the door of the crystal chamber there stood a 
palm tree of beryl ; and its trunk was of beryl, and its 
leaves and fruits of crystal.' 



27. ' Now there occurred, Ananda, to the Great King 
of Glory this thought : — 

' " Suppose, now, I were to make a grove of palm 
trees, all of gold, at the entrance to the chamber of the 
Great Complex ^ under the shade of which I may pass 
the heat of the day." 

' Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory made a 
grove of palm trees, all of gold, at the entrance to the 
chamber of the Great Complex, under the shade of 
which he might pass the heat of the day. 

28. ' The Palace of Righteousness, Ananda, was 
surrounded by a double railing. [l83] One railing was 
of gold, and one was of silver. The golden railing had 
its posts of gold, and its cross bars and its figure-head of 
silver. The silver railing had its posts of silver, and 
its cross bars and its figure-head of gold. 

29. ' The Palace of Righteousness, Ananda, was hung 
round with two networks of bells. One network of 
bells was of gold, and one was of silver. The golden 
network had bells of silver, and the silver network had 
bells of gold. 

' And when those networks of bells, Ananda, were 
shaken by the wind there arose a sound sweet, and 
pleasant, and charming, and intoxicating. 

'Just, Ananda, as the seven kinds of instruments 
yield, when well played upon, to the skilful man, a 
sound sweet, and pleasant, and charming, and intoxi- 
cating — just even so, Ananda, when those networks of 

* Mahavyfihassa kfl/agSrassa dvare. The ' Great Complex ' 
contains a double allusion, in the same spirit in which the whole legend 
has been worked out: (i) To the Great Complex as a name of the 
Sun God regarded as a unity of the deities; and (2) To the Great 
Complex as a name of a particular kind of deep religious meditation 
or speculation. 



D. ii. 184. THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. 2 I 5 

bells were shaken by the wind, there arose a sound 
sweet, and pleasant, and charming, and intoxicating. 

' And whoever, Ananda, in the royal city Kusavati 
were at that time gamblers, drunkards, and given to 
drink, they used to dance round together to the sound 
of those networks of bells when shaken by the wind.' 



30. * When the Palace of Righteousness, Ananda, 
was finished it was hard to look at, destructive to the 
eyes. Just, Ananda, as in the last month of the rains 
in the autumn time, when the sky has become clear and 
the clouds have vanished away, the sun, springing up 
along the heavens, is hard to look at, and destructive 
to the eyes — [l84] just so, Ananda, when the Palace of 
Righteousness was finished was it hard to look at, and 
destructive to the eyes.' 



31. ' Now there occurred, Ananda, to the Great King 
of Glory this thought : — 

* " Suppose, now, in front of the Palace of Right- 
eousness, I were to make a Lotus-lake to bear the 
name of ' Righteousness '." 

* Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory made a 
Lotus-lake to bear the name of " Righteousness". 

' The Lake of Righteousness, Ananda, was on the 
east and on the west a league in length, and on the 
north and on the south half a leao-ue in breadth. 

O A 

' The Lake of Righteousness, Ananda, was faced 
with tiles of four kinds. One kind of tile was of gold, 
and one of silver, and one of ber)j, and one of crystal. 

' The Lake of Rigrhteousness, Ananda, had four and 
twenty flights of steps, of four different kinds. One 
flight of steps was of gold, and one of silver, and one 
of beryl, and one of crystal. The flight of golden steps 
had balustrades of gold, with the cross bars and the 
figure-head of silver. The flight of silver steps had 
balustrades of silver, with the cross bars and the figure- 
head of gold. The flight of beryl steps had balustrades 
of beryl, with the cross bars and the figure-head of 



2l6 XVII. MAHA-SUDASSANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 184. 

crystal. The flight of crystal steps had balustrades of 
crystal, with cross bars and figure-head of beryl. 

' Round the Lake of Righteousness, Ananda, there 
ran a double railing. One railing was of gold, and one 
was of silver. The golden railing had its posts of gold, 
and its cross bars and its capitals of silver. The silver 
railing had its posts of silver, and its cross bars and its 
capitals of gold. 

32. 'The Lake of Righteousness, Ananda, was sur- 
rounded by seven rows of palm trees. One row was 
of palms of gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, 
and one of crystal, and one of agate, and one of coral, 
and one of all kinds of gems. 

' And the golden palms had trunks of gold, and 
leaves and fruits of silver. [l85] And the silver palms 
had trunks of silver, and leaves and fruits of gold. 
And the palms of beryl had trunks of beryl, and leaves 
and fruits of crystal. And the crystal palms had trunks 
of crystal, and leaves and fruits of beryl. And the agate 
palms had trunks of agate, and leaves and fruits of 
coral. And the coral palms had trunks of coral, and 
leaves and fruits of agate. And the palms of every 
kind of gem had trunks and leaves and fruits of every 
kind of gem. 

' And when those rows of palm trees, Ananda, were 
shaken by the wind, there arose a sound sweet, and 
pleasant, and charming, and intoxicating. 

' Just, Ananda, as the seven kinds of instruments 
yield, when well played upon, to the skilful man, a 
sound sweet, and pleasant, and charming, and intoxi- 
cating, — just even so, Ananda, when those rows of 
palm trees were shaken by the wind, there arose a 
sound sweet, and pleasant, and charming, and intoxi- 
cating. 

' And whosoever, Ananda, in the royal city Kusa- 
vati were at that time gamblers, drunkards, and given 
to drink, they used to dance round together to the 
sound of those palms when shaken by the wind.' 



^S- ' When the Palace of Righteousness, Ananda, was 



D. ii. 185. THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. 2 1 7 

finished, and the Lotus-lake of Righteousness was 
finished, the Great King of Glory entertained with all 
good things those of the Wanderers who, at that time, 
were held in high esteem, and those of the brahmins 
who, at that time, were held in high esteem. Then he 
ascended up into the Palace of Righteousness.' 



End of the First Portion for Recitation. 



CHAPTER II. 

1. * Now there occurred, Ananda, this thought to the 
Great King of Glory : — 

' " Of what previous character, now, may this be the 
fruit, of what previous character the result, that I am 
now so mighty and so great ? " 

[186] ' And then occurred, Ananda, to the Great 
King of Glory this thought : — 

' " Of three qualities is this the fruit, of three qualities 
the result, that I am now so mighty and so great, — 
that is to say, of giving, of self-conquest, and of self- 
control ^" ' 

2. ' Now the Great King of Glory, Ananda, ascended 
up into the chamber of the Great Complex ; and there 
he broke out into a cry of intense emotion : — 

* " Stay here, O thoughts of lust ! 
Stay here, O thoughts of ill-will ! 
Stay here, O thoughts of hatred ! 
Thus far only, O thoughts of lust ! 
Thus far only, O thoughts of ill-will ! 
Thus far only, O thoughts of hatred ! " 

3. * And when, Ananda, the Great King of Glory 
had entered the chamber of the Great Complex, and 
had seated himself upon the couch of gold, having put 
away all passion and all unrighteousness, he entered 
into, and remained in, the First Rapture, — a state of 
joy and ease, born of seclusion, full of reflection, full 
of investigation. 

' By suppressing reflection and investigation, he 
entered into, and remained in, the Second Rapture, — 

^ I have here translated kamma by ' previous character ' and by 
' quality.' The easiest plan would, no doubt, have been to preserve 
in the translation the technical term karma, which is explained at 
some length in 'Buddhism,' pp. 99-106. 



D. ii. i86. THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. 2ig 



a State of joy and ease, born of serenity, without reflec- 
tion, without investigation, a state of elevation of mind, 
of internal calm. 

' By absence of the longing after joy, he remained 
indifferent, conscious, self-possessed, experiencing in his 
body that ease which the noble ones announce, saying : — 
" The man indifferent and self-possessed is well at ease," 
and thus he entered into, and remained in, the Third 
Rapture. 

' By putting away ease, by putting away pain, by the 
previous dying away both of gladness and of sorrow, he 
entered into, and remained in, the Fourth Rapture, — 
a state of purified self-possession and equanimity, with- 
out ease, and without pain ^ 

4. ' Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory went 
out from the chamber of the Great Complex, and 
entered the golden chamber and sat himself down on 
the silver couch. And he let his mind pervade one 
quarter of the world with thoughts of Love ; and so 
the second quarter, and so the third, and so the fourth. 
And thus the whole wide world, above, below, around, 
and everywhere, did he continue to pervade with heart 
of Love, far-reaching, grown great, and beyond measure, 
free from the least trace of anger or ill-will. 

' And he let his mind pervade one quarter of the 
world with thoughts of Pity ; and so the second quarter, 
and so the third, and so the fourth. And thus the whole 
wide world, above, below, around, and ever^'where, did 
he continue to pervade with heart of Pity, far-reaching, 
grown great, and beyond measure, free from the least 
trace of anger or ill-will. 

' And he let his mind pervade one quarter of the 



^ The above paragraphs are an endeavour to express the inmost 
feelings when they are first strung to the uttermost by the intense 
eflfects of deep religious emotion, and then feel the effects of what 
may be called, for want of a better word, the reaction. Most deeply 
religious natures have passed through such a crisis ; and though the 
feelings are perhaps really indescribable, this passage is dealing, not 
with a vain mockery, but with a very real event in spiritual ex- 
perience. It implies neither hypnotism nor trance. 



220 XVII. MAHA-SUDASSANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. i86. 

world with thoughts of Sympathy ; and so the second 
quarter, and so the third, and so the fourth. And 
thus the whole wide world above, below, around, and 
everywhere, did he continue to pervade with heart of 
Sympathy, far reaching, grown great, and beyond 
measure, free from the least trace of anger or ill-will. 

'And he let his mind pervade one quarter of the 
world with thoughts of Equanimity ^ ; [i87] and so the 
second quarter, and so the third, and so the fourth. 
And thus the whole wide world, above, below, around, 
and everywhere, did he continue to pervade with heart 
of Equanimity, far-reaching, grown great, and beyond 
measure, free from the least trace of anger or ill-will. 

5. ' The Great King of Glory, Ananda, had four and 
eighty thousand cities, the chief of which was the royal 
city of Kusavati : 

' Four and eighty thousand palaces, the chief of 
which was the Palace of Righteousness : 

' Four and eighty thousand chambers, the chief of 
which was the chamber of the Great Complex : 

' Four and eighty thousand divans, of gold, and 
silver, and ivory, and sandal wood, spread with long- 
haired rugs, and cloths embroidered with flowers, and 
magnificent antelope skins ; covered with lofty canopies ; 
and provided at both ends with purple cushions : 

' Four and eighty thousand state elephants, with 
trappings of gold, and gilded flags, and golden cover- 
ings of network, — of which the king of elephants, called 
"the Changes of the Moon," was chief: 

' Four and eighty thousand state horses, with trap- 
pings of gold, and gilded flags, and golden coverings 
of network, — of which " Thunder-cloud," the king of 
horses, was the chief: 

' Four and eighty thousand chariots, with coverings 
of the skins of lions, and of tigers, and of panthers, — 

^ These are the four Appamanfias or infinite feelings, also called 
(e.g. below, § 13) the four Brahma-viharas or Sublime Con- 
ditions. They are here very appropriately represented to follow 
immediately after the state of feeling described in the Raptures ; but 
they ought to be the constant companions of a good Buddhist. 



D. ii. l88. THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. 221 

of which the chariot called " the Flag of Victory " was 
the chief: 

* Four and eighty thousand gems, of which the 
Wondrous Gem was the chief: 

' Four and eighty thousand wives, of whom Subhadda, 
the Queen of Glor}- \ was the chief : [188] 

' Four and eighty thousand yeomen, of whom the 
Wonderful Steward was the chief : 

' Four and eight)'' thousand nobles, of whom the 
Wonderful Adviser was the chief: 

' Four and eighty thousand cows, with jute trappings, 
and horns tipped with bronze : 

' Four and eighty thousand myriads of garments, of 
delicate textures, of flax, and cotton, and silk, and 
wool : 

' Four and eighty thousand dishes, in which, in the 
evening and in the morning rice was served -.' 



6. ' Now at that time. Ananda, the four and eighty 
thousand state elephants used to come ever}' evening 
and ever}' morning to be of service to the Great King 
of Glory. 

' And this thought occurred to the Great King of 
Glory : — 

' " These eighty-four thousand elephants come ever}' 
evening and every morning to be of service to me. 
Suppose, now, I were to let the elephants come in 
alternate forty-tvvo thousands, once each, ever}- alternate 
hundred years ! " 

' Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory said to the 
Great Adviser : — 

' " O, my friend, the Great Adviser ! these eighty- 
four thousand elephants come every evening and ever}- 
morning to be of service to me. Now, let the elephants 

^ Subhadda Devi. Subhadda, 'glorious, magnificent,' is a not 
uncommon name both for men and women in Buddhist and post- 
Buddhistic Hindu Hterature. 

^ Most of the trappings and cloths here mentioned are the same as 
those referred to in the Moralities translated above, Vol. I, pp. ii, 12. 
The whole paragraph is four times repeated below. 



222 XVII. MAHA-SUDASSANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. i88. 

come, O my friend, the Great Adviser, in alternate forty- 
two thousands, [i89] once each, every alternate hundred 
years ! 

* " Even so, lord ! " said the Wonderful Adviser, in 
assent, to the Great King of Glory. 

' From that time forth, Ananda, the elephants came 
in alternate forty-two thousands, once each, every 
alternate hundred years.' 



7. ' Now, Ananda, after the lapse of many years, of 
many hundred years, of many thousand years, there 
occurred to the Queen of Glory this thought : — 

' " 'Tis lono- since I have beheld the Great Kinof of 
Glory. Suppose, now, I were to go and visit the Great 
King of Glory." 

' Then, Ananda, the Queen of Glory said to the 
women of the harem : — 

' " Arise now, dress your hair, and clothe yourselves in 
fresh raiment. 'Tis long since we have beheld the 
Great King of Glory. Let us go and visit the Great 
King of Glory ! " 

' " Even so, lady ! " said the women of the harem, 
Ananda, in assent, to the Queen of Glory. And they 
dressed their hair, and clad themselves in fresh raiment, 
and came near to the Queen of Glory. 

* Then, Ananda, the Queen of Glory said to the 
Great Adviser : — 

' " Arrange, O Great Adviser, the fourfold army in 
array. 'Tis long since I have beheld the Great King 
of Glory. I am about to go to visit the Great King of 
Glory." 

' " Even so, O Queen ! " said the Great Adviser, 
Ananda, in assent, to the Queen of Glory. And he 
set the fourfold army in array, and had the fact 
announced to the Queen of Glory in the words : — 

' " The fourfold army, O Queen, is set for thee in 
array. Do now whatever seemeth to thee fit." 

8. [i90] ' Then, Ananda, the Queen of Glory, with 
the fourfold army, repaired, with the women of the 
harem, to the Palace of Righteousness. And when she 



D.ii. 190. THE GREAT KDsG OF GLORY. 223 

had arrived there she mounted up into the Palace of 
Righteousness, and went on to the chamber of the 
Great Complex. And when she had reached it, she 
stopped and leant against the side of the door. 

' When, Ananda, the Great King of Glory heard the 
noise he thought : — 

' " What, now, may this noise, as of a great multitude 
of people, mean ? " 

' And going out from the chamber of the Great 
Complex, he beheld the Queen of Glory standing 
leaning up against the side of the door. And when 
he beheld her, he said to the Queen of Glory : — 

' " Stop there, O Queen ! Enter not ! " ' 

9. ' Then the Great King of Glory, Ananda, said to 
one of his attendants : — 

' " Arise, good man ! take the golden couch out of 
the chamber of the Great Complex, and make it ready 
under that grove of palm trees which is all of gold." 

' " Even so, lord ! " said the man, in assent, to the 
Great King of Glory. And he took the golden couch 
out of the chamber of the Great Complex, and made it 
ready under that grove of palm trees which was all 
of gold. 

' Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory laid himself 
down in the dignified way a lion does ; and lay with one 
leg resting on the other, calm and self-possessed.' 



10. ' Then, Ananda, there occurred to the Queen of 
Glory this thought : — 

' " How calm are all the limbs of the Great King of 
Glory! How clear and bright is his appearance ! O may 
it not be that the Great King of Glory is dead^ ! ' 

* And she said to the Great King of Glory : — 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand 



* On the approach of death, explains the commentator, people are 
transfigured, shine forth. This idea may be the source of the legend 
of the Transfiguration translated above, p. 146, 'Book of the Great 
Decease/ IV, 37. 



224 XVII. MAHA-SUDASSANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 190. 

cities, the chief of which is the royal city of Kusavati. 
Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these ! quicken 
thy longing after life ! [l9l] 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand 
palaces, the chief of which is the Palace of Righteous- 
ness. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these, 
quicken thy longing after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand 
chambers, the chief of which is the chamber of the Great 
Complex. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for 
these, quicken thy longing after life. 

* " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand 
divans, of gold, and silver, and ivory, and sandal wood, 
spread with long-haired rugs, and cloths embroidered 
with flowers, and magnificent antelope skins, covered 
with lofty canopies, and provided at both ends with 
purple cushions. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire 
for these, quicken thy longing after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand 
state elephants, with trappings of gold, and gilded flags, 
and golden coverings of network, — of which the king 
of elephants, called ' the Changes of the Moon,' is 
chief. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these, 
quicken thy longing after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand 
state horses, with trappings of gold, and gilded flags, 
and golden coverings of network,' — of which ' Thunder- 
cloud,' the king of horses, is the chief. Arise, O King, 
re-awaken thy desire for these, quicken thy longing 
after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand 
chariots, with coverings of the skins of lions, and of 
tigers, and of panthers, — of which the chariot called 
' the Flag of Victory ' is the chief. Arise, O King, 
re-av/aken thy desire for these, quicken thy longing 
after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand 
gems, of which the Wondrous Gem is the chief. Arise, 
O King, re-awaken thy desire for these, quicken thy 
longing after life. 



D. ii. 192. THE GREAT KING OF GLORY, 225 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand 
wives, of whom the Queen of Glory is the chief. Arise, 
O King, re awaken thy desire for these, quicken thy 
longing after Hfe. 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand 
yeomen, of whom the Wonderful Steward is the chief. 
Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these, quicken 
thy longing after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand 
nobles, of whom the Wonderful Adviser is the chief. 
Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these, quicken 
thy longing after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand 
cows, with jute trappings, and horns tipped with bronze. 
Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these, quicken 
thy longing after life [192]. 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand 
myriads of garments, of delicate textures, of flax, and 
cotton, and silk, and wool. Arise, O King, re-awaken 
thy desire for these, quicken thy longing after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thousand 
dishes, in which, in the evening and in the morninsf, 
rice is served. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire 
for these, quicken thy longing after life." ' 



II. 'When she had thus spoken, Ananda, the Great 
King of Glory said to the Queen of Glory : — 

' " Long hast thou addressed me, O Queen, in 
pleasant words, much to be desired, and sweet. Yet 
now in this last time you speak in words unpleasant, 
disagreeable, not to be desired." 

' " How then, O King, shall I address thee ? " 

' " Thus, O Queen, shouldst thou address me — The 

nature of all things near and dear to us, O King, is 

such that we must leave them, divide ourselves from 

them, separate ourselves from them \ Pass not away, 

^ The Pali words are the same as those at the beginning of the 
constantly repeated longer phrase to the same effect in the ' Book of 
the Great Decease.' 

III. O 



226 XVII. MAHA-SUDASSANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 192. 

O King, with longing in thy heart. Sad is the death 
of him who longs, unworthy is the death of him who 
longs \ Thine, O King, are these four and eighty 
thousand cities, the chief of which is the royal city 
of Kusavatt. Cast away desire for these, long not 
after life. 

* " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
palaces, the chief of which is the Palace of Righteous? 
ness. Cast away desire for these, long not after life. 

[103] * " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty 
thousand chambers, the chief of which is the chamber 
of the Great Complex. Cast away desire for these, 
long not after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
divans, of gold, and silver, and ivory, and sandalwood, 
spread with long-haired rugs, and cloths embroidered 
with flowers, and magnificent antelope skins, covered 
with lofty canopies, and provided at both ends with 
purple cushions. Cast away desire for these, long not 
after life. 

' "Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
state elephants, with trappings of gold, and gilded flags, 
and golden coverings of network, — of which the king 
of elephants, called ' the Changes of the Moon,' is the 
chief. Cast away desire for these, long not after life. 

' "Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
state horses, with trappings of gold, and gilded flags, 
and golden coverings of network, — of which 'Thunder- 
cloud,' the king of horses, is the chief. Cast away 
desire for these, long not after life. 

' "Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
chariots, with coverings of the skins of lions, and of 
tigers, and of panthers, — of which the chariot called 
' the Flag of Victory ' is the chief. Cast away desire 
for these, long not after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
gems, of which the Wondrous Gem is the chief. Cast 
away desire for these, long not after life. 

* Compare Jataka, No. 34. 



D. u. 194- THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. 227 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
wives, of which the Queen of Glory is the chief. Cast 
away desire for these, long not after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
yeomen, of whom Wonderful Steward is the chief. 
Cast away desire for these, long not after life, 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
nobles, of whom the Wonderful Adviser is the chief 
Cast away desire for these, long not after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
cows, with jute trappings, and horns tipped with bronze. 
Cast away desire for these, long not after life. 

[194] ' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty 
thousand myriads of garments, of delicate textures, of 
flax, and cotton, and silk, and wool. Cast away desire 
for these, long not after life. 

* " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
dishes, in which, in the evening and in the morning, 
rice is served. Cast away desire for these, long not 
afterlife."' 

12. 'When he thus spake, Ananda, the Queen of 
Glory wept and poured forth tears. 

'Then, Ananda, the Queen of Glory wiped away 
her tears, and addressed the Great King of Glory, 
and said : 

' " The nature of all things near and dear to us, 
O King, is such that we must leave them, divide 
ourselves from them, separate ourselves from them. 
Pass not away, O King, with longing in thy heart. 
Sad is the death of him who longs, unworthy is the 
death of him who long^s. Thine, O King", are these 
four and eighty thousand cities, the chief of which is 
the royal city of Kusavati. Cast away desire for these, 
long not after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
palaces, the chief of which is the Palace of Righteous- 
ness. Cast away desire for these, long not after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
chambers, the chief of which is the chamber of the 

Q2 



228 XVII. MAIIA-SUDASSANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 194. 

Great Complex. Cast away desire for these, long not 
after life. 

* " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
divans, of gold, and silver, and ivory, and sandalwood, 
spread with long-haired rugs, and cloths embroidered 
with flowers, and magnificent antelope skins, covered 
with lofty canopies, and provided at both ends with 
purple cushions. Cast away desire for these, long not 
after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
state elephants, with trappings of gold, and gilded flags, 
and golden coverings of network, — of which the king 
of elephants, called 'the Changes of the Moon,' is the 
chief Cast away desire for these, long not after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
state horses, with trappings of gold, and gilded flags, 
and golden coverings of network, — [i95] of which 
'Thunder-cloud,' the king of horses, is the chief. Cast 
away desire for these, long not after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
chariots, with coverings of the skins of lions, and of 
tigers, and of panthers, — of which the chariot called 
' the Flag of Victory ' is the chief Cast away desire 
for these, long not after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
gems, of which the Wondrous Gem is the chief Cast 
away desire for these, long not after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
wives, of whom the Queen of Glory is the chief Cast 
away desire for these, long not after life. 

* " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
yeomen, of whom the Wonderful Steward is the chief. 
Cast away desire for these, long not after life. 

* " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
nobles, of whom the Wonderful Adviser is the chief. 
Cast away desire for these, long not after life. 

* " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
cows, with jute trappings, and horns tipped with bronze. 
Cast away desire for these, long not after life. 

* " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 



D. ii. 196. THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. 2 2^ 

myriads of garments, of delicate textures, of flax, and 
cotton, and silk, and wool. Cast away desire for these, 
long not after life. 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thousand 
dishes, in which, in the evening and in the morning, 
rice is served. Cast away desire for these, long not 
after life." ' 

13. ' Then immediately, Ananda, the Great King of 
Glory died. Just, Ananda, as when a yeoman has 
eaten a hearty meal he becomes all drowsy, just so 
were the feelings he experienced, Ananda, as death 
came upon the Great King of Glory. 

[196] ' When the Great King of Glory, Ananda, had 
died, he came to life again in the happy world of 
Brahma. 

' For eight and forty thousand years, Ananda, the 
Great King of Glory lived the happy life of a prince, 
for eight and forty thousand years he was viceroy and 
heir-apparent, for eight and forty thousand years he 
ruled the kingdom, and for eight and forty thousand 
years he lived, as a layman, the noble life in the 
Palace of Righteousness. And then, when full of 
noble thoughts he died, he entered, after the dissolution 
of the body, the world of Brahma ^.' 



14. * Now it may be, Ananda, that you may think 
** The Great King of Glory of that time was another' 
person." But, Ananda, you should not view the 
matter thus. I at that time was the Great King of 
Glory. 

' Mine at that time were the four and eighty thousand 
cities, of which the chief was the royal city of Kusavati. 

' Mine were the four and eighty thousand palaces, of 
which the chief was the Palace of Righteousness. 

^ The 'noble thoughts' are the Brahma-viharas, the sublime 
conditions described above, Chap. II, § 4. The ' noble life ' is the 
Brahmacariyaw, which does not mean the same as it does in 
Sanskrit. The adjective Brahma may have reference here also to 
the subsequent (and consequent?) rebirth in the Brahmaloka. 



230 XVII. MAHA-SUDASSANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 196. 

* Mine were the four and eighty thousand chambers, of 
which the chief was the chamber of the Great Complex. 

* Mine were the four and eighty thousand divans, of 
gold, and silver, and ivory, and sandalwood, spread with 
long-haired rugs, and cloths embroidered with flowers, 
and magnificent antelope skins, covered with lofty 
canopies, and provided at both ends with purple cushions. 

' Mine were the four and eighty thousand state 
elephants, with trappings of gold, and gilded flags, and 
golden coverings of network, — of which the king of 
elephants, called " the Changes of the Moon," was the 
chief 

* Mine were the four and eighty thousand state 
horses, with trappings of gold, and gilded flags, and 
golden coverings of network, — of which " Thunder- 
cloud," the king of horses, was the chief. 

' Mine were the four and eighty thousand chariots 
[197] with coverings of the skins of lions, and of tigers, 
and of panthers, — of which the chariot called " the 
Flag of Victory " was the chief 

' Mine were the four and eighty thousand gems, of 
which the Wondrous Gem was the chief 

' Mine were the four and eighty thousand wives, of 
whom the Queen of Glory was the chief. 

' Mine were the four and eighty thousand yeomen, of 
whom the Wonderful Steward was the chief. 

* Mine were the four and eighty thousand nobles, of 
whom the Wonderful Adviser was the chief 

* Mine were the four and eighty thousand cows, with 
jute trappings, and horns tipped with bronze. 

' Mine were the four and eighty thousand myriads of 
garments, of delicate textures, of flax, and cotton, and 
silk, and wool. 

* Mine were the four and eighty thousand dishes, in 
which, in the evening and in the morning, rice was 
served.' 

15. 'Of those four and eighty thousand cities, 
Ananda, one was that city in which, at that time, I used 
to dwell — to wit, the royal city of Kusavati. 



D. ii. igS. THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. 23 1 

' Of those four and eighty thousand palaces, too, 
Ananda, one was that palace in which, at that time, I 
used to dwell — to wit, the Palace of Righteousness. 

' Of those four and eighty thousand chambers, too, 
Ananda, one was that chamber in which, at that time, 
I used to dwell — to wit, the chamber of the Great 
Complex. 

* Of those four and eighty thousand divans, too, 
Ananda, one was that divan which, at that time, I used 
to occupy — to wit, one of gold, or one of silver, or one 
of ivory, or one of sandalwood. 

' Of those four and eighty thousand state elephants, 
too, Ananda, one was that elephant which, at that time, 
I used to ride — to wit, the king of elephants, " the 
Changes of the Moon." 

[198] ' Of those four and eighty thousand horses, 
too, Ananda, one was that horse which, at that time, 
I used to ride — to wit, the king of horses, " the 
Thunder-cloud." 

' Of those four and eighty thousand chariots, too, 
Ananda, one was that chariot in which, at that time, I 
used to ride — to wit, the chariot called " the Flag of 
Victory." 

' Of those four and eighty thousand wives, too, 
Ananda, one was that wife who, at that time, used to 
wait upon me — to wit, either a lady of noble birth, or 
a Velamikani. 

' Of those four and eighty thousand myriads of suits 
of apparel, too, Ananda, one was the suit of apparel 
which, at that time, I wore — to wit, one of delicate 
texture, of linen, or cotton, or silk, or wool. 

' Of those four and eighty thousand dishes, too, 
Ananda, one was that dish from which, at that time, I 
ate a measure of rice and the curry suitable thereto.' 



1 6. ' See, Ananda, how all these things are now 
past, are ended, have vanished away. Thus imper- 
manent, Ananda, are component things ; thus transitory, 
Ananda, are component things ; thus untrustworthy, 



232 XVII. MAHA-SUDASSANA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 198. 

Ananda, are component things. Insomuch, Ananda, 
is it meet to be weary of, is it meet to be estranged 
from, is it meet to be set quite free from the bondage 
of all component things ! ' 



1 7. ' Now I call to mind, Ananda, how in this spot 
my body had been six times buried. And when I was 
dwelling here as the righteous king who ruled in 
righteousness, the lord of the four regions of the earth, 
the conqueror, the protector of his people, the possessor 
of the seven royal treasures — that was the seventh 
time. 

' But I behold not any spot, Ananda, in the world of 
men and gods, nor in the world of M^ra, nor in the 
world of Brahma — no, not among the race of Sama/^as 
or Brahmins, of gods or men, — where the Tathagata 
for the eighth time will lay aside his body\' 

Thus spake the Exalted One ; and when the Happy 
One had thus spoken, once again the Teacher said : — 

' How transient are all component things ! 
Growth is their nature and decay; 
They are produced, they are dissolved again; 
To bring them all into subjection — that is bliss ^.' 

End of the Mahi-Sudassana-Suttanta. 



^ The whole of this conversation between the Great King of Glory 
and the Queen is very much shorter in the Jataka. This may be 
perhaps partly explained by the narrative style in which the stories are 
composed — a style incompatible with the repetitions of the Suttas, and 
confined to the facts of the story. 

But I think that no one can read this Suttanta in comparison with 
the short passage found in the ' Book of the Great Decease ' (above, 
Chap. V, § 18) without feeling that the latter is the more original of 
the two, and that the legend had not, when that passage or episode 
was first composed, attained to its present extended form. 

- On this celebrated verse, see the note at Mahaparinibbana 
Suttanta VI, 1 6, where it is put into the mouth of Sakka, the king 
of the gods. The principal word, sawkhara (states, or things, or 
phenomena), is discussed in the Introduction to this Suttanta. See 
the 'Journal of the Pali Text Society' for 1909, and below, p. 248. 



INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

JANA-VASABHA SUTTANTA. 

Just as the Maha-Sudassana is based on one paragraph now 
incorporated in the Book of the Great Decease, and the 
Sampasadaniya is based on another, so our present Suttanta is 
based on a third. 

In the other two cases it is probable, but not certain, that 
the expansion is later than the paragraph. In this case the 
available evidence, small as it is, points to a more decisive con- 
clusion. It is easy to point out that probably no one can read 
the opening paragraphs of the Jana-vasabha, with the episode 
about the Nadika adherents in the Book of the Great Decease ^ 
in his mind, without seeing at once that the latter is older. 
It is not so easy to point out why — so much depends, in the 
comparison of two passages of literature, on the personal 
equation, so evasive are the slight finances of meaning when 
it is attempted to set them forth at length. 

But this can be said. In the Book of the Great Decease the 
rebirths of certain followers at Nadika are explained. In the 
Jana-vasabha, for the sake of the story that follows about 
Bimbisara, the well-known king of Magadha, it was necessary 
to include Magadha ; and it was desirable to emphasize 
Magadha. Magadha is accordingly left out in the first list of 
localities, and special reasons are then given why it should be 
included. The story begins by stating that the Buddha used 
to tell how adherents of the new teaching, who belonged to 
one or other of ten tribes, had fared in their rebirths. As an 
example of how he did so the paragraph about the adherents 
in Nadika — which is not one of the ten tribes just men- 
tioned — is given word for word. Now, unless that paragraph 
had been before the story-teller he would surely have given, 
as an example, one or other, or all, of the ten tribes. As 
it stands the Nadika paragraph, and indeed the mention of 
Nadika at all, is out of place. On the supposition that the 

* Digha II, 91-93. 



234 INTRODUCTION. 



prologue to the story was composed on the basis of the 
Nadika paragraph, additions necessary or desirable for the sake 
of the subsequent story being added to it, everything explains 
itself, and is in good order. 

It is perhaps as well to repeat the caution that it would 
not follow that the Jana-vasabha, as we have it, is younger 
than the Maha-parinibbana, as we have it. The Nadika 
paragraph may have been in existence, as a separate episode, 
before both of them. The collection (Nikaya) containing 
both may have been put together, from older material of 
varying dates, at the same time ^. And this is, in point of 
fact, what seems, in the present state of our knowledge to have 
been, most probably, the case. 

After the prologue, here discussed, the story turns into a 
fairy tale, quite well told, and very edifying, and full of subtle 
humour ^. The manner in which the gods, even the highest, 
give themselves away, must have been quite satisfactory to the 
adherents of the new doctrine, and is quite on a par with 
the famous passage in the Kevaddha ^. J ust as the supreme 
being of the priestly speculation is there raised to the highest 
pinnacle of power and glory that words are able to express, 
only to be then described as confessing ignorance ; so here, 
after his imposing entry into the Council Hall of the gods, he 
materializes himself into the form of a Gandharva only to 
propagate among them the new gospel. Just previously the 
gods have been rejoiced to find that adherents of the new 
Teacher, who have died and been reborn among them, out- 
shine them all in radiance and glory ; and Sakka, the king of 
the gods, has voiced their satisfaction in a hymn of praise to 
the Teacher, and his doctrine of the reign (not of the gods 
but) of Law. 

The irony of it all falls rather flat now. Brahma and Sakka 
are mere names to us, void of vitality or power. So confident 
are we that there are no beings in the universe, worth con- 
sidering, except human beings, that the whole story seems 
simply absurd ; and so strange to us is a narrative composed, 
not to be read, but to be recited, that however clearly the 
necessity for them is explained, the repetitions continue to jar 
upon our sense of literary fitness. 

It was far different then. Having no books (in our sense of 
the word) they liked and looked for the repetitions. The 
mixture of irony and earnestness appealed to their literaiy 

^ See above, p. 73. 

^ Compare above. Vol. I, pp. 160-63. 

' Translated above, Vol. I, pp. 280 ff. 



INTRODUCTION. 235 



taste. And they all accepted as a matter of course the 
existence of gods and fairies, and ethereal beings of varied 
character and radiance. We cannot therefore be surprised to 
find that this group of Suttantas all directed to the one pur- 
pose of persuading the people that the gods were on the side 
of the reforming party, attained a lasting success. Even when 
the Buddhists, some centuries after the death of the Buddha, 
began to write in Sanskrit, they still quoted from these Pali 
mythological legends, and from those passages of them which 
seem to our taste the most bizarre *. 



There are two expressions in our Suttanta which merit a 
longer discussion than is possible in a note. These are 

kenacid eva karawiyena and 

yavad eva manussehi suppakasitaw 

In each case the question arises whether the d is to be taken 
as added for euphony, or whether it should be taken with the 
following eva to form the word deva, god. 

Buddhaghosa comments on the former phrase when it 
occurs in the Assalayana (IVI. II, 147). There certain 
brahmins are said to be staying at Savatthi kenacid eva 
karawiyena (as Sir Robert Chalmers prints it), that is, 'on 
some business or other.' Prof. Pischel, however, in the separate 
edition he published at Chemnitz in 1880, prints it kena ci 
devakarawiyena, that is 'on some matter connected with 
worship of the gods.' The Papaiica Sudani has kenacidevati 
yannupasanadina aniyamita-kiccena, ' on some undeter- 
mined matter such as sacrifice, worship, or so on.' This is an 
explanation of the meaning of the phrase as found in that 
connexion, and not a direction as to whether the phrase con- 
tains the word deva or the word eva. The gloss would be 
equally correct in either case. In our Suttanta the phrase 
occurs in § II where Jana-vasabha is sent by one god to 
another kenacid eva kara;/iyena. Here it seems quite 
unnecessary to mention that he was sent ' on business referring 
to the god,' and the phrase may well be taken in its ordinary 
sense as, for instance, in the Mah^-parinibbana (D. II, 147). 
There Ananda goes to the Mallas to announce the impending 
death of the Buddha and finds them assembled in their Mote 
Hall kenacid eva kara«iyena — clearly, in this connexion 
' on some business or other.' (Cp. D. II, 159.) It may, indeed, 
be objected that the clansmen may have been consulting about 
some business ' connected with the gods,' That seems, how- 

^ See further the remarks in 'Buddhist India,' pp. 219 ff. 



236 INTRODUCTION. 



ever, unlikely. If really meant it would have been expressed 
otherwise. And frankly it is most doubtful whether the 
suggested phrase deva-kara«iya 'god-business' is really 
a good Pali idiom at all. The best conclusion therefore, in 
the present state of our knowledge of that idiom, is that the 
right reading is eva, not deva, and that the phrase always 
means ' on some business or other.' 

The other case is more difficult. The phrase occurs at the 
end of the epilogue to our Suttanta. It recurs in the Sam- 
pasadaniya (D. Ill, laz). In both places it is evidently an 
excerpt from the stock episode found in the Anguttara IV, 
308 ff., the Sa;;zyutta V, 258 ff., and the Udana VI, i, and 
incorporated in the Maha-parinibbana (D. II, loa ff., see 
especially pp. 106, 114). There the Buddha refuses to die 
till certain things have been accomplished. These are (i) 
until the Bhikkhus shall have become true hearers, wise and 
well trained, &c. — (2) until they, having themselves learned 
the doctrine, shall be able to tell others of it, preach it, ex- 
pound it, &c. — (3) until they shall be able, by the truth, to 
refute vain doctrine — (4) until the way of good life shall have 
become wide spread and popular — (5) yavad eva manussehi 
pakasitaw, apparently meaning 'until it shall have been 
well proclaimed among men ' (or perhaps * by men ' as Prof. 
Windisch renders, Mara and Buddha, p. 72). The same 
set of conditions is then repeated, reading for ' Bhikkhus,' 
' Bhikkhunis,' ' laymen ' and ' lay women ' respectively. The 
conditions, it will be observed, are all of them conditions to 
obtain among humans. Nevertheless the Divyavadana (p. 202), 
in Sanskritising (or re-writing) the passage, doubles the d 
(yavad devamanushyebhya/^), and so introduces the gods — 
'until it shall have been well proclaimed among (or hy) gods 
and men.' Later tradition does the same. Buddhaghosa 
brings in the gods in his comments on the Digha passages. 
But the question is, did the version of the episode, as 
originally composed, have this meaning? The context is 
against it. Another constantly repeated phrase about the 
reform being * for the good and the weal and the gain of gods 
and men,' is, as Dr; Estlin Carpenter suggests to me, in its 
favour. But it may be precisely the haunting memory of that 
phrase that influenced the author of the version included in the 
Divyavadana, and also Buddhaghosa. When once the gods 
got in, it would be most difficult to dislodge them. There the 
matter must, for the present, be left. 



[XVIII. JANA-VASABHA SUTTANTA. 

jana-vasabha's story.] 

Thus have I heard. 

I. [200]^ The Exalted One was once staying in 
Nadika, at the Brick House. Now at that time the 
Exalted One was wont to make declarations as to the 
rebirths of such followers (of the doctrine) as had 
passed away in death among the tribes round about 
on every side — among the Kasis and Kosalans, the 
Vajjians and Mallas, the Chetis and Vawsas, the Kurus 
and Panchalas, the Macchas and Surasenas — saying : 
' Such an one has been reborn there, and such an 
one there -. From Nadika upwards of fifty adherents, 
who passed away in death after having completely 
destroyed the Five Bonds that bind people to this 
world ^ have become inheritors of the highest heavens, 
there to pass utterly away, thence never to return. 
Full ninety adherents in Nadika, who have passed 
away in death after having completely destroyed the 
Three Bonds, and reduced to a minimum lust ill-will 
and d«h!sKJfi, have become Once-returners, and on 
their first return to this world shall make an end of 
pain. Over five hundred adherents of Nadika, who 
have passed away in death after having completely 
destroyed the Three Bonds, and become converted, 
cannot be reborn in any state of woe, but are assured 
of attaining to the Insight (of the higher stages of 
the Path).' 

2. [201] Now the adherents at Nadika, when they 
heard these revelations, were pleased, gladdened and 
filled with joy and happiness at these solutions by the 

^ See above pp. 97 ff., and the notes there. 
^ For the details see above, p. 98, § 7. 
^ See 'Dialogues,' I, pp. 200, 201. 

ST^Pl^lTY 



238 XVIII. JANA-VASABHA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 201. 

Exalted One of the problems that had been put 
to him. 

3. Now the venerable Ananda heard [of these declara- 
tions made by the Exalted One, and of the satisfaction 
felt by the adherents at Nadika]. 

4. And this idea occurred to him : — ' But there 
were also [202] adherents in Magadha, many of them, 
and of long religious experience, who have passed 
away in death. One might think that Anga and 
Magadha were void of adherents who have passed 
away in death. For they too had entire faith in the 
Buddha the Law and the Order, they had fulfilled 
the moral precepts. And yet concerning them, since 
they passed away in death, nothing has been declared 
by the Exalted One. It were surely a good thing to 
evoke a response as to them ; for much folk would 
believe, and would hereafter enter into bliss. Then 
too there was Seniya Bimbisara, king of Magadha, 
righteous and ruling- righteously, benign to priests and 
laymen, to town-folk and country-folk. His fame are 
men verily spreading abroad saying: — " Dead is our 
so righteous king of righteous rule who made us so 
happy! How well have we lived in the kingdom of 
that righteous king ! " Now he too had entire faith in 
the Buddha the Law and the Order, and fulfilled the 
moral precepts. And people verily have also said, 
" Seniya Bimbisara, king of Magadha, who up to the 
day of his death was given to praises of the Exalted 
One, is dead." Concerning him who has passed away 
in death nothing has been declared by the Exalted 
One. It were surely a good thing to evoke a response 
as to him ; for much folk would believe, and would here- 
after enter into bliss. Moreover the Exalted One 
attained supreme Insight in Magadha. Now where 
that took place, how should there be no declaration 
from the Exalted One concerning adherents in 
Magadha who have passed away in death ? [203] If the 
Exalted One declare nothing concerning them they 
will be hurt. And since they would be hurt, how can 
the Exalted One keep silence ? ' 



I 



D, ii. 205. JANA-VASABHA S STORY. 239 

5, 6. Having thus pondered, alone and privately, 
concernine the Magadhese adherents, the venerable 
Ananda rose up the next morning and came mto the 
presence of the Exalted One, and being come, saluted 
him and sat down on one side. And so sitting, he told 
the Exalted One [all that he had heard and thought ^]. 
[204] And when he had made an end of thus speaking 
before the Exalted One, he rose from his seat, saluted 
the Exalted One rightwise, and went away. 

7. Then ^ the Exalted One, not long after the 
venerable Ananda had ofone away, robed himself in 
the morning and, taking a bowl and cloak, went forth 
for alms to Nadika. And when he had walked through 
Nadika for alms, after his meal, when he had come back 
again from his round for alms and bathed his feet, he 
entered the Brick House and sat down on a seat made 
ready, thinking over and cogitating upon and concen- 
trating his whole mind on the Magadhese adherents, 
saying to himself: ' I will find out their future, their 
fate after this life, whither these good men are bound, 
what their destiny is.' And he, the Exalted One, saw 
the Magadhese adherents, whither they were bound, 
[205] and what their destiny was. Then at eventide 
the Exalted One, arising from his meditation, went 
out of the Brick House, and sat down on a mat spread 
in the shade behind the lodging place. 

8. Then the venerable Ananda came into the 
presence of the Exalted One, saluted him and sat 
down on one side. Thus seated he said to the Exalted 
One : — ' My lord the Exalted One looks serene, his 
complexion shines forth, as it were, owing to the tran- 
quillity of his faculties. Has the lord the Exalted 
One spent a pleasant day ?' 

9. ' When you had made that speech to me, Ananda, 
concerning the Magadhese adherents and had gone 
away, I, when I had gone to Nadika for alms, had 
dined, returned, bathed my feet and entered the Brick 
House, sat me down on a mat spread there and thought 

^ Repeated from §§1,2, 4, nearly word for word. 



240 XVIII. JANA-VASABHA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 205. 

over, cogitated upon, and concentrated my whole mind 
on those Magadhese adherents, resolving to know 
their future, their fate after this life, whither these good 
men were bound, what their destiny would be. And 
I saw, Ananda, those Magadhese adherents, whither 
the good men were bound, what their destiny would 
be. Thereupon an invisible spirit made himself heard, 
saying : — " I am Jana-vasabha, O Exalted One ; I am 
Jana-vasabha, O Welcome One ! " Now do you allow, 
Ananda, that you have ever heard of any one bearing 
such a name as Jana-vasabha ?' 

* I confess, lord, that I have never heard of one 
bearing such a name as Jana-vasabha. Moreover, 
lord, on hearing such a name as Jana-vasabha, I am 
thrilled with excitement ^, and I fancy [206] it can be 
no ordinary spirit who bears such a name as Jana- 
vasabha ^.' 

10. 'After those words had been spoken, Ananda, 
the spirit himself appeared before me, a splendid 
presence. And he made a second utterance : — " I am 
Bimbisara, O Exalted One ! I am Bimbisara, O 
Welcome One ! 'Tis now the seventh time, lord, that 
I am reborn into the communion of the great King 
Vessava/^a. Deceased as a human king, I am in 
heaven become a non-human king. 

Hence seven, thence seven, in all fourteen rebirths — 
So much I know of lives I've lived in the long past. 

Long, lord, have I, who am destined not to be re- 
born in states of woe, been conscious of that destiny, 
and now is there desire in me to become a Once- 
returner." 

' Wonderful is this, marvellous is this that you, the 
venerable spirit Jana-vasabha, tell me : — " Long have 
I who am destined not to be reborn in states of woe, 

^ Literally, the down of my skin bristles. 

2 Literally, the ' Bull of the Folk,' that is glorious among the people. 
The name seems scarcely to justify the good Ananda's excitement, 
as such epithets were then, as now, common enough in India. But it 
is part of the art of the story-teller to make a mystery of it. 



D. ii. 207. JANA-VASABHA S STORY. 24 1 

been conscious of that destiny ; " and again : — " Now is 
there desire in me to become a Once-returner." How 
has it come about that Jana-vasabha the venerable 
spirit recognizes his attainment to a distinction so 
splendid ? ' 

I I. " Nowise save through thy word, O Exalted One, 
nowise save through thy word, O Blessed One ! From 
the moment when I had gone over, in absolute and 
entire faith to the Exalted One, from that moment, 
lord, [207] did I who am destined not to be reborn in 
states of woe, been conscious of that destiny ; and I now 
desire to become a Once-returner. Now, lord, I have 
been sent on a message concerning some business by 
King Vessavawa to King Viru/haka ; and on my way 
I saw the Exalted One entering the Brick House, 
and sitting down to think over, to cogitate upon, to 
concentrate his whole mind upon the deceased Maga- 
dhese adherents, in the resolve to know their future, 
their fate after this life ; whither the good men are 
bound, what their destiny is. Now it was only the 
moment before, lord, that I had heard face to face 
and had understood from his own mouth from King 
Vessava;^a, how he had said to his assembly whither 
those good men were bound, and what their destiny 
was, so it occurred to me that I would visit the Exalted 
One, and I would announce it to him. These, lord, 
are the two reasons why I came forth to visit the 
Exalted One\ 

1 2 -. In days gone by, lord, in days long long gone by, 
it came to pass that on the night of the feast of the 
fifteenth day at the full moon in the month for entering 
upon Retreat 3, the month Asa/hi, the whole of the 
gods in the retinue of the Thirty-Three were assembled 

^ These two reasons are: firstly, that he had heard a statement 
by Vessava«a ; secondly, that (having noticed, on his way, how the 
Exalted One had been thinking on that very matter) he wished to 
report it to him. 

* Recurs slightly altered below, jMaha-Govinda Suttanta, § 2. 

' Vassupanayika. Vassa is here used in its technical sense of 
the yearly Retreat during the rains. See A. I, 51 ; Vin. I, 137, 

III. R 



242 XVIII. JANA-VASABHA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 207. 

together, seated in the hall of Good Counsel. And 
around them on every side a vast celestial company 
was seated ; and at the four quarters of the firmament 
sat the Four Great Kings. There was Dhatara/Z/m, 
king of the East, seated facing the west, presiding 
over his host ; Viru/haka, king of the South, seated 
facing the north, presiding over his host ; VirOpakkha, 
king of the West, seated facing the east, presiding 
over his host; and Vessava;ia, king of the North, 
seated facing the south, presiding over his host. [2O8] 
Whenever, lord, all the gods in the heaven of the 
Thirty-Three are assembled and seated in their hall of 
Good Counsel, with a vast celestial company seated 
around them on every side, and with the Four Great 
Kings at the four quarters of the firmament, this is the 
order of the seats of the Four. After that come our 
seats. And those gods, lord, who had been recently 
reborn in the hosts of the Thirty-Three because they 
had lived the higher life under the Exalted One, they 
outshone the other gods in appearance and in glory. 
And thereat, lord, the Thirty-Three were glad and 
of good cheer, were filled with joy and happiness, 
saying : — " Verily, sirs, the celestial hosts are waxing, 
the titanic hosts are waninsf." 

13. Now, lord, Sakka, ruler of the gods, when he 
saw the satisfaction felt by the retinue of the Three- 
and-Thirty, expressed his approval in these verses : — 

The Three-and-Thirty, verily, both gods and lord, 

rejoice, 
Tathigata they honour and the cosmic law sublime ^, 
Whereas they see the gods new-risen, beautiful and 

bright, 
Who erst the holy life had lived, under the Happy 

One, 
The Mighty Sage's hearers, who had won to higher 

truths ^ 

* Literally, ' and the fair Normness of the Norm,' that is, the rule, 
not of gods, i)ut of Law. 

^ Visesiipagata. See above, Vol. I, p. 296 : * attains to distinc- 



D. ii. 209. TANA-VASABHA S STORY. 243 

Come hither; and in glory all the other gods out- 
shine. 

This they behold right gladly, both lord and Thirty- 
Three, 

Tathigata they honour and the cosmic law sublime. 

Hereat [209], lord, the Three-and-Thirty Gods were 
even more abundantly glad and of good cheer and 
filled with joy and happiness, saying : — " Verily the 
celestial hosts are waxing, the titanic hosts are 
waninof ! " 

14. Then, lord, concerning the object for which the 
Three-and-Thirty gods were assembled in their seats 
in the Hall of Good Counsel, they took counsel and 
deliberated about it ; and with respect to that object 
the Four Great Kings were addressed, and with respect 
to that object the Four Great Kings were admonished, 
standing by their seats : — 

The uttered word th' admonished Kings accepted there, 
Serene in mind and calm they stood each at his place. 

15. Then, lord, a splendid light came forth out of 
the North, and a radiance shone around surpassing the 
divine glory of the gods. And, lord, then did Sakka, 
king of the gods, say to the retinue of the Thirty- 
Three : — " According, friends, to the signs now seen, — 
the light that ariseth, the radiance that appeareth — 
Brahma will be manifested. For this is the herald 
sign of the manifestation of Brahma to wit, when the 
light ariseth and the glory shineth ^ " : — 

The portents now are seen, so Brahma draweth nigh. 
For this is Brahma's sign, this glorious splendour vast. 

16. Then, lord, the gods of the Thirty-Three sat 
down in their own places, saying : — " We will ascertain 
what shall be the result of this radiance, when we have 

tion so excellent.' Perhaps this technical phrase is to be taken here 
(as in § 28) in its ordinary sense. It would then mean : ' who have 
attained to the distinction of rebirth among the gods.' 

* So also in the Kevaddha (p. 200, translated above, Vol. I, p. 281), 

R 2 



244 XVIII. JANA-VASABHA-SUTTANTA. D. ii. 209. 

realized it, we will go to meet him. The Four Great 
Kings also sat down in their own places, saying the 
same. [210] And when they had heard this, the gods of 
the Three-and-Thirty were all together agreed : — " We 
will ascertain what shall be the result of this radiance ; 
when we have realized it, we will go to meet him." 

1 7. When, lord, Brahma Sana;;/kumara ^ appears 
before the Thirty-Three gods, he appears as a 
(relatively) gross personality which he has specially 
created. For Brahma's usual appearance is not 
sufficiently materialized to impress the vision of the 
Thirty-Three Gods. And, lord, when Brahma Sana;?^- 
kumara appears before the Thirty-Three Gods, he out- 
shines the other gods in colour and in glory. Just, 
lord, as a figure made of gold outshines the human 
frame, so, when Brahma Sanawkumara appears before 
the Thirty-Three Gods, does he outshine the other 
gods in colour and in glory. And when, lord, Brahma 
SanaT^^kumara appears before the Thirty-Three Gods, 
there is no god in all that assembly that salutes him, 
or rises up, or invites him to be seated. They all sit 
in silence, with clasped hands and cross-legged, think- 
ing : — " Of whichever god Brahma Sana/i^kumara now 
desires anything, he will sit down on that god's divan." 
And by whichever god he does sit down, that god is 
filled with a sublime satisfaction, a sublime happiness, 
even as a Kshatriya king newly anointed and crowned 
is filled with a sublime satisfaction, a sublime happiness. 

18. [211] So, lord, Brahma Sana?/^kumara having 
created a grosser personality and become in appearance 
as the youth Five-crest 2, manifested himself thus to the 
gods of the company of the Thirty-Three. Rising up 
into the air he sat down cross-legged in the sky. Just, 
lord, as easily as a strong man might sit down cross- 
legged on a well-spread divan or a smooth piece of 



^ See Vol. I, p. 121. 

^ PaScasikha, which became a famous name in Indian legends, 
and was adopted by Saivite and Sankhya writers. It is nowhere 
explained what, or how disposed, his five crests were. 



D. ii. 212. JANA-VASABHA S STORY. 245 

ground, even so did Brahmi Sanawkumara, rising up 
into the air, sit down cross-legged in the sky. And 
seeing the tranquillity of the gods of the company of 
the Thirty-Three he expressed his pleasure in these 
verses : — 

The Three-and-Thirty, verily, both gods and lord, 
rejoice, 

Tathagata they honour and the cosmic law sublime. 

Whereas they see these gods new-risen, beautiful and 
bright, 

Who erst the holy life had lived, under the Happy 
One, 

The Mighty Sage's hearers, who had won to higher 
truths. 

Come hither ; and in glory all the other gods out- 
shine. 

This they behold right gladly, both lord and Thirty- 
Three, 

Tathagata they honour and the cosmic law sublime. 

19. This was the matter of Brahma Sanawkumira's 
speech. And he spoke it with a voice of eightfold 
characteristics — in a voice that was fluent, intelligible, 
sweet, audible, continuous, distinct, deep, and resonant. 
And whereas, lord, Brahma Sanaw^kumara communi- 
cated with that assembly by his voice, the sound thereof 
did not penetrate beyond the assembly. He whose 
voice has these eight characteristics is said to be 
Brahma-voiced. 

20. Then, lord, Brahma Sanawkumara, having 
created thirty- three shapes of himself [212], sitting each 
on the couch of each of the Thirty-Three Gods, thus 
addressed the Gods : — 

" Now what think ye, my lord gods Thirty-and- 
Three ? Inasmuch as the Exalted One hath acted for 
the welfare of the peoples, for the happiness of the 
peoples, out of pity for the world, for the advantage, 
for the w'elfare, for the happiness of gods and men, 
they, whoever they be. Sirs, who have taken the 
Buddha for their refuge, the Truth for their refuge, 



2^6 XVIII. JANA-VASABHA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 212. 

the Order for their refuge, they, on the dissoUition of 
the body after death, have been reborn, some of them 
into the communion of the Paranimmita-Vasavatti 
gods, some of them into the communion of the Tusita 
gods, or of the gods in the retinue of Yama, or of the 
Thirty-Three Gods, or of the Four Great Kings. 
Those who fill the number of the lowest group, they 
go to fill the number of the Gandharva host." 

21. This was the matter of Brahma Sanaz^zkumdra's 
speech. And he spoke it with such a voice, that each 
god fancied M — "He who is on my divan, he alone 
hath spoken." 

Speaks but one Brahma-shape, the Thirty-Three all 

speak ; 
Silently sits one shape, they all in silence sit. 
Then all the Three-and-Thirty with their king too 

think, 
He who is on my couch, 'tis he alone that spake 2. 

22. Then, lord, Brahma Sanawkumara betook him- 
self to one end [of the Hall] and then [213] sitting down 
on the divan of Sakka, lord of the gods, addressed the 
Thirty-Three Gods : — 

" Now what think ye, my lord gods Thirty-and-Three, 
of the completeness wherewith the Exalted One, who 
knows, who sees, the Arahant, Buddha Supreme, hath 
revealed the Four Ways to Iddhi for the develop- 
ment, thereof, for proficiency therein, for the elabora- 
tion thereof? Which are the Four Ways? In the 
first place a brother practises that way which is com- 
pounded of concentration and effort with desire. In 
the second place a brother practises that way which is 
compounded of concentration and effort with energy. 
In the third place a brother practises that way which 

^ In the text read so so devo. 

^ The first couplet of this verse, oddly enough it seems to us, was 
a great favourite. It survived among the Buddhists for many cen- 
turies, and is extant in its Sanskritised form in the Divyavadana, 
p. 166; and also in the Madhyamaka Vn'tti, p. 118 of the edition 
pubUshed by the Buddhist Text Society. 



D. ii. 214. JANA-VASABHA S STORY. 247 

is compounded of concentration and effort with a 
[dominant] idea. In the fourth place a brother prac- 
tises that way which is compounded of concentration 
and effort with investigation. These, sir, are the Four 
Ways to Iddhi revealed by the Exalted One who 
knows, who sees, the Arahant, Buddha Supreme, for the 
development thereof, for proficiency therein, for the 
elaboration thereof ^ Now those recluses or brahmins 
who, in past times, have enjoyed Iddhi in one or more 
of its forms, they have all done so through practice 
and improvement in just these Four Ways. And 
those recluses or brahmins who, in future times, will 
enjoy Iddhi in one or more of its forms, they 
will all do so through practice and improvement in 
just these Four Ways. And those recluses or brahmins 
who, at the present time, enjoy Iddhi in one or more 
of its forms, they all do so through practice and im- 
provement in just these Four Ways. 

Do ye see, my lord gods Thirty-and-Three, in me 
a potency of Iddhi like that ? " 

" Yea. Brahmd." 

" I too. Sirs, through practice and improvement in 
just these Four Ways to Iddhi [214], have acquired 
such power and potency therein." 

23. Such was the matter of Brahma Sanaw/kumara's 
speech. And having thus spoken he addressed the 
Thirty-Three Gods : — 

" Now what think ye, my lord gods Thirty-and- 
Three, of the Three Avenues for arriving at Bliss 
manifested by the Exalted One who knows, who sees, 
by the Arahant, Buddha Supreme ? Which are the 
Three ? 

In the first place, Sirs, take a brother who is living 
in indulgence in the pleasures of sense, in association 
with bad conditions. He on a certain occasion hears 
the Aryan Truth, studies it and acquires both the main 



^ There are two sorts of Iddhi, the worldly and the spiritual. On 
the former see above. Vol. I, pp. 272, 3 ; and on the latter Digha III, 
112, 113. 



248 XVIIT, JANA-VASABHA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 214. 

and the subsidiary doctrines. Having come to this 
hearing, studying and acquisition, he takes to a Hfe 
detached from the pleasures of sense, not associated 
with bad conditions. Under these circumstances he 
experiences ease and more than ease, happiness. Just 
as a feeHng of complacency may develop into gladness, 
so does for him, under those circumstances, first ease 
arise, and, then more than ease, happiness. This, Sirs, 
is the First Avenue for arriving at Bliss manifested by 
the Exalted One . . . Buddha Supreme. 

24. In the next place, Sirs, take a brother in whom 
the grosser conditions precedent ^ to action, speech and 
thought are not entirely calmed down. He on a 
certain occasion hears the Aryan Truth preached, studies 
it and acquires both the main and subsidiary doctrines. 
Having arrived at this hearing, studying and acquisi- 
tion, the grosser conditions precedent to action, speech 
and thought in him become entirely calmed down. And 
from this ease is experienced, and then more than ease, 
happiness. Just as a feeling of complacency may 
develop into gladness, so does for him, under those 
circumstances, first ease arise and then more than ease, 
happiness. [215] This, Sirs, is the Second Avenue for 
arriving at Bliss manifested by the Exalted One . . . 
Buddha Supreme. 

25. In the third place. Sirs, take the case of a 
brother who does not really know that ' This is good,' 

* This is bad,' ' This is wrong,' ' This is not wrong,' 

* This is to be followed,' ' This is to be avoided,' 
' This is base,' ' This is excellent,' ' This is of mixed dark 
and bright quality.' He on a certain occasion hears 
the Aryan Truth, studies it and acquires the main and 
subsidiary doctrines. Having arrived at this hearing, 
study and acquisition, he now really knows that ' This 
is good,' he really knows that ' This is bad,' ' This is 
wrong,' * This is not wrong,' ' This is to be followed,' 
' This is to be avoided,' ' This is base,' ' This is 



^ Sahkhara. This paragraph throws light on the celebrated verse 
given above, p. 232. 



D. ii. 2i6. JANA-VASABHAS STORY. 249 

excellent,' ' This is of mixed dark and bright quality.' 
For him thus knowing, thus seeing, ignorance is put 
away, wisdom has arisen. From this extinction of 
ignorance, from the arising of wisdom, a sense of ease 
arises and, then more than ease, happiness. Just as 
a feeling of complacency may develop into gladness, so 
does for him, under these circumstances, first ease 
arise, and then more than ease, happiness. This, Sirs, 
is now the Third Avenue for arriving at Bliss manifested 
by the Exalted One who knows, who sees, Arahant, 
Buddha Supreme. 

These, Sirs, are [2ie] the Three Avenues for 
arriving at Bliss manifested by the Exalted One, who 
knows and sees, the Arahant, Buddha Supreme." 

26. On this matter, lord, did Brahma Sana;;zkum^ra 
speak. And having so spoken he addressed the 
Thirty-Three Gods : — 

" Now what think ye, my lord gods Thirty-and- 
Three, of the completeness wherewith the Exalted 
One, who knows, who sees, the Arahant, Buddha 
Supreme, hath revealed the Four Inceptions of Mind- 
fulness ^ for attaining: to the Good. And which are the 
Four ? Take, Sirs, a brother who abides subjectively 
watchful over the body, ardent self-possessed mindful, 
that he may discern the unhappiness arising from 
coveting the things of the world. So, subjectively 
watchful, he attains to right concentration and right 
calm. He, having right concentration and right calm 
in his physical being, evokes knowledge of and insight 
into all other physical forms external to himself So, 
again, he abides subjectively watchful over his feelings 
. . . over his heart, . . . over his ideas, ardent self- 
possessed mindful, that he may discern the unhappiness 
arising from coveting the things of the world. So, 
subjectively watchful, he attains to right concentration 
and right calm. He, having right concentration and 
right calm in his feelings . . . his heart . . . his ideas, 



* The four Satipa/Manas. 



250 XVIII. JANA-VASABHA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 216. 

evokes knowledge of and insight into the ideas of 
others external to himself. 

These, Sirs, are the Four Inceptions of Deliberation 
for attaining to the Good completely revealed by the 
Exalted One, who knows, who sees, the Arahant, 
Buddha Supreme." 

27. On this matter did Brahma Sana;?2kumdra 
speak. And having spoken he addressed the Thirty- 
Three Gods : — 

" Now what think ye, my lord gods Thirty-and 
Three, of the completeness wherewith the Exalted 
One, who knows, who sees, the Arahant, Buddha 
Supreme, hath revealed the Seven Requisites of In- 
tellectual Concentration *, for practice of right Rapture, 
for the perfecting of Rapture ? Which are the Seven ? 
Right views, right intention, right speech, right action, 
right livelihood, [217] right effort, right mindfulness. 
That concentration of thought, Sirs, which is prepared 
by these seven factors, is called the Noble Right 
Rapture together with its bases, together with its 
requisites. Right intention suffices to maintain right 
views, right speech suffices to maintain right intention, 
right action suffices to maintain right speech, right 
livelihood suffices to maintain right action, right effort 
suffices to maintain right livelihood, right mindfulness 
suffices to maintain right effort, right rapture suffices to 
maintain right mindfulness, right knowledge suffices 
to maintain right rapture, right freedom suffices to 
maintain right knowledge. 

If any one uttering right speech, Sirs, were to say : — 
* Well hath the Exalted One proclaimed the Truth, — 
the Norm that in this life beareth fruit, that avails not 
for a time only -, that welcometh every one, that leadeth 
away and onward, that each one who hath intelligence 
may of and by himself understand ! ' Then in saying : 

" Wide opened are the portals to Nirvana ! " 



^ Samadhi-parikkhara. 

^ akalika. The opposite tavakalika occurs above, p. 195. 



D. ii. 2i8. JANA-VASABHA S STORY. 25 I 

He would be rightly saying that. For, Sirs, the 
doctrine well proclaimed by the Exalted One is all 
that ; and 

" Wide opened are the portals to Nirvana ! " 

For, Sirs, whosoever has unwavering^ faith in the 
Buddha, unwavering faith in the Truth, unwavering faith 
in the Order, and is endowed with the virtues pleasing 
to the Noble Ones ; and whatsoever new gods have 
appeared in our midst, led hither by the Law, to wit 
more than twenty-four lacs of Magadha disciples now 
dead and gone - ; these all through complete destruction 
of the Three Bonds, have become converted, and cannot 
be reborn in any state of woe, but are assured of 
attaining to the Insight (of the highest stages of the 
Path). [2I8] Moreover there are here Once-returners ; 

*' But of that other Breed to tell, 
Of higher merit ^ lo ! the tale 
I cannot reckon, lest perchance 
I should offend against the truth." 



•& 



28. This, lord, was the matter of Brahma Sanaw- 
kumara's speech. And concerning what he had spoken, 
the reflection arose in the mind of the Great King- 
Vessava;^a : — " Wonderful truly is it. Sirs, marv^ellous 
is it, that there should be so glorious a Teacher, so 
glorious a proclaiming of the Truth, and that such 
glorious avenues to distinction* should be made 
known ! " 



* Avecca, not as Childers thought from ava + eti but from 
a + vi-feti. Buddhaghosa says acala. Veti (not in Childers) is to 
wane (see S. I, 135; A. II, 51; KV. 66; Asl. 329), but one can 
scarcely say ' unwaning faith.' 

' The reading is uncertain. As it stands the deceased disciples 
belong only to the second group — the new gods. It is quite possible 
that it is intended to include them also among the men of faith and 
virtue in the first group. 

^ These must be Anagamins, Non-retximers, those who, reborn 
in one of the heavens, will attain Arahantship there, without returning 
at all to this world. 

* Visesadhigama. See note above on § 13. 



252 XVIII. JANA-VASABHA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 218. 

Then, lord, Brahmi Sanawkumara discerning this 
reflection in the mind of the Great King Vessava^^a, 
spake thus to him : — 

" Now what thinks my lord, the Great King Vessa- 
va^^a ? There both has been in past times, a Teacher 
so glorious, a proclaiming of the Truth so glorious, a 
making known such glorious avenues to distinction, 
and there will be also in future times a Teacher so 
glorious, [214] a proclaiming of the Truth so glorious, 
a making known such glorious avenues to distinction." 



29. This was the matter whereof Brahma Sanaw- 
kumara spoke to the Thirty-Three Gods. And this 
matter the Great King Vessava;/a, when he had, in 
his own person, heard it and assented to it, reported to 
his own following. And this matter the spirit Jana- 
vasabha, when he had in his own person heard it so 
reported by Vessavawa, reported to the Exalted One. 
And this matter the Exalted One, when he had in his 
own person heard it and assented to it, and had also 
intuitively discerned it,^ reported to Ananda. And this 
matter the venerable Ananda, when he had in his own 
person heard it from the Exalted One and assented 
to it, reported to the brethren and the sisterhood, to 
believing laymen and lay women. And the System 
waxed influential and prosperous and expanded and 
broadened with the numbers that joined, so well was 
it spread abroad among men.^ 

Here endeth Jana-vasabha's Story. 

^ Afterwards interpreted to mean ' gods and men ' (see pp. 235, 236). 
But the last two sentences refer here to men and women only. To 
put in the gods spoils the climax. 



INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

mahA-govinda suttanta. 

This Suttanta is certainly, in some respects, among the 
most interesting in the collection ; and for the history of the 
literature is of great importance. 

The subject is twofold, both necessary points at the time, 
and both scarcely intelligible, without a little attention, to 
modern Western minds. Even in the East, and to Buddhists, 
the story now seems somewhat strange and antiquated. The 
success of the method of argument here adopted has been so 
far complete that the need of the argument has ceased, the 
point of view has changed, and the Suttanta, among the most 
popular in early times, is now, compared to others dealing 
with the positive side of the doctrine, considered of minor 
value. 

The two points are those of the brahmins and the gods. 
The method of the argument is not to argue about anything ; 
to accept the opponents' position throughout, and simply to 
out-flank it by making the gods and the brahmins themselves 
act and speak as quite good Buddhists, and take for granted 
the Buddhist position on ethical matters. This is of course, 
from one point of view, logically absurd. No militant brahmin, 
in fav'Our of the pecuniary or social advantages allowed to 
brahmins by birth, would speak or act thus. No god, as he 
was supposed by his worshippers to be (and he existed only as 
such), would speak or act thus. But the composer (or com- 
posers) of the Govinda knew this quite well. And he is (or 
they are) scrupulously polite. The actions imputed to the 
brahmin and the gods, the words put into their mouths, are 
quite admirable. No one can blame the story-teller that they 
happen also to be Buddhist. The question as to what the 
good brahmin ought to be, what a good god ought to do or 
say, is quietly begged in the most delicate way. On this point 
— the ethical doctrine — the narrator is thoroughly in earnest ; 
and he no less thoroughly enjoys the irony of the incongruities 
involved. It is the fashion to label all Buddhist writings, 
without discrimination, as insufferably dull; and the fashion 



254 INTRODUCTION. 



will be kept up, no doubt, among those who do not see the 
point of the really very able way in which, sometimes, it is all 
done. But we may be permitted to appreciate a clever story 
(even with a moral) in spite of the fact that the story part is 
a story — all make-believe, none of it historically true. 

It has been pointed out above (Vol. I, 208), how a brahmin 
law book, at a time when the increasing respect paid to 
Wanderers and Bhikkhus threatened loss of prestige and 
profit to the sacrificing priests, puts into the mouth of Pra- 
japati the ferocious remark that he who praises such people 
(the wandering teachers, &c.) 'becomes dust and perishes.' 
The writer hoped (quite in vain as it turned out) to gain 
acceptance for his view by attributing it to a deity. This 
polemical device was quite in accord with the literary ethics of 
the day. The choice of the god has an artistic touch, and the 
anecdote se non e vero t ben trovato. Quite a number of other 
instances might be quoted from Indian books of all ages, though 
not from Pali works later than the Nikayas, nor from works 
written in Ceylon or Burma. And they are found also in 
other lands and other literatures. The device is peculiar, not 
to India, but to a certain stage in religious beliefs and literary 
taste. It is not in reality so good a device as, at first sight, it 
seems to be. There are many instances, like the one just 
quoted, where it has altogether failed. As applied here, in the 
Govinda, the device has failed as regards the brahmins ^. Where 
it has had a measure of success (that is, where the opinion thus 
fathered on a deity has become more or less an accepted 
opinion), it probably owes more to its validity, or to its appeal 
to the feeling of the times, than to the help of the deity 
invoked. The reader may be reminded that the habit of 
assuming that the deity is on one's own side, of taking it for 
granted that He shares one's own opinions, comes out quite 
clearly in modes of expression in constant use, even by very 
exalted personages, in the Europe of to-day. 

Our Suttanta introduces us, in the first scene of the play, to 
heaven. There the gods rejoice at the increase in their numbers 
through the appearance, in their midst, of new gods produced 
by the good Karma of the followers of the new view of life 
put forward by Gotama. The king of the gods voices their 
satisfaction in a hymn ; and then utters, in eight paragraphs, 
a eulogy on the Buddha. In scene two the still higher god, 
Maha-brahma, appears. He desires to hear the eulogy, which 
is accordingly repeated for his benefit. He approves of it, and 

^ This question has been fully discussed, and the reasons for the 
failure given, above, Vol. I, pp. 105, 138 ff., and especially 141. 



INTRODUCTION. 255 



adds that the Exalted One had long been as wise as that. In 
support of this he then tells the story which forms the second 
act, as it were, in many scenes. Here we have Brahma's view 
(that is, the view of the author or authors of the Govinda) con- 
cerning the ideal brahmin. It is really ver}' funny ; whether 
we compare it with the actual brahmin of to-day, or with the 
brahmin as described in the epics and the law books, or with 
the brahmin as he probably really was in the Buddha's time. 
The last must have been in the authors' mind all the time ; 
and the incongruity, though quite courteous, is sufficiently 
startling. 

The episode told in Act I, Scenes i and 2, has already 
occurred, nearly word for word, in the Jana-vasabha : — 

Jana-vasabha 12, 13 = Govinda 2, 3. 

14-19 = „ 14-18. 

The intervening passage (Govinda 4-13) contains Sakka's 
eulogy. A eulogy is also part of the Jana-vasabha (§§ 22 ff.). 
But it is there put, at a later stage in the episode, into the 
mouth of Brahma, and deals accordingly with much deeper 
matters \ 

What is the conclusion to be drawn from these facts ? They 
would be explained if the episode had existed in the com- 
munity before either of these Suttantas had been put into its 
present shape; and had been so popular that it had been 
worked up, by different authors, in slightly differing ways. Or 
the author or authors of either Suttanta might have altered an 
episode, already incorporated in the other, to harmonize better 
with the particular lines of his own stor}'. In that case it must 
be the Govinda version that is the later. In it the eulogy is 
put into the mouth of Sakka, and altered to suit that divinity, 
because Brahma's speech was wanted for the story to follow. 
In either case it is evident that, at the time when these Suttantas 
were put together as we have them, the legendary material 
current among the community was still in a fluid, unstable, 
condition, so that it was not only possible, it was considered 
quite the proper thing, to add to or alter it.- 

^ This difference in ihe mental endowments of the two gods, — the 
one the mere king of the gods, an Indian Zeus ; and the other the 
Great First Cause, the outcome of the hightest speculation — is always 
carefully obser\'ed in the various speeches ascribed, in the early 
Buddhist texts, to these di\inities. See above, p. 175, for another 
instance. 

- The doctrinal material stands on a different footing. Already in 
1877 I ventured to point out the difference (in ' Buddhism,' pp. 86-7), 
and the point has since increasingly forced itself upon my notice. 



256 INTRODUCTION. 



The whole story is retold, in a Sanskrit dialect and in different 
phraseology and order, in the Mahavastu. The following table 
will make the degree of the resemblance and difference plain. 

Maha-govinda Suttanta. Govindiya Sutta in Mahavastu. 

§ I Vol. Ill, p. 197 

2 * 198 

4 199 

6> 6 200 

8 201 

9 200 

10 201 

12 201 

13 198 
17 203 
19-27 202 

29 204 

30 205 
31, 32 206 
34 207 
35, 36 208 
37> 38 209 
43, 44 210, II 

45 212 

46 213,14 

47 215 

48 217 

49 218 

50 216 

51 . 219 
56 220 
57» 58 222 
60 223 
6i 215 

Now we do not know exactly when and where Buddhists 
began to write in Sanskrit, though it was probably in Kashmir 
some time before the beginning of our era. They did not then 
translate into Sanskrit any Pali book. They wrote new books. 
And the reason for this was twofold. In the first place they 
had already come to believe things very different from those 
contained in the canon ; they were no longer in full sympathy 
with it. In the second place, though Pali was never the 
vernacular of Kashmir, it was widely known there, and even 
very probably still used for literary work ; translations were 
therefore not required. 

This gives a possible explanation of the most astounding 

Professor Windisch (in 'Die Composition des Mahavastu,' Leipzig, 
1909, p. 494) supports this view. 



INTRODUCTION. 257 



fact we know about the Mahavastu. It purports to be the 
Vinaya (that is, the Rules regulating the outward conduct of 
the members of the Order), as held by the school of the 
Lokottara-vadins. In M. Senart's admirable edition it fills 
three bulky volumes. There is not, from beginning to end of 
them, even one single Rule of 'the Order! No explanation 
has been given of this extraordinary state of things, though it 
was pointed out at once on the publication of the edition ^. 
Prof Windisch in his able discussion (just above referred to) 
of the actual contents of the book does not refer to this 
remarkable omission. 

The old Vinaya begins with the Sutta Vibhanga, that is, the 
Rules themselves elucidated by discussion of their origin and 
meaning. This occupies 615 pages in Oldenberg's editions. 
Then follow in 660 pages the Khandhakas, twenty-two in 
number, dealing with various points of Canon Law. At the 
beginning of these is an Introduction, explaining how the Order 
arose ; and at the end an Appendix, on the Councils ^. This 
old Vinaya has never been translated into Sanskrit. The 
Mahavastu is based on the Introduction to the Khandhakas, 
rewritten, added to, enormously expanded, and arranged 
according to the order of the Pali Nidana Katha. Now why 
did the Lokottara-vadins, in their Vinaya, omit practically the 
whole of the Vinaya, and confine themselves to rewriting 
the Introduction to what is only a part of the Vinaya? Why 
did not they also rewrite the rest ? May it be because, when 
they wrote, the old rules and explanations, with which they did 
not quarrel in the least, were still well known and used in the 
original Pali, or in some closely cognate shape ? ^ 

It must have been from some such cognate recension, and not 
from our Pali text, that the Govinda story was Sanskritised. 
The differences between the Digha and the Mahavastu are too 
great to have arisen at one stage. The whole point of the 
story in the Digha is the way in which Brahma describes his 

^ Rhys Davids, J. R. A. S., 1898, 424. 

' There is a supplementary work, the Parivara, much shorter, and 
consisting mainly of what we should now call examination papers. 
This volume, though most interesting from the point of view of the 
history of Indian education, presupposes the old Vinaya, and is later. 

As is well known the Khandhakas come first in Oldenberg's 
edition, but the order in the MSS. is as above. See for instance 
Oldenberg's ' Catalogue of the Pali MSS. in the India OflSce Library,' 
J.P.T. S., 1882. p. 59. 

^ Compare Oldenberg's remarks on the Chinese translations of 
Vinaya at the end of his introduction to the PalL Text. 

III. S 



258 INTRODUCTION. 



ideal brahmin as quite emancipated from animistic superstitions 
and practices. He gains access to Brahma by practising (with 
reference, no doubt, to the closing scene of the Maha-Sudassana, 
and also to the Tevijja and other passages) the Rapture of 
Mercy, one of the Brahma-viharas, or Sublime Conditions. 
The Mahavastu is not satisfied with that. It makes him add 
to it the kindling of the mystic Fire, Agni (D. II, 239 and 
Mhvst. Ill, aio). The paean of delight at the arrival of the 
new gods (D. II, 227 and Mhvst. Ill, 203) is introduced in the 
Mahavastu by the words : ' He (Brahma) addressed them in 
verses.' But it gives only one verse. The others are found 
in the Digha. Perhaps their ethical standpoint did not appeal 
any more to the Lokottara-v^dins. In the eulogy on the 
Buddha (D.II, 222 and Mhvst. HI, 199) the Mahavastu mentions 
that there are eight points concerning which the Buddha was 
worthy of praise. It gives, however, only seven, differing in 
order and meaning from the eight given in the Digha. Verbal 
differences throughout the whole story are found in almost every 
paragraph. 

In column 136 of Bunyiu Nanjio's catalogue of Chinese 
Buddhist books we find mentioned a translation of the Maha- 
Govinda evidently from some recension different from the Pali. 
It would be interesting to know whether there has, in this 
version, been preserved an intermediate stage between the 
Digha and the Mahavastu. 



[XIX. mahA-govinda suttanta. 

THE LORD HIGH STEWARD.] 

[220] Thus have I heard. 

1. The Exalted One was once staying at Rajagaha 
on Vulture-peak Hill. Now when the night was far 
spent, Five-crest of the Gandharva fairies,^ beautiful to 
see, irradiating the whole of Vulture-peak, came into 
the presence of the Exalted One, and saluted him, and 
stood on one side. So standing Five-crest the Gan- 
dharva addressed the Exalted One, and said : — 

' The things, lord, that I have seen, the things I have 
noted when in the presence of the gods in the heaven 
of the Three-and-Thirty, I would tell to the Exalted 
One.' 

' Tell thou me. Five-crest,' said the Exalted One. 

2. ' In days gone by, lord, in days long long gone by, 
on the Fifteenth, the holy-day, at the Feast of the 
Invitations- on the night of full moon, all the gods in 
the heaven of the Thirty-Three were assembled, sitting 
in their Hall of Good Counsel. And a vast celestial 
company was seated round about, and at the four quar- 
ters of the firmament sat the Four Great Kings. There 
was Dhatara////a, king of the East, seated facing the 
west, presiding over his host ; Viru/haka, king of the 
South, seated facing the north, presiding over his host ; 
[221] Virupakkha, king of the West, seated facing the 
east, presiding over his host ; and Vessavawa, king 
of the North, seated facing the south, presiding 
over his host. Whenever, lord, all the gods in 
the heaven of the Thirty-Three are assembled, 
and seated in their Hall of Good Counsel, with the 
vast celestial company seated around them, and with 
the Four Great Kings at the four quarters of the firma- 

^ Pancasikho Gandhabbo. See above, p. 244. 
^ PavarawS. 

S 2 



26o XIX. MAHA-GOVINDA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 221. 

ment, this is the order of the seats of the four. After 
that come our seats. And those gods, lord, who had 
been recently reborn in the hosts of the Three-and- 
Thirty because they had lived the higher life under 
the Exalted One, they outshone the other gods in 
appearance and in glory. Thereat, verily, lord, the 
Three-and-Thirty gods were glad and of good cheer, 
were filled with joy and happiness, saying, " Verily, sirs, 
the celestial hosts are waxing ; the hosts of the titans 
are waning ! " 

3. ' Then Sakka, lord, ruler of the gods, when he 
saw the satisfaction felt by the Three-and-Thirty gods, 
expressed his approval in these verses : — 

The Three-and-Thirty, verily, both gods and lord, 
rejoice, 

Tathagata they honour and the cosmic law sublime, 

Whereas they see these gods new-risen, beautiful and 
bright. 

Who erst the holy life had lived, under the Happy 
One, 

The Mighty Sage's hearers, who had won to higher 
truths. 

Come hither ; and in glory all the other gods out- 
shine. 

This they behold right gladly, both lord and Thirty- 
Three, 

Tathagata they honour and the cosmic law sublime. 

' Hereat, lord, [222] the Three-and-Thirty gods were 
even more abundantly glad and of good cheer, and 
filled with joy and happiness, saying : " Verily, sirs, the 
celestial hosts are waxing ; the hosts of the titans are 
waning ! " 

4. ' Then Sakka, lord, perceiving the satisfaction of 
the Three-and-Thirty gods, addressed them thus : — 

*' Is it your wish, gentlemen, to hear eight truthful 
items in praise of that Exalted One ? " 
" It is our wish, sir, to hear them." 
* Then Sakka, lord, ruler of the gods, uttered before 



D. ii. 223- THE LORD HIGH STEWARD. 26r 

the Three-and-Thirty gods these eight truthful items 
in praise of the Exalted One : — 

5. " Now what think ye, my lords gods Three-and- 
Thirty ? Inasmuch as the Exalted One has so wrought 
for the good of the many, for the happiness of the 
many, for the advantage, the good, happiness of gods 
and men, out of compassion for the world — a teacher 
of this kind, of this character, we find not, whether we 
survey the past or whether w'e survey the present — 
save only the Exalted One. 

6. " Inasmuch, again, as the Doctrine has been pro- 
claimed by that Exalted One, a Doctrine for the life 
that now is, a Doctrine not for mere temporary gain, 
a Doctrine of welcome and of guidance, to be compre- 
hended by the wise each in his own heart — a preacher 
of such a Doctrine so leading us on, a teacher of this 
kind, of this character we find not, whether we survey 
the past, or whether we survey the present, save only 
the Exalted One. 

7. *' ' This is good ; that is bad ' — well has this been 
revealed by that Exalted One, well has he revealed that 
this is wrong, [223] and that is right, that this is to be 
followed, that to be avoided, that this is base and that 
noble, that this is of the Light and this of the Dark^ 
Such a Revelation of the nature of things, a teacher of 
this kind, of this character we find not, whether we 
survey the past, or whether we survey the present, save 
only the Exalted One. 

8. "Well revealed, again, to his disciples by that 
Exalted One is the Way leading to Nirvana ; they run 
one into the other. Nirvana and the Way. Even as 
the waters of the Ganges and the Jumna flow one into 
the other, and go on together united, so it is with that 
well-revealed Way leading to Nirvana; they run one 
into the other, Nirvana and the Way. A revealer of 
such a Way leading to Nirvana, a teacher of this kind. 



^ In Milinda, these contrasted distinctions are given to illustrate the 
exercise of sati ('minding' or 'remembering') by way of careful 
practice. ' Questions of King Milinda,' i. 58. 



262 XIX. MAHA-GOVINDA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 223. 

of this character we find not, whether we survey the 
past, or whether we survey the present, save only that 
Exalted One. 

9. " Comrades too has this Exalted One gotten, 
both students only, travelling along the Way, and 
Arahants who have lived ' the life.' Them does he not 
send away, but dwells in fellowship with them whose 
hearts are set on one object, A teacher so dwelling, of 
this kind, of this character, we find not, whether we 
survey the past, or whether we survey the present, save 
only that Exalted One. 

10. "Well established^ are the gifts made^ to that 
Blessed One, widely established is his fame, so much so 
that the nobles, methinks, continue well disposed to- 
wards him. Yet notwithstanding, that Exalted One 
takes sustenance with a heart unintoxicated by pride. 
One so living, g. teacher of this kind, of this character, 
we find not, whether we survey the past, or whether 
we survey the present, save only that Exalted One. 

11. [224] " The acts, again, of that Exalted One con- 
form to his speech ; his speech conforms to his acts. 
One who has so carried out hereby the greater and the 
lesser matters of the Law, a teacher of this kind, of 
this character, we find not, whether we survey the past, 
or whether we survey the present ; save only that 
Exalted One. 

12. *' Crossed, too, by that Exalted One has been the 
sea of doubt, gone by for him is all question of the 
' how ' and ' why,' accomplished for him is every pur- 
pose with respect to his high resolve and the ancient 
rule of right. A teacher who has attained thus far, of 
this kind, of this character, we find not, whether we 
survey the past, or whether we survey the present, save 
only that Exalted One." 

' These eight true praises, lord, of the Exalted One 



^ Abhinippanno labho. 

2 Ajjhasaya»z adi-brahmacariya»/. Buddhaghosa says these 
two words are to be taken distributively, and refer to his lofty intentions 
and to the ethics of the Aryan Path. 



I 



D. ii. 225. THE LORD HIGH STEWARD. 263 

did Sakka, ruler of the gods, utter before the Three- 
and-Thirty gods. Hereat the Three-and-Thirty gods 
were even more abundantly pleased, gladdened and 
filled with joy and happiness over the things they had 
heard. 

13. 'Then certain gods, lord, spoke thus: — "Oh! 
sir, if only four supreme Buddhas might arise in the 
world and teach the Doctrine even as the Exalted One ! 
That would make for the welfare of the many, for the 
happiness of the many, for compassion to the world, for 
the good and the gain and the weal of gods and men." 

' And certain other gods spoke thus : — " It would 
suffice, sir, if there arose three supreme Buddhas in the 
world." 

* And certain other gods spoke thus : — " It would 
suffice, sir, if tsvo supreme Buddhas arose in the world 
. . . for the good and the gain and the weal of gods 
and men." 

14. [225] 'Then answered Sakka, ruler of the gods 
to the Three-and-Thirty : — " Nowhere, gentlemen, and 
at no time is it possible that, in one and the same 
world-system, two Arahant Buddhas supreme should 
arise together, neither before nor after the other. This 
can in no wise be. Ah ! gentlemen, would that this 
Blessed One might yet live for long years to come, 
free from disease and free from suffering- ! That would 
make for the welfare of the many, for the happiness of 
the many, for loving compassion to the universe, for 
the good and the gain and the weal of gods and 
men ! " 

' Then, lord, the Three-and-Thirty gods having thus 
deliberated and taken counsel together concerning the 
matter for which they were assembled and seated in the 
Hall of Good Counsel, with respect to that matter the 
Four Kings were receivers of the spoken word, the 
Four Great Kings were receivers of the admonition 
given, remaining the while in their places, not retiring ^ 

* This sounds very much as if the Four Great Kings were looked 
upon as Recorders (in their memory, of course) of what had been 



264 XIX. MAHA-GOVINDA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 225. 

Taking the uttered word and speech, the Kings 
Stood there, serene and calm, each in his place. 

15. ' Then, lord, from out of the North came forth 
a splendid light, and a radiance shone around, surpass- 
ing the divine glory of the gods. Then did Sakka, 
ruler of the gods, say to the dwellers in the heaven 
of the Three-and-Thirty : — "According, gentlemen, to 
the signs now seen, the light that ariseth, the radiance 
that appeareth — will Brahma now be made manifest. 
For this is the herald sign of the manifestation of 
Brahmd, when the light ariseth and the glory shineth. 

Even by yonder signs great Brahma draweth nigh. 
For this is Brahma's sign, this glorious splendour vast. 

[226] ' Then, lord, the Three-and-Thirty gods sat 
down again in their own places, saying : — " We will 
ascertain what shall be the result of this radiance ; 
when we have realized it, we will go to meet him." 
The Four Kings also sat down in their places, saying 
the same And when they heard that, the Three-and- 
Thirty gods were all agreed saying : " We will ascer- 
tain what will be the result of this radiance ; when we 
have verified it, we will go to meet him." 

16. 'When, lord, Brahma Sanawkumara appears 
before the Three-and-Thirty gods, he manifests him- 
self as an individual of relatively gross substance which 
he has specially created. For Brahma's usual appear- 
ance is not sufficiently materialized for the scope of the 
sight of the Three-and-Thirty gods. And, lord, when 
Brahma Sana;;2kumara is manifested before these gods, 
he outshines the other gods in his appearance and his 
glory. Just as a figure made of gold outshines the 
human frame, so, when Brahm^ Sana/^^kumara is mani- 
fested before the Three-and-Thirty gods, does he out- 
shine the other gods in his appearance and his glory. 
And when, lord, Brahma Sana;;^kumara is manifested 

said. They kept the minutes of the meeting. If so (the gods being 
made in the image of men) there must have been such Recorders at 
the meetings in the Mote Halls of the clans. 



D.ii. 228. THE LORD HIGH STEWARD. 265 

before the Three-and-Thirty gods, not one god in that 
assembly salutes him, or rises up, or invites him to be 
seated. They all sit in silence with folded hands and 
cross-legged, each thinking : ' Of whichever god Brahma 
Sanawkumara now desires anvthino- he will seat him- 
self on that god's divan. And that god by whom he 
does so seat himself is filled with a sublime satisfaction, 
a sublime happiness, [227] even as a Kshatriya king 
that is just anointed and crowned, is filled with a sub- 
lime satisfaction, a sublime happiness. 

1 7. ' Then, lord, Brahma Sanawkumara, perceiving 
how gratified were those Three-and-Thirty gods, uttered 
his approval while invisible in these verses : — . 

The Three-and-Thirty, verily, both gods and lord, 
rejoice, 

Tathagata they honour and the cosmic law sublime. 

Whereas they see these gods new-risen, beautiful and 
bright. 

Who erst the holy life had lived, under the Happy 
One, 

The Mighty Sage's hearers, who had won to higher 
truths. 

Come hither; and in glory all the other gods out- 
shine. 

This they behold right gladly, both lord and Thirty- 
Three, 

Tathagata they honour and the cosmic law sublime. 

18. 'This, lord, was the substance of Brahma the 
Eternal Youth's speech. And he spoke it with a voice 
of eightfold quality — a voice that was fluent, intelligible, 
sweet and audible, sustained and distinct, deep and 
resonant. And whereas, lord, he made himself audible 
to that assembly by his voice, the sound thereof did not 
penetrate beyond the assembly. He whose voice has 
these eight qualities is said to have a Brahma-voice. 

1 9. ' Then, lord, to Brahma the Eternal Youth the 
Three-and-Thirty gods spoke thus : — 

" 'Tis well, O Brahma ! we do rejoice at this that we 
have noted. [228] Moreover Sakka, ruler of the gods, 



266 XIX. MAHA-GOVINDA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 228. 

hath rehearsed to us eight truthful praises of that 
Exalted One, and these too we have marked and do 
rejoice thereat." 

' Then, lord, Brahma the Eternal Youth spoke thus 
to Sakka, ruler of the gods : — " 'Tis well, O ruler of the 
gods ; we too would hear the eight truthful praises of 
that Exalted One." 

" So be it, O Great Brahma," replied Sakka. And 
thereupon, beginning *' Now what thinketh my lord, the 
Great Brahma ? " [he uttered once more those eight 
truthful praises of the Blessed One, §§ 21-27]^ Hereat, 
lord, Brahma the Eternal Youth was pleased and glad- 
dened, and was filled with joy and happiness when he 
had heard those praises. 

28. [230] * And so, lord, Brahma the Eternal Youth 
materializing himself and becoming in appearance like 
the youth Five-crest, manifested himself to the Three- 
and-Thirty gods, and rising up into the air, he sat down 
cross-legged in the sky. J ust, lord, as easily as a strong 
man might sit down cross-legged on a well-spread divan 
or a smooth piece of ground, even so did Brahma the 
Eternal Youth, rising up into the air, sit down cross- 
legged in the sky. And he addressed the Three-and- 
Thirty gods thus : — 

29. "Now what think ye, my lord gods Thirty-and- 
Three ? For how long hath the Blessed One been of 
great wisdom ? ^ 

Once upon a time there was a king named Disam- 
pati. And king Disampati's minister was a brahmin 
named Govinda (the Steward) ^ And king Disampati 
had a son named Re;^u, and Govinda had a son named 
Jotipala. And prince Re^^u and the young Jotipala 
and six other young nobles — these eight — were great 
friends. [23l] Now in the course of years Govinda 

^ §§ 5-12 repeated in the text. 

^ The Cy. here supplements : Himself desirous of clearing up this 
problem, it is as if he went on to say, that there was nothing wonder- 
ful in that, so he tells the story. 

* It is evident from §§ 30, 31 that Govinda, literally 'Lord of the 
Herds,' was a title, not a name, and means Treasurer or Steward. 



D. ii. 232. THE LORD HIGH STEWARD. 267 

died. And king Disampati mourned for him, saying : 
— * Alas ! just when we had devolved all our duties on 
Govinda the brahmin, and were surrounded by and 
giving ourselves up to the pleasures of sense, Govinda 
has died ! ' 

Then said prince Re/m to the king : — * Mourn not, 
sire, so excessively for Govinda, the brahmin. Govinda 
has a son, young Jotipala, who is wiser than his father 
was, better able to see what is profitable than his father. 
Let JotipSla administer all such affairs as were entrusted 
to his father.' 

' Do you think so, my boy ? ' 

' I do, sire.' 

30. Then king Disampati summoned a man and 
said : ' Come you. good man, go to Master Jotipala, 
and say to him : — May good fortune attend the honour- 
able Jotipala! King Disampati calls for the honourable 
Jotipala. King Disampati would like to see the 
honourable Jotipala.' 

' So be it, sire,' responded the man, and going to 
Jotipala he [232] repeated the message. 

' Very good, sir,' responded Jotipala, and went to 
wait upon the king. And when he had come into the 
king's presence, he exchanged with the king the greet- 
ings and compliments of politeness and courtesy, and 
sat down on one side. Then said king Disampati to 
Jotipala : — " We would have the honourable youth 
Jotipala administer for us. Let him not refuse to do 
so. I will set him in his father's place and appoint him 
to the Stewardship V 

' So be it, sire,' replied Jotipdla in assent. 

31. So king Disampati appointed Jotipala as his 
Steward, and set him in his father's place. And thus 
appointed and installed, whatever matters his father 
had administered, those did Jotipala administer ; and 



* Govindiye abhisificissami. Literally, ' I will anoint him to 

the Govinda-ship ' (the Lordship over the herds). The expression 
' anoint ' is noteworthy. It suggests that the oflSce was of royal rank. 
But a king was of lower rank then than now. 



268 



XIX. MAHA-GOVINDA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 232. 



whatever his father had not administered, those matters 
did he too not administer. And whatever works his 
father had accompHshed, and no others, even such 
works, and no others, did he too accompHsh. Of him 
men said : — ' The brahmin is verily a Steward ! 
A Great Steward is verily this brahmin ! ' And 
on this wise Jotipala came to be called the High 
Steward. 

32. Now it came to pass that the Great Steward 
went to those six nobles, and said to them : ' Disampati 
the king is old and wasted with age, [233] full of years, 
and arrived at the term of life. Who indeed can 
answer for the survival of the living ? When the king 
dies, it will behove the king-makers to anoint Re/m 
the prince as king, I suggest, gentlemen, that you 
wait on prince Renu, and say to him thus : * We are 
the dear, beloved, and congenial friends of our lord 
Re;2u. We are happy when our lord is happy ; un- 
happy when he is unhappy. Disampati, our lord 
king, is old and wasted with age, full of years and 
arrived at the term of life. Who indeed can answer 
for the living? When the king dies, it will behove 
the king-makers to anoint our lord Re^u king. If 
our lord Kenu should gain the sovereignty, let him 
divide it with us." ' 

33. ' So be it,' responded the six nobles, and waiting 
upon prince Re;/u they repeated these words to him. 

' Why, sirs, who besides myself ought to prosper in 
this realm if it be not you ? If I, sirs, shall gain the 
sovereignty, I will divide it with you.' 

34. [234] And it came to pass in course of time that 
king Disampati died. And after his death, the king- 
makers anointed Re;^u his son king. And he, when 
he was made king, lived surrounded by and given up 
to the pleasures of sense. Then the High Steward 
went to those six nobles and said thus : — 

' Disampati, gentlemen, is dead, and my lord Re«u 
lives surrounded by and given up to the pleasures of 
sense. Well, gentlemen, who can say ? The pleasures 
of sense are intoxicating, I would suggest, gentlemen, 



D. ii. 235. THE LORD HIGH STEWARD. 269 

that you wait on king Rewu and say to him : " king 
Disampati, my lord, is dead, my lord Renu is anointed 
king. Does my lord remember his promise ? " ' 

' Very good, sir,' responded the six nobles, and going 
into Rewu's presence, they said : — 

' King Disampati, sire, is dead, and my lord Re;^ii 
is anointed king. Does my lord remember his pro- 
mise ? ' 

* I do remember my promise, gentlemen. Which of 
you gentlemen now is able successfully to divide this 
mighty earth, so broad on the north and ... ^ on the 
south, into seven equal portions ? ' 

' Who, sire, is able if it be not the Great Steward, 
the brahmin ? ' 

35. Then king Re;^u sent a man to the Great 
Steward, saying : — ' Come, my good fellow, go to the 
Great Steward, the brahmin, and say : " The king has 
sent for you, my lord.'" [235] And the Great Steward 
was told and obeyed, and, coming into the king's 
presence, exchanged with him the greetings and com- 
pliments of politeness and courtesy, and sat down on 
one side. Then said the king to him : ' Will you go, 
my lord Steward, and so divide this great earth wide 
on the north and .... on the south into seven equal 
portions, all . . .' 

' Very good, sire,' responded the High Steward, [And 
this he did.] 

36. And king Re;zu's country held the central posi- 
tion. As it is said : — 



^ Saka/amukka. This adjective, applied here to the earth, and 
at the end of the next section to the seven kingdoms, is at present 
quite unintelligible ; and is left untranslated. The traditional ex- 
planations differ. Samarasekara (Colombo, 1905) translates here 
(p. 1016) dakuwu pasin gael mukhayak lesa/a, that is, 'on the 
south side like a waggon's mouth.' Buddhaghosa has nothing here ; 
but below as applied to the kingdoms he explains ' with their mouths 
debouching together.' Neither is satisfactory. It has been suggested 
that it might mean ' facing the Wain,' that is, the constellation of the 
Great Bear. But this is unfortunately in the North. The front 
opening of a bullock waggon is (now) elliptical in form. 



270 XIX. MAHA-GOVINDA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 235. 

Dantapura of the Kalingas, and Potana for the 

Assakas, 
M^hissati for the Avantis, and Roruka in the Sovira 

land. 

Mithila of the Videhas, and then Campd among the 

Arigas, 
Lastly Benares in the Kasi realm :— all these did the 

Great Steward wisely plan. 

[236] Then were those six nobles well pleased each 
with his allotted gain, and at the success of his plan. 
For they said : — * What we wished for, what we 
desired, what we intended, what we aimed at, lo! 
that is what we have gotten.' And the seven kings 
were named : — 

Sattabhu and Brahmadatta, Vessabhu with Bharata, 
Re;^u and two Dhatara/Mas : — These are the seven 
Bharatas.^ 

Here ends the first Portion for Recitation. 

^ If we follow the order of the names in this no doubt very old 
mnemonic doggrel, the result may be tabulated thus : — 

City. Tribe. King. 

1. Dantapura Kalingas Sattabhu. 

2. Potana Assakas Brahmadatta. 

3. Mahissati Avantis Vessabhu. 

4. Roruka Soviras Bharata. 

5. Mithila Videhas Re«u. 

6. Campa Ahgas Dhatara//>^a. 

7. Bara«asi Kasis Dhatara/Ma. 
This list is enough to show that the verses do not fit with the story. 

Rewu's kingdom is said in the text to be in the middle. No one of 
these seven kingdoms is in the midst of the others. Benares would 
suit that position less badly, than any other. It was probably in- 
tended therefore that Disampati and Re«u were kings or chieftains in 
Benares. The king Bharata of the Soviras of J. Ill, 470 may be the 
same as the Bharata who also appears in the table here as king of the 
Soviras. The Re«u of J. IV, 444 is king of the Kurus. None of the 
numerous Brahmadattas in the Jatakas can be identified with our 
Brahmadatta. Our Disampati and Re/m are referred to, apparently 
as kings of Benares, at Dipavawsa III, 40. 

The verses survived, but in a very corrupt state, down to the time 
of the Mahavastu (Vol. Ill, p. 208, ed. Senart). 



D. ii. 238. THE LORD HIGH STEWARD. 271 

37. Now those six nobles came to the High Steward 
and said to him : — ' Just as the honourable Steward 
was dear, beloved and congenial as companion to Re;^u 
the king, so has he been also to us a companion, dear, 
beloved and congenial. We would that the honourable 
Steward administer our affairs; we trust he will not 
refuse to do so.' 

* Very good, sirs,' replied the Great Steward. And 
so he instructed those seven anointed kings in govern- 
ment ; and he taught the mantras to seven eminent 
and wealthy Brahmins and to seven hundred young 
Graduates. 

2,S. [237] Now later on the excellent reputation of 
the brahmin, the High Steward, was noised abroad 
after this fashion: — 'With his own eyes the High 
Steward sees Brahma! Face to face does the Hiofh 
Steward commune with Brahma, converse and take 
counsel with Him ! ' Then the High Steward thought: 
* This flattering rumour is noised abroad about me, 
that I both see Brahma and hold converse with Him. 
Now I neither see Him, nor commune with Him, nor 
converse or take counsel with Him. But I have heard 
aged and venerable brahmins, teachers and pupils, 
say : " He who remains in meditation the four months 
of the rains, and practises the ecstasy of pity, /le sees 
Brahma, communes, converses, takes counsel with 
Brahma ? What if I now were to cultivate that 
discipline ? " ' 

39. So the High Steward waited on king Renu, and 
telling him of the reputation imputed to himself, and 
of his wish to practise seclusion, added : ' I wish, sir, 
to meditate during the four months of the rains and to 
practise the ecstasy of pity. No one is to come near 
me save some one who will bring me my meals.' 

' Do. honourable Steward, whatever seems to you fit.* 

40. [23S] And the High Steward went round to each 
of the six nobles, told them the same, and took his 
leave of them also. 

41. Then he went to those seven eminent and 
wealthy Brahmins, and to the seven hundred graduates, 



272 XIX. MAHA-GOVINDA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 238. 

and telling them [too of the rumours and of his 
wish to practise seclusion], said : — ' Wherefore, sirs, 
according as you have heard the mantras and have 
committed them to memory, continue to rehearse 
them in full, and teach them to each other. I, sirs, 
wish to meditate during the four months of the rains, 
and to practise the ecstasy of pity. No one is to 
come near me save some one who shall bring me my 
meals.' 

* Do, honourable Steward, whatever seems to you 
fit' 

42. [239] Next the High Steward went to his forty 
wives who were all on an equality, and told them [too 
of the rumours and of his wish to practise ecstasy in 
seclusion. And they replied like the others.] 

43. Then the High Steward had a new rest-house 
built eastward of the city, and there for the four months 
of the rains he meditated, rapt in the Ecstasy of Pity ; 
nor did any one have access to him save one who 
brought him his meals. But when the four rainy months 
were over, then verily came disappointment and anguish 
over him as he thought : ' Here have I heard aged 
and venerable brahmins, teachers and their pupils, 
say: "He who remains in meditation the four months 
of the rains, and practises the Ecstasy of Pity, he sees 
Brahma, communes, converses, and takes counsel with 
Brahma." But I see not Brahma, I commune not, nor 
converse, nor take counsel with Him.' 

44. Then Brahma, the Eternal Youth, when in his 
mind he knew the thoughts [240] of the High Steward's 
mind, vanished from his heaven, and, like a strong 
man shooting his arm out or drawing back his out-shot 
arm, appeared before the High Steward. Then verily 
came fear, then came trembling upon the High Steward, 
then did the hair of his flesh stand up ^ when he saw 
this thing that had never been seen before. And he, 
full of fear and dread with stiffening hair, addressed 
Brahma the Eternal Youth in these verses : — 

* See above, p. 240. 



D.ii. 241. THE LORD HIGH STEWARD. 2']'i, 

' O Vision fair, O glorious and divine ! 
Who art thou, lord ? knowing thee not we ask, 
That we may know ! ' 

' In heaven supreme I'm known 
As the Eternal Youth. All know me there. 
Know me e'en thou, Govinda.' 

' To a Brahma Blest 
Let seat and water for the feet and sweet 
Cooked cakes and drink be brought. We ask what gift 
The Lord would take. Would he himself decide 
The form for us \' 

' Hereby we take thy gift, 
And now — whether it be for good and gain 
In this thy present life, or for thy weal 
In that which shall be — Thou hast leave. Come, ask, 
Govinda, whatsoe'er thou fain would'st have ? * 

45. Then the High Steward thought : ' Leave is 
given me by Brahma the Eternal Youth ! What now 
shall I ask of him, some good thingf for this life, or 
a future good ? ' [24l] Then it occurred to him : ' I am 
an expert regarding what is profitable for this life. 
Even others consult me about that. What now if I 
were to ask Brahma the Eternal Youth for something 
of advantage in a life to come ? ' And he addressed 
the god in these verses : — 

' I ask the Brahma, the Eternal Youth, 
Him past all doubt I, doubting, ask anent 
The things that others would fain know about. 
Wherein proficient, in what method trained 
Can mortal reach th' immortal world of Brahm ? * 



^ The expressions here are all elliptical, and it is not certain that 
the meanings supplied are quite right as the idioms agghe pucchati 
and agghaw no karoti do not occur elsewhere. The sequence of 
ideas would seem to be : ' Only such and such are fit to be offered as 
a mark of respect to so holy a deity. But not knowing which is best, 
I ask. Let the Holy One make it right.' Then the deity, who wants 
nothing, taking the will for the deed, says he accepts; and offers 
a boon. 

III. T 



2 74 XIX. MAHA-GOVINDA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 241. 

* He among men, O Brahmin, who eschews 
All claims of " me " and " mine " ; he in whom thought 
Rises in lonely calm, in pity rapt. 
Loathing all foul things, dwelling in chastity, — 
Herein proficient, in such matters trained, 
Mortal can reach th' immortal heav'n of Brdhm.' 

46. 'What the Lord saith touching "eschewing all 
claims of 'me' and 'mine'" I understand. It is to 
renounce all property whether it be small or large, 
and to renounce all family life, whether the circle of 
one's kin be small or large, and with hair and beard 
cut off and yellow robes donned, to go forth from the 
home into the homeless life. Thus do I understand 
this. 

' What the Lord saith touching " thought rising in 
lonely calm" I understand. It is when one chooses 
a solitary abode — the forest, at the foot of a tree, 
a mountain brae, a grotto, a rock-cavern, a cemetery, 
or a heap of grass out in the open field. Thus do I 
understand this [242]. 

'What the Lord saith touching "in pity rapt" I 
understand. It is when one continues to pervade one 
quarter of the horizon with a heart charged with pity, 
and so the second quarter, and so the third, and so the 
fourth. And thus the whole wide world, above, below, 
around and everywhere does one continue to pervade 
with a heart charged with pity, far-reaching, expanded, 
infinite, free from wrath and ill will. Thus do 1 under- 
stand this. 

' Only in what He saith touching " loathing the foul " 
do I not understand thee. Lord. 

' What mean'st thou by " foul odours among men," 
O Brahmd ? here I understand thee not. 
Tell what these signify, who knowest all. 
When cloaked and clogged by what is man thus foul, 
Hell-doomed, and shut off from the heaven of Brahm } ' 

[243] ' Anger and lies, deceit and treachery, 
Selfishness, self-conceit and jealousy, 



I 



D. ii.244. THE LORD HIGH STEWARD. 275 

Greed, doubt, and lifting hands 'gainst fellow men. 
Lusting and hate, dulness and pride of life, — 
When yoked with these man is of odour foul, 
Hell-doomed, and shut out from the heav'n of Brahm.' 

* As I understand the word of the Lord concerning 
these " foul odours," they cannot easily be suppressed 
if one live in the world. I will therefore go forth 
from the home into the life of the homeless state.' 
' Do, lord steward, whatever seems to you fit.' 
47. Then the High Steward waited on king Re«u 
and said to him : — ' Will my lord now seek another 
minister, who will administer my lord's affairs ? I wish 
to leave the world for the homeless life. I am going 
forth in accordance with the word of Brahma which I 
have heard concerninor foul odours. These cannot be 
easily suppressed when one is living in the world.' 

* King Re«u, lord o' the land, I here declare : — 
Do thou thyself take thought for this thy realm I 
I care no longer for my ministry.' 

* If for thy pleasures aught there lacketh yet, 
I'll make it good. If any injure thee, 
Them I'll restrain, warlord and landlord I ! 
Thou art my father, Steward, lo ! I am thy son ! 
Abide with us, Govinda, leave us not.' 

* Naught lack I for my pleasures, nor is there 
One who doth injure me. But I have heard 
Voices unearthly. Henceforth home holds me not.' 

[244] ' What like is this Unearthly ? What did He say 
To thee, that having heard thou will straightway 
Forsake our house and us and all the world ? ' 

' Ere I had passed through this Retreat, my care 
Was for due altar-rites, the sacred fire 
Was kindled, strewn about with kusa-grass. 
But lo ! Brahma I saw, from Brahma's heav'n, 
Eternal god. I asked ; he made reply ; 
I heard. And now irksome is home to me.* 

T 2 



276 XIX. MAHA-GOVINDA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 244. 

' Lo ! I believe the words that thou hast said. 
Govinda. Having heard the Unearthly Voice. 
How could it be thou should'st act otherwise .'* 
Thee will we follow after. Be our guide, 
Our teacher ! So, like gem of purest ray, 
Purg'd of all dross, translucent, without flaw, — 
As pure as that we'll walk according to thy word.' 

' If the honourable Steward goes forth from the 
home into the homeless, I too will do the like. For 
whither thou goest, I will go.' 

48. Then the High Steward, the brahmin, waited 
upon the six nobles, and said to them : * Will my lords 
now seek another minister who will administer my 
lords' affairs ? I wish to leave the world for the 
homeless life. I am going forth in accordance with 
the word of Brahma which I have heard concerning 
foul odours. These cannot be easily suppressed when 
one is living in the world.' 

Then the six nobles went aside together [245] and 
thus deliberated : — * These brahmin folk are greedy 
for money. What if we were to gain him over 
through money?' And coming to the High Steward 
they said : — ' There is abundance of property, sir, in 
these seven kingdoms. Wherefore, sir, take of it as 
much as seems profitable to you.' 

* Enough, sirs ! I have already abundant possessions, 
thanks to the action of my lords. It is that luxury 
that I am now relinquishing in leaving the world for 
the homeless life, [even as I have told you].' 

49. Then the six nobles went aside together, and 
thus deliberated : ' These brahmin folk are greedy 
about women. What if we were to gain him over 
through women ?' And coming to the High Steward 
they said : ' There is, sir, in those seven kingdoms 
abundance of women. Wherefore, sir, conduct away 
with you as many as you want.' 

* Enough, sirs ! I have already these forty wives 
equal in rank. All of them I am forsaking in leaving 
the world for the homeless life, [even as I have told you].' 



D. ii. 247- THE LORD HIGH STEWARD. 277 

50. [246] 'If the honourable Steward goes forth 
from the home into the homeless life, we too will do 
the like. Whither thou goest we will go.' 

* If ye would put off fleshly lusts that worldling's heart 

coerce, 
Stir ye the will, wax strong, firm in the power of 

patience. 
This is the Way, the Way that's Straight \ the Way 

unto the End ^, 
The Righteous Path that good men guard, to birth 

in Brahma's heaven.' 

51. 'Wherefore, my lord Steward, wait yet seven 
years, and when they are over, we too will go forth from 
the world into the homeless life. Whither thou goest 
we will go.' 

* Too long, my lords, are seven years ! I cannot 
wait for my lords seven years. For who can answer 
for the living ? ^ We must go toward the future, we 
must learn by wisdom *, we must do good, we must 
walk in righteousness, for there is no escaping death 
for all that's born. Now I am going forth in accord- 
ance with the word of Brahma which I have heard 
concerning foul odours. They cannot be easily sup- 
pressed when one is living in the world.' 

52. 'Well then, lord Steward, wait for us six years, 
. . . [or] wait five years . . . four years . . . three . . . 
two years . . • one year. When a year has gone by 
we too will leave the world for the Homeless State. 
Whither thou goest we will go.' 

53. ' Too long, my lords, is one year. I cannot 
[247] wait for my lords one year. For who can answer 
for the living ? We must go towards the future, we 
must learn by wisdom, we must do good, we must walk 

^ See S. I, 33 : — ' Straight is that way named.' 

' Anuttaro, lit. having no beyond. The Cy. interprets asadiso, 
uttamo (unique, supreme). 

' See above, p. 268. 

* Mantaya. Manta vuccati pafifia, says Buddhaghosa. Cp. 
the commentary on Dhp. 363; and Anguttara II, 141-228. 



278 XIX. MAHA-GOVINDA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 247. 

in righteousness, for there is no escaping death for all 
that's born. Now I am going forth in accordance 
with the word of Brahma which I have heard con- 
cerning foul odours. They cannot easily be suppressed 
when one is livinsf in the world.' 

. 54. ' Well then, lord Steward, wait for us seven 
months ... six months . . . jfive . . . four . . . three . . . 
two months . . . one month • • • [5 5] half a month . . . 
seven days, [248] till we have devolved our kingdoms 
on to our sons and brothers. When seven days are 
over, we will leave the world for the Homeless State. 
Whither thou goest we will go.' 

' Seven days, my lords, is not a long time. I will 
wait, my lords, for seven days.' 

56. Then the High Steward, the brahmin, came to 
those seven eminent and wealthy brahmins and to 
those seven hundred graduates, and said: — 'Will ye 
now seek another teacher, sirs, who will (by repetition) 
teach you the mystic verses ? ^ I wish to leave the 
world for the homeless life. I am going forth in 
accordance with the word of Brahma which I have 
heard concerning foul odours. These cannot easily be 
suppressed when one is living in the world.' 

* Let the honourable Steward not leave the world 
for the homeless life ! Leaving the world means little 
power and little gain ; to be a brahmin brings great 
power and great gain.' 

' Speak not so, gentlemen, of leaving the world or of 
being a brahmin. Who for that matter has greater power 
or wealth than I ? I, sirs, have been hitherto as a king 
of kings, as Brahma to brahmins, as a deity ^ to house- 
holders. And this, all this, I put away in leaving the 
world, in accordance with the word of Brahma . . .' [249] 

' If the lord Steward leaves the world for the Home- 
less State, we too will do the like. Whither thou goest, 
we will go.' 

* Mante. See last note. 

'^ Devata; * like Sakka, king of gods, to all other heads of families.' 
Cy. The phrase might be taken to mean that Brahma was not a 
devatS. 



D. ii. 250. THE LORD HIGH STEWARD. 2 79 

57. Then the High Steward, the Brahmin, went to 
his forty wives, all on an equality, and said : — ' Will 
each of you, ladies, who may wish to do so, go back 
to her own family and seek another husband ? I wish, 
ladies, to leave the world for the homeless life, in 
accordance with the word of Brahma • . .' 

' Thou, even thou, art the kinsman of our hearts' 
desire ; thou art the husband of our hearts' desire. 
If the lord Steward leaves the world for the Homeless 
State, we too will do the like. Whither thou goest, 
we will go.' 

58. And so the High Steward, the brahmin, when 
those seven days were past, let his hair and beard be 
cut off, donned the yellow robes and went forth from 
his home into the Homeless State. And he having 
so acted, the seven kings also, anointed kshatriyas, 
as well as the seven eminent and wealthy brahmins 
and the seven hundred graduates, the forty wives all 
on an equality, several thousand nobles, several thou- 
sand brahmins, several thousand commoners and 
several young women from women's quarters, let 
their hair be cut, donned the yellow robes and went 
forth from their homes into the Homeless State. And 
so, escorted by this company, the High Steward, the 
brahmin, went a-wanderinof through the villasfes, towns, 
[250] and cities. And whether he arrived at village or 
town or city, there he became as a king to kings, as 
Brahma to brahmins, as a deity to commoners. And 
in those days when any one sneezed or slipped, they 
called out : — ' Glory be to the High Steward, the 
brahmin ! Glory be to the Minister of Seven ! ' 

59. Now the High Steward, the brahmin, continued 
to pervade each of the four quarters of the horizon 
with a heart charged with love . . . with pity . . . with 
sympathy in joy . . . with equanimity. And so the 
whole wide world above, below, around, and every- 
where did he continue to pervade with heart charged 
with equanimity, far-reaching, expanded, infinite, free 
from wrath and ill will. And he taught to disciples the 
way to union with the world of Brahma. 



28o XIX. MAHA-GOVINDA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 250. 

60. Now all they who at that time had been the 
High Steward's disciples and in all points wholly 
understood his teaching, were after their death reborn 
into the blissful world of Brahma. They who had not 
in all points wholly understood his teaching, were after 
their death reborn into the company either of the gods 
who Dispose of Joys purveyed from without, or of the 
gods of the Heaven of Boundless Delight, or of the 
gods of the Heavens of Bliss, or of the Yama gods, 
[251] or of the Three-and-Thirty gods, or of the gods 
who are the Four Kings of the Horizon. Even they 
who accomplished the lowest realm of all, attained to 
the realm of the Gandharva fairies. 

Thus of all those clansmen there was not one whose 
renunciation proved vain or barren; in each case it 
bore fruit and development.' 



61. 'Does the Exalted One remember?* 

' I do remember, Five-crest. I was the High 
Steward of those days.^ I taught my disciples the 
way to communion with the Brahma world. But, 
Five-crest, that religious life did not conduce to 
detachment, to passionlessness, to cessation of craving, 
to peace, to understanding, to insight of the higher 
stages of the Path, to Nirvana, but only to rebirth in 
the Brahma-world. On the other hand my religious 
system, Five-crest, conduces wholly and solely to 
detachment, to passionlessness, to cessation of craving, 
to peace, to understanding, to insight of the higher 
stages of the Path, to Nirvana. And that is the 
Aryan Eightfold Path, to wit, right views, right in- 
tention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, 
right effort, right mindfulness, right rapture. 

62. ' Those of my disciples. Five-crest, who in all 
points wholly understand my teaching, they from the 

^ In spite of this express statement this legend of the High 
Steward does not appear in the canonical collection of Birth Stories. 
See Rhys Davids's ' Buddhist India,' p. 196, for other instances. 



D. ii. 252. THE LORD HIGH STEWARD. 28 1 

destruction of the Deadly Taints have by and for 
themselves understood, realized and attained to, even 
in this life, freedom from taint, liberty of heart, liberty 
of intellect. [252] Those who do not in all points 
wholly understand my teaching, some of them, in that 
they have broken away the five Fetters belonging to 
the Hither Side, are reborn without parents, where 
they will utterly pass away, being no more liable to 
return to this world. And some of them, in that they 
have broken away three [other] Fetters, and have worn 
down passion and hate and dulness, become Once- 
Returners, who after once returning to this world shall 
make an end of 111. And some of them, again, in 
that they have broken away those three Fetters, be- 
come Stream-Attainers, not liable to be reborn in any 
state of woe, but assured of attaininof to the Insigrht. 
And so, Five-crest, of all, even all those persons, there 
is not one whose renunciation is vain or barren ; in 
each case it will have brought fruit and development' 
Thus spoke the Exalted One. And Five-crest of 
the Gandharva fairies was pleased at the word of the 
Exalted One, and in delight and gladness he saluted 
the Exalted One, and with the salutation of the right 
side he vanished from that place. 

Here endeth the Story of the Lord High 
Steward. 



INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

mahA-samaya suttanta 

The method followed in this poem is nearly the same as in 
the two previous Suttantas, only here it is rather the minor 
gods, — the local deities, the personification of natural pheno- 
mena, guardian spirits, fairies, harpies, naiads, dryads, and 
many others — who are represented as themselves proclaiming 
their adherence to the new movement. Important gods are 
indeed incidentally mentioned ; and it is perhaps not without 
intention that great and small are here thrown together, as if 
Soma and Varu«a and Brahma were really all of the same 
kind as the long list of spirits and fairies in which they 
appear ^. 

The poem is almost unreadable now. The long list of 
strange names awakes no interest. And it is somewhat 
pathetic to notice the hopeless struggle of the author to 
enliven his unmanageable material with a little poetry. It 
remains, save here and there, only doggrel still. 

There are three parts to the poem. The first is the list 
of gods ; the second the frame-work, put into the Buddha's 
mouth, at the beginning (after the prologue), and at the end ; 
the third the prologue, with the verses of the four gods of the 
Pure Abode. The prologue has been preserved as a separate 
episode in the Sa7;zyutta, I, 27. The way in which the list is 
fitted into the frame-work in our sections 4, 5, and 6 is very 
confused and awkward ; and the grammar of the frame-work 
is inconsistent with the grammar of the list. It is highly 
probable therefore that the list itself, and also the epilogue, 
had been handed down as independent works in the community 
before our Suttanta was composed. The frame-work may be 
the work of the editor. 

Our list here begins in §§ 7, 8, with seven classes or groups 
of gods, without personal names. The personal names begin 
at § 9, with the four Great Kings of the four quarters ; and 

^ So above, Vol. I, p. 17, the worship of Agni is deliberately inserted 
in a list of animistic hocus-pocus. 



INTRODUCTION. 



§§ I0-20 follow with ten other groups in each of which the 
principal personal names are given. There is another list of 
gods in the A/ana/iya (No. 32 in the Digha). This other list 
also begins with the four Great Kings ; and then adds, as a 
sort of afterthought or appendix, the names of forty-one gods, 
all mentioned one after another, without division into groups, 
and without any details. Our §§ 10-20 look very much like 
an improved and enlarged edition of the bare list in the 
A/ana/iya. The latter is just such a mnemonic doggrel as 
was found useful in other cases also by the early Buddhists, 
who had no books, and were compelled to carry their 
dictionaries and works of reference in their heads. There 
are other instances in Pali literature of the original mnemonic 
verses, and their subsequent expansion, having both been 
preserved. 

As the contents of the two lists, and their great importance 
for the history of religion in India, have been discussed else- 
where ^, it is only necessary here to remind the reader that 
when these Suttantas were composed the names they con- 
tain were full of meaning to the people ; and that the legends 
here told were intended to counteract the animistic delusions 
about them then so prevalent in the Ganges valley. They 
are almost the only evidence we have as yet outside the 
priestly books. Perhaps the most important fact to which 
they bear testimony is the continual change in animistic belief 
that went on in India. They are of especial value, as they 
show what those beliefs were at a particular period. We 
shall not be able to have a scientific history of religion in 
India until the absurd anachronisms of the classical Sanskrit 
literature have been discarded ; and until we have learnt care- 
fully to distinguish between the divers faiths and gods 
which, in those books, are mixed up together, and supposed to 
have remained the same for many centuries on end. 

^ Rhys Davids's 'Buddhist India,' pp. 219-237. 



[XX. mahA-samaya suttanta. 

The Great Concourse.] 

1. [253] Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was 
once dwelhng among the Sakiyas, at Kapilavatthu in 
the Great Wood, together with a great band of the 
brethren, about five hundred of them, all being 
Arahants. And gods from the ten thousand world- 
systems oft-times assembled there that they might 
visit the Exalted One and the band of brethren. 

2. Now to four gods of the hosts of the Pure Abodes 
this thought occurred : — * That Blessed One is now 
dwelling among the Sakiyas, at Kapilavatthu in the 
Great Wood, together with a great band of the brethren, 
about five hundred of them, all being Arahants. And 
gods from the ten thousand world-systems oft-times are 
assembling there to see the Exalted One and his band 
of brethren. What if we, too, were to go into his 
presence, and before him were to recite each of us 
a poem ? ' 

3. Then those gods, as easily as a strong man might 
stretch out his arm, or draw back his out-stretched 
arm, [254] vanished from the Pure Abodes, and 
appeared before the Exalted One. There they saluted 
him and stood on one side. And so standing one of 
the gods recited to the Blessed One this verse : — 

' Great is the gathering in the glade ! The hosts of 

heaven together met! 
We too are come unto this congress blest, and fain 
would see 

The Company Invincible.* 

Then another god recited to the Exalted One this 
verse : — 



D.ii. 255. THE GREAT CONCOURSE. 285 

' The brethren there, wrought up to concentration rapt, 
make straight their hearts, 
Wisely, as driver keeping grip on rein, their faculties 
they guard.' 

Then another o-od recited to the Exalted One this 

o 

verse : — 

* All bars and bolts are hewn in twain for them, 
The threshold is dug up.^ 

In purity, their w^ay they go, 
Stainless, with vision clear, like well-tamed elephants.' 

[265] Then the other god recited to the Exalted 
One this verse : — 

' Who in the Buddha refuge take, they shall not go to 
woeful doom. 
When they put off this human frame they shall fill 
up the hosts in heaven.' 

4. Then said the Exalted One to the brethren : — 

* Oft-times, brethren, do gods from the ten world- 
systems foregather to see the Tathagata and the com- 
pany of the Brethren. Whosoever, brethren, in the 
past were Arahant Buddhas supreme, upon them 
waited a like number of the heavenly hosts, and a like 
number shall wait upon whosoever shall, in the future, 
be Arahant Buddhas supreme. I will detail to you, 
brethren, the names of the hosts of gods, I will publish 
abroad, brethren, their names, I will teach you. 
brethren, their names. Hearken hereunto and pay 
heed, and I will speak.' 

' Even so, lord,' responded the brethren. And the 
Exalted One spake thus : — 

5. 'In measured speech I will give utterance : — 
Where'er their realm, there will ye find the gods, 
But they who in the bowels of the hills 

Sit with heart throughly purged and well com- 
posed, 

^ • The bars and bolts and hindering threshold stone of lust, ill-will 
and stupidity,' explains Buddhaghosa. 



286 XX. MAHA-SAMAYA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 255. 

Like to so many lions crouching still, 
Are vanquishers over the creeping dread, 
White-minded, pure, serene and undefiled. 

[256] Seeing within Kapilavatthu's grove 

Five hundred such and more, disciples all, 

To them who loved his word the Master spoke : 

" Celestial hosts draw nigh ! 
Look to it, brethren, that ye them discern ! " 
And they, hearing the Buddha's word, forthwith 
Strove ardently to see.^ 

6. And lo ! in them 
Arose vision of those not born of men. 

Some saw one hundred gods, ten hundred, some. 
And some saw seventy thousand, others saw 
Infinite multitudes thronging around. 
And all their sight and seeing He Who Sees 
Intuitively marked and understood. 

Then to his followers who loved his Word 
The Master turned and spoke : — " Celestial hosts 
Draw near ! Them do ye, brethren, recognize 
As I, in rhythmic speech, each in their turn 
Proclaim them unto you in order due : — " 

7. Seven thousand Yakkhas of our country's soil 
Of wondrous gifts and powers exceeding great, 
And comeliness, and splendid following 2, 

Are come rejoicing to the forest glade 
To see the brethren met together there. 

Six thousand Yakkhas from Himalaya, 
Diverse in hue, of wondrous gifts and powers 



^ The connexion of the various clauses of this stanza is obscure ; 
and the interpretations of the native scholars differ. We have 
followed the version of the Colombo Sannaya of 1 89 1 . Samarasekhara's 
translation (Col. 1905) takes the assita in line i to refer to the 
Arahants. Buddhaghosa's commentary may be understood either 
way. All agree in referring fiatva in line 5 to the Buddha. 

* Yassassino, glossed here by Buddhaghosa as parivarasam- 
panna, and later, in this Suttanta, by yasena samannagata. 



D. ii. 257. THE GREAT CONCOURSE. 287 

And comeliness and splendid following, 
Are come rejoicing to the forest glade 
To see the brethren met together there. 

From Sata' s Hill three thousand Yakkhas more, 
Diverse in hue, of wondrous gifts and powers 
And comeliness, with splendid following, 
Have come rejoicing to the forest glade 
To see the brethren met together there. 

Thus have I sixteen thousand Yakkhas told, 
Of diverse hue, of wondrous gifts and powers 
And comeliness, and splendid following, 
Who come rejoicing to the forest glade 
To see the brethren met together there. 

8. [257] Five hundred more from Vessamitta s host. 
Of diverse hue, of wondrous gifts and powers 
And comeliness and splendid following, 
Have come rejoicing to the forest glade 
To see the brethren met together there. 

Kumbhira, too, of Rajagaha town, 
Having his dwelling on Vepulla's mount, 
INIore than a hundred thousand in his train, 
This Yakkha likewise to the wood is come. 

9. King Dhatara//>^a rules the Eastern clime. 
Lord of Gandhabbas, mighty monarch he. 
With splendid following. Sons has he too, 
^Tany and strong, all after Indra named. 
And these of wondrous gifts and mighty power 
And comeliness and splendid following, 
Have come rejoicing to the forest glade 
To see the brethren met together there. 

Viru/ha, ruler of the Southern clime. 
Lord of Kumba7/^as, mighty monarch he. 
With splendid following. Sons has he too, 
Many and strong, all after Indra named. 
And these of wondrous gifts and mighty power 
And comeliness and splendid following, 
Have come rejoicing to the forest glade 
To see the brethren met together there. 



288 XX. MAHA-SAMAYA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 257. 

Virtapakkha rules o'er the Western clime, 
Lord of the N^as, mighty monarch he, 
With splendid following. Sons has he too. 
Many and strong, all after Indra named. 
And these, of wondrous gifts and mighty power 
And comeliness and splendid following. 
Have come rejoicing to the forest glade 
To see the brethren met together there. 

Kuvera rules over the Northern clime, 
Lord of the Yakkhas, mighty monarch he, 
With splendid following. Sons has he too, 
Many and strong, all after Indra named. 
And these, of wondrous gifts and mighty power 
[258] And comeliness and splendid following, 
Have come rejoicing to the forest glade 
To see the brethren met together there. 

So stood those four great kings within the wood 
Of Kapilavatthu, on the four climes 
Shedding effulgent radiance round about : 
Over the East King Dhatara///^a shone, 
To right, Viru/haka, westward 
Virupakkha, Kuvera o'er the North. 

10. With them are come their vassals versed in craft, 
Hoodwinking wizards, apt to cloak and feign : — 
Maya, Ku^e^idu, Yet&idn, Vi/u, 

Vi/ucca, Candana, Ramase/Z/^a too, 

Kinnughaw^u, Nigha^^^u (nine in all). 

Next, these Gandhabba chieftains all are come: — 

Panada, Opamafina too, and Matali 

The driver of the gods, Cittasena 

The Gandhabba, Nala, Janesabha, 

Paficasikha and Suriyavaccasa, 

Daughter of Timbaru. These princes all 

And with them other chiefs, Gandhabbas too, 

Are come rejoicing to the forest glade 

To see the brethren met together there. 

1 1. Now too Nagas are come from Nabhasa, 
And from Vesali and from Tacchaka, 



D. ii. 259. THE GREAT CONCOURSE. 289 

Kambalas, Assataras, Payagas 

With all their kin. Nagas from Yamuna, 

And Dhatara///ia, too, with brilliant trains, 

Eravana, great among Naga folk. 

He too is come into the forest glade. 

They who twice-born \ winged and keen 
Of sight, the heavenly Harpies who. 
With violence prey on Naga chiefs, — 
Gaudy and Well-winged are their names — 
Have flown into the wood. [259] — 
The cobra kings felt quite secure. 
A refuge from the dreadful birds 
Buddha had made. With gentle words 
Entreatingr one another thev, 
The Harpies and their prey alike 
To the Buddha as their Sanctuary come. 

12. They whom the Lightning-Hand did smite, 
Now dwellers in the ocean, Asuras, 
Vasava's brethren, they of wondrous gifts 
And splendid train - : — The Kalakafijas all 
Of fearsome shape, the Danaveghasas, 
Sucitti, Vepacitti, and Paharada — 

With them came Namuci, spirit of Evil ; 
And Bali's hundred sons, all of them named 
After Veroca ^ havina armed a host 
Of warriors, hied them to their noble liege. 
And Rahu said, " Good luck attend this mote 
For which the brethren now have sought the 
wood ! ' 

1 3. The gods of Fire and Water, Earth and Air 
Are hither come ; celestial Varu«as 



^ All birds are twice-born, first from the mother's womb (when 
she lays the egg), and then from the egg itself. 

' These are all born of Suja, Vasava's mother, and had been 
driven out of heaven by ' Him-with-the-thunderbolt-in-his-hand." 
The latter had been identified, at the time when this poem was com- 
posed, with Sakka. 

* That is, their uncle Rahu. 

III. U 



290 XX. MAHA-SAMAYA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 259. 

With their attendant Varuneian sprites, 
And Soma with Yaso. Come, too, the gods 
.From Love and Pity born, with splendid train. 
These ten, a tenfold host in all, of hue 
Diverse, of wondrous gifts and mighty power. 
And comeliness, with splendid following, 
Are come rejoicing to the forest glade 
To see the brethren met together there. 

14. Come Vish;^u with his gods, the Sahalis, 

The Asamas and the Yama twins ^ ; the elves 
That dwell within the moon attend the Moon, 
The solar fairies too attend the Sun, 
While fragile spirits of the Clouds attend 
The Constellations ; [260] Lord of the Vasus, too, 
God Sakka, Generous One of yore ^ : — 
These ten, a tenfold host in all, of hue 
Diverse, of wondrous gifts and mighty powers, 
And comeliness, with splendid following. 
Are come rejoicing to the forest glade 
To see the brethren met together there. 

15. Now too are come the fairies Sahabhu, 
In flaming radiance like crests of fire : — 
The Ari///i!akas, Rojas, like azure flowers, 
With Varu^^a and eke Sahadhamma, 
And Accutais come, Anejaka 

And Suleyya and Rucira are come. 

Come too Vasavanesi deities. 

These ten, a tenfold host in all, of hue 
Diverse, of wondrous gifts and mighty powers, 
And comeliness, with splendid following. 
Are come rejoicing to the forest glade 
To see the brethren met together there. 

16. Sam^nas, Great Saminas, sprites like men 
And sprites like Supermen, are come, the gods 



^ The Castor and Pollux of Indian mythology. 

* This seems to come in here most strangely: but it is an epithet 
of Sakka expressly designed to distinguish him from Indra, the Vedic 
god, whose epithet was ' Destroyer of Towns,' see p. 297. 



D. ii. 26l. THE GREAT CONXOURSE. 291 

Debauched-by-sport ^ are come and those 

Debauched- 
In-mind 2, fairies that haunt the Green and they 
That wear the Red, they too that Pass- Over, 
And the Great Passers-o'er, with splendid following. 
These ten, a tenfold host in all, of hue 
Diverse, of wondrous gifts and mighty powers, 
And comeliness, with splendid following, 
Are come rejoicing to the forest glade 
To see the brethren met together there. 

1 7. Sukka, Aru;/a, Karumha fairies too, 
With Veghanasas, having at their head 
Th' Odatagayhas, come ; Vicakkha?^as, 
Sadamattas. Haragajas, and they 

Called the Mixed gods with splendid following ; 
Pajunna thundering is come, he who 
Pours down the rains upon the quarters four. 
These ten, a tenfold host in all. of hue 
Diverse, of wondrous gifts and mighty powers. 
And comeliness, with splendid following, 
Are come rejoicing to the forest glade 
To see the brethren met together there. 

18. [261] The Khemiyas and gods from Tusita 
And Yama heav'ns, the Ka////akas and suite, 
Lambitakas and the chief Lama-gods, 

The Fiery spirits, and the Asavas, 
They who rejoice in shapes they make themselves, 
And they who use creations not their own -. 
These ten, a tenfold host in all, of hue 
Diverse, of wondrous gifts and mighty powers, 
And comeliness, with splendid following, 
Are come rejoicing to the forest glade 
To see the brethren met together there. 

19. These sixty spirit hosts, of divers hues. 
According to their name and class are come, 

^ On these described in the Brahmajala Suttanta, see Dialogues I, 

32, 33- 
^ Nimmanarati, Paranimmita[vasavatti]. 

U 2 



292 XX. MAHA-SAMAYA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 261. 

And with them others, whosoe'er they be, 
Saying " Him who has outlived birth, for whom 
No barrier stands, for whom the flood is crossed, 
The Asavas are not, Him shall we see. 
Ferry-man o'er the flood, mighty through purity \ 
Moon that has passed beyond th' enshrouding dark." 

20. Then Tissa, the Eternal Youth, and with 
Him Paramatta and Subrahma, sons 
Of the Potent One, came to the congress- wood. 
Great Brahma, suzerain of thousand worlds 
In Brahma-heaven, has thither been reborn^. 
Mighty in power, and in shape awesome 
And vast, of great renown. Ten of his lords. 
Each regnant o'er a Brahma-world, are come. 
And in their midst with all his suite comes Harita^ 

^ In this word-play, Nago means also N'agu, not having sin, says 
the Cy. : — aguz« akarawato. So the gods, too, make bad puns ! — ■ 
untranslateable ones, alas. 

* Upapanno. Note the Buddhist care to bring even ' Great 
Brahma ' under the universal Law, ' rem inexorabilem.' 

^ The inter-dependence of the clauses, and also of the names, in 
this stanza, is ambiguous. It may hereafter become clear that the 
author (or authoress) thought of Tissa and the Eternal Youth as two 
distinct persons, or of the Eternal Youth and the Great Brahma of the 
Buddha's time as one. The grammar is against the first of these 
suppositions. But we have seen (above, p. 272, 3) that the Maha- 
Brahma of Govinda's time was Sana/w-kumara, the Eternal Youth (so 
also D. I, 200 compared with D. II, 209, 225) ; and Tissa according to 
tradition (Smp. p. 296, 7) was the name of a Maha-Brahma. Buddha- 
ghosa explains ' the Potent One ' (i d d h i m a) as the Buddha ; it is 
much more likely to have been intended for Brahma, who claims 
(above, p. 247) to have acquired the potency of iddhi. 

This legend of the Ever-virgin Knight, Sanawz-kumara, is the Indian 
counterpart of the European legend of Sir Galahad. The oldest men- 
tion of it is in the Chandogya Upanished (Ch. VII), where the ideal 
of the saintly knight teaches a typical brahmin about the highest truth 
(compare Deussen's note on p. 171 of Sechzig Upanishads '). In the 
Nikayas the Eternal Youth is frequently quoted as the author of a 
famous verse which says that, though the knight takes precedence 
among all those that trust in lineage, he that is perfect in wisdom takes 
precedence over all (see above, I, 121, and M. I, 358; S. I, 153; 
A. V, 326. At S. II, 284 the verse is ascribed to the Buddha). A 
similar sentiment is ascribed to him in the Great Bharata. In 
mediaeval literature he is said to have been one of five or seven mind- 



D. ii. 262. THE GREAT CONCOURSE. 293 

21. To all of them thus hither come, those gods, 
Marshalled around the Lord and Great Brahma, 
The host of Mara cometh up. Lo ! now 

The folly of the Murky One ^ :— [262] " Come on 
And seize and bind me these, let all be bound 
By lust ! Surround on every side, and see 
Ye let not one escape, whoe'er he be ! " 
Thus the Great Captain bade his swarthy host -, 
And with his palm did smite upon the ground 
Making a horrid din, as when a storm-cloud 
Thunders and lightens, big with heavy rains. 
Then he recoiled, still raging, powerless 
Aught to effect. 

22. And He-Who-Sees by insight knew all this 
And understood. Then to his followers 

Who loved his word the Master spake: "The host 
Of Mara comes ! Brethren, beware of them ! " 
And they, hearing the Buddha's word, forthwith 
Held themselves all alert. The foe departs 
From them in whom no lust is found, nor e'er 
Upon whose bodies stirs a hair. [Then Mdra 

spake : — } 
" All they, those victors in the fight, for whom 
All fear is past, great of renown. His followers, 
Whose fame among the folk spreads far and wide, 
Lo ! now with all creation they rejoiced" ' 

born sons of Brahma, like the Sons of the Potent One in our verse. 
(For the five see the references in Wilson's ' Vishwu Pura«a,' I, 38 ; 
for the seven those in Garbe's ' Sawkhya-philosophie,' p. 35). 
Buddhaghosa has a similar tale (quoted J.R.A^S., 1 894, p. 344). A later 
and debased Jain version of the legend tells us at length of the love 
adventures and wives of the chaste knight, with a few words at the end 
on his conversion to the saintly life (Jacobi, ' Ausgewahlte Erzahlun- 
gen in Maharaj^/ri,' pp. 20-28, translated by de Blonay in 'Rev. de I'H. 
des Rel.,' 1895, pp. 29-41). 

* Kawho, for Mara. Cf. Kali, the Black Woman. 

' Mara is called M a h a - s e n o, his army being of course s e n a. The 
Pali, making no distinction between syena (hawk) and sena, it is 
not impossible that a pun is here intended. 

' We have followed the traditional interpretation in ascribing these 
last four lines to Mara. They may quite as well, or better, be a 
statement by the author himself. 



INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

SAKKA-PANHA SUTTANTA. 

This is the last of the series of mythological dialogues, and 
in some respects the most interesting of them all. Here we 
reach the culmination, in the last paragraph, in the conversion 
of Sakka. Though the various episodes leading up to this 
culmination are not all equal in literary skill to the charming 
story and striking verses of Five-crest, they have each of them 
historical value ; and they lead quite naturally up to the 
conversion at the end. 

It seems odd to talk of the conversion of a god. But what 
do we understand by the term god? He — it is often more 
correct to say she, or it — is an idea in men's minds. To the 
worshipper he seems immense, mysterious, unchanging, a unity. 
And he is, in a sense, a unity — a temporary unity of a complex 
of conceptions, each of them complex. To use the technical 
Buddhist terms a god is khawika, and sawzkhara. In the 
same sense we can speak of a chemical compound as a unity ; 
but to understand that unity we must know of what it is 
compounded. Now what are the ideas of which the unity we 
know under the name of Sakka is made up ? Let us take 
them in the order of personal character, outward conditions, 
and titles. 

Perso7ial. 

Sakka has not become free from the three deadly evils — 
lust, illwill, and stupidity (A. I, 144; S. I, 219). 

He is not free from anxiety (S. I, 219). 

He is still subject to death and rebirth (A. I, 144). As 
examples of this it is mentioned that Sunetta had thirty- 
five times been reborn as Sakka (A. IV, 105), a statement 
transferred to the Buddha (A. IV, 89) ^ 

He comes down from heaven to confirm Uttara's teaching 

^ We have had another instance (above, p. 73) of a detail in 
Sunetta's biography being taken over into the biography of the 
Buddha. 



INTRODUCTION. 295 



that one should bear in mind and compare one's own and 
others' failings and attainments (A. IV, 162). 

One of the shortest of the Sawyuttas is devoted to Sakka. 
It has twenty-five short Suttas. In the first and second, 
Sakka praises energy (viriya). In the third he denounces 
timidity. In the fourth he shows forbearance to his enemy ^. 
In the fifth he advocates the conquest of anger by kindness ; 
in the sixth kindness to animals ; in the seventh he denounces 
trickery even towards enemies ; and in the ninth he preaches 
courtesy and honour to the wise (to Rishis). In eleven it is 
said he acquired his position as Sakka by having observed 
in a former birth seven lifelong habits — support of his parents, 
reverence to clan elders, gentleness of speech, dislike of 
calumny, generosity, truth, and freedom from anger. Twelve 
and thirteen repeat this and explain his titles. In fourteen 
Sakka explains how new gods who outshine the old ones do 
so because they have observed the Buddha's teaching-. In 
fifteen he says that the most beautiful spot is where Arahants 
dwell. In sixteen he praises gifts to the Order. In seventeen 
he praises the Buddha, but is told he has selected the wrong 
attributes for praise. In eighteen to twenty he says that, 
whereas brahmins and nobles worship him, he himself wor- 
ships good men, and Arahants. Nos. 21, 22, 24 and 25 are 
against anger, and 23 is against deceit. 

In one passage Sakka is represented as coming down from 
heaven to make an inquiry about Nirvana (S. I, 201), and in 
another as listening, in heaven, to Moggallana's exposition of 
the simplest duties of a good layman (S. IV, 269-280). 

He, Sakka, is present at the death of the Buddha and utters, 
in verse, a simple lament very different from the thoughtful 
verses ascribed to Brahma (above, p. 175)- 

He proclaims a eulogy on the Buddha, in which he em- 
phasizes eight points of comparatively simple character (above, 
p. 260). 

These Nikaya passages are sufficient to show that Sakka 
was considered by the early Buddhists to be a god of high 
character indeed, kindly and just ; but not perfect, and not 
very intelligent. He has reached as far as a good layman 
might have reached, to the point where his conversion was 
immanent. 

Outward cotiditions. 

Sakka dwells in the Tavati;;/sa heaven, that is, in the 
heaven of the thirty-three great gods of the Vedic pantheon. 

* This Sutta is repeated at Sawjutta IV, 201. 

' The very words of the Sakka-panha are here used. 



296 INTRODUCTION. 



This is not by any means the highest plane of being, nor is it 
quite the lowest. It is an essential part of the early Buddhist 
cosmogony (and not held by any other school in India) that 
there were twenty-six planes of celestial beings : — i. The Four 
Great Kings, guardians of the four quarters of the world. 
3. The Thirty-Three. 3. The Yama gods. 4. The Tusita 
gods. 5. The Nimmana-rati gods. 6. The Paranimitta- 
vasavatti gods \ Above these are the twenty worlds of 
Brahma. For practical ethical purposes the stress is laid on 
two planes only — the six just mentioned, which have a 
collective name (Kamavacara-devaloka), and the world of 
Brahma \ It is only the lower of these two that is meant when 
heaven (sagga) is referred to. Sakka dwells therefore in the 
lowest heaven but one of the lower plane. 

There he dwells in the palace Victoria (Vejayanta, S. I, 
235, 6). It was built by Sakka, is described at Majjhima 
I, 253, and is illustrated on the Bharahat Tope ^. 

Dwelling in that palace he is king over all the Thirty-Three. 
When the gods fight the Titans (Asuras) it is under his 
banner, and under his orders, that they fight. But he is no 
absolute monarch. He is imagined in the likeness of a chief- 
tain of a Kosala clan. The gods meet and deliberate in their 
Hall of Good Counsel ; and Sakka, on ordinary peaceful 
occasions, consults with them rather than issues to them his 
commands. Yet in ten matters he surpasses them all — in 
length of life, in beauty, in happiness, in renown, and in lord- 
ship, and in the degree of his five sensations, sight, hearing, 
smelling, taste, and touch (A. IV, 242). 

Tii/es. 

Sakka. In its Sanskrit form, S'akra, it occurs nearly fifty 
times in the Vedas as an adjective qualifying gods (usually 
Indra). It is explained as meaning 'able, capable*.' It is 
not found as a name in pre- Buddhistic literature. 

Kosiya used, not in speaking of, but in speaking to Sakka, 
just as the family (gotta) name, not the personal name, is used 



* These are often mentioned in sequence. See, for instance, above, 
Vol. I, pp. 280, 281. 

^ The later Maha-bharata borrowed this idea, though, as Plopkins 
points out (' Religions of India,' 358), it is 'a view quite foreign to 
the teaching current elsewhere in the epic' 

^ Cunningham, ' Stupa of Bharhut,' p. 137, 

* For another derivation, a pretty piece of word-play, see Sawyutta, 
I, 230. 



INTRODUCTION. 297 



by polite persons in addressing a man ^ It means 'belonging 
to the Kusika family,' and occurs D. II, 270; M. I, 252. 
It is used once in the Rig Veda of Indra, in what exact sense 
is not known. Have we a survival here from the time when 
Indra was only the god of a Kusika clan ? 

Vasava, as chief of the Vasu gods- (D. II, 260, 274; 
S. I, 223-30; SN. 384). 

Purindada,' the generous giver in former births '(S. 1,230; 
P. V. II, 9, 12, 13 ; Jat. V, 395), no doubt with ironical allusion 
to the epithet of Indra, Purandara, ' destroyer of cities.' 

Sujampati, the husband of Suja (S. I, 225, 234-6; 
SN. 1024). 

Maghava, because, as a man, he had once been a brahmin 
of that name (S. I, 230 ; cp. Jat. IV, 403 = V, 137). This had 
been also, for another reason, an epithet of Indra and other 
gods. 

Thousand-eyed (Sahassa-cakkhu, sahassakkha, S. I, 
230, sahassa-netta, S. I, 226; SN. 346}. This also had been 
used of Indra. 

Yakkha. Scarcely perhaps an epithet : but it is interesting 
to notice that even so high a god as Sakka was considered to 
be a Yaksha (M. I, 252 ; see S. I, 206). 

Inda ( = Indra). This is used occasionally of the Vedic god 
(e.g. D. I, 244 ; ii. 274 ; SN. 310), but is applied also to 
Sakka himself (D. I, 221, 261,274; SN. 316, 679, 1024). The 
god Indaka, of S. I, 206 and PV. II, 9, is quite another person. 

Conchisiotis. 

Now what are the conclusions which can fairly be drawn 
from the above facts ? In the first place it is evident that 
Sakka and Indra are quite different conceptions. Of course 
Indra is also a complex conception, and not by any means 
only the savage ideal of a warrior, big and blustering and 
given to drink. But we shall not be far wrong if we say that 
no single item of the personal character of Sakka is identical 
with any point in the character of the Vedic Indra, and not 
one single item of the character of Indra has been reproduced 
in the descriptions of Sakka. Some of the epithets are the 
same, and are certainly borrowed, though they are explained 
differently in harmony with the new conception. Some of the 
details of the outward conditions may be, and probably are, 
the outgrowth of corresponding details as told of the older 

^ This point has been discussed above, Vol. I, pp. 193-6. 
^ Their names (ten of them) in PVA., p. iii. 



298 INTRODUCTION. 



god, but varied and softened in harmony with the new con- 
ception. 

And further, all these mythological dialogues are Tendenz- 
schriften, written with the object of persuading the Kosala 
clansmen that they need not be in the least afraid, for their 
own gods were on the side of the reformation. The story- 
tellers who invented them have twisted the details to suit their 
purpose. But they will not have changed the figure of the 
god so much that there could be any doubt as to the god they 
talked of being the then popular god. To do so would have 
been to defeat their object. We may be sure that at the time 
when Buddhism arose the popular god in Kosala was already 
very different from Indra, so different that he was spoken of 
under a new name. This remains true, though he probably 
was a degeneration, as the brahmins would say, or a develop- 
ment, as their opponents would say, of the old Vedic hero-god. 

We cannot be surprised to learn that the conception which 
appealed so strongly to a more barbarous age, and to clans 
when engaged in fighting their way into a new country, were 
found discordant, unattractive, not quite nice, in the settled 
and prosperous districts of Kosala, after many centuries of 
progress and culture. It is so with every god known to 
history. He seems eternal. But by the gradual accumulation 
of minute variations there comes a time, it may be in a few 
generations, it may be after the lapse of centuries, when the 
old name no longer fits the new ideas, the old god falls from 
his high estate, and a new god, with a new name, occupies the 
place he filled in the minds of men. Of course the priests 
went on repeating the old phrases about Indra. But even to 
the priests they had become barely intelligible. The people 
paid little heed to them ; they followed rather other gods more 
up-to-date, and of their own making. And it was of these 
new gods that the leaders of the new movement told their new 
stories to point a new moral ^. 

' The above is based exclusively on Nikaya evidence. It is con- 
firmed by that of the later books given by Childers {sub voce Sakko). 



XXI. SAKKA-PANHA SUTTANTA». 

THE QUESTIONS OF SAKKA. 

I. [263] Thus have I heard. The Exalted One was 
once staying in Magadha, to the east of Rajagaha, at 
a brahmin village named Amba.sa.?ida.. There he 
resided on the Vediya mountain to the north of the 
village, in the cave called the cave of Indra's Sal Tree -. 
Now at that time a longing came over Sakka, the king 
of the gods, to visit the Exalted One. 

And this idea occurred to him : — 'WTiere may he now 
be staying, the Exalted One, the Arahant. the Buddha 
supreme.'*' And Sakka saw that he was staying in 
Magadha at Ambasaw^a, east of Rajagaha, in the cave 
called Indra's Saltree Cave on the Vediya mountain to 
the north of the vilIaQ:e. And seeingf that, he said to 
the Three-and-Thirty gods : — ' Gentlemen, that Exalted 
One is staying in Magadha, to the east of Rajagaha at 
a brahmin village named Ambasa;/^a, in the cave called 
Indra's Saltree Cave, on the Vediya mountain to the 
north of the village. How would it be, gentlemen, if 
we were to go and visit the Exalted One ? ' 

' So be it and good luck to you ! ' replied the Three- 
and-Thirty gods consenting. 

* This Suttanta is quoted by name at Sawyutta III, 13 ; Mahavastu 
I> 350; Milinda 350; Sumahgala Vilasini I, 24 (where it is called 
vedalla). The last passage is repeated at Gandha Vawsa 57. 

* Inda-sala-guha. Buddhaghosa says there was a cave here 
between two overhanging rocks wiih a large Sal tree at the entrance. 
The village community had added walls with doors and windows; 
and ornamented it with polished plaster scroll-work and garlands, and 
presented it to the Buddha. In Fa Hian's time (Legge, p. 81) it was 
still inhabited. In Yuan Chwang's time (Watters, II, 173) it was 
deserted. Both pilgrims were told that certain marks on the rock had 
been made by Sakka writing his questions (!). The Sanskritisation 
of the name into Indra-saila-guha (Schiefner, Bohtlingk-Roth, 
Julien, Legge, and Beal) is a mere blunder. The name Indra enters 
into the names of several plants, probably merely in the sense of 
excellent. There is nothing to justify the idea that Indra was 
supposed to haunt this tree. 



300 XXI. SAKKA-PANHA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 263. 

2. Then Sakka [made the same statement and pro- 
posal to Five-crest the Gandhabba, [264] and received 
the same reply] and Five-crest taking his lyre of yellow 
Beluva wood, followed in attendance on Sakka, the 
king of the gods. 

So Sakka, the king of the gods, surrounded by the 
Thirty-and-Three, and attended by Five-crest the 
Gandhabba, vanished from his heaven as easily as a 
strong man might shoot out his arm, or draw in his arm 
outshot, and reappeared in Magadha, standing on the 
Vediya mountain. 

3. Now at that time the Vediya mountain was 
bathed in radiance, and so was Ambasa;/rt'a, the 
brahmin village, — such is the potency of the celestials 
— so much so that in the villages round about folk 
were saying : — ' For sure the Vediya mountain is on 
fire to-day, for sure the Vediya mountain is burning 
to-day, for sure the Vediya mountain is in flame to-day ! 
Why, O why, is the Vediya mountain bathed in radiance 
to-day, and Ambasa/^^a too the brahmins' village ? ' 
And they were anxious and sore afraid. 

4. Then said Sakka, the king of the gods, to Five- 
crest the Gandhabba : — [265] ' Difficult of approach, 
dear Five-crest, are Tathagatas, to one like me, when 
they are rapt in the bliss of meditation, and for that 
purpose abiding in solitude. But if you were first to 
gain over the Exalted One [by your music] then might 
I afterwards come up and visit him, the Arahant, the 
Buddha supreme.' 

* So be it and good luck to you ! ' consented Five- 
crest, and taking his lyre he went to the Indra-Saltree- 
cave. On coming there he thought : — ' Thus far will 
the Exalted One be neither too far from me nor too 
near to me, and he will hear my voice.' And he stood 
on one side, and let his lyre be heard and recited 
these verses concerning the Awakened One and the 
Truth, the Arahants and Love : — ^ 



^ This idea is found again in the Maha-bharata (I, 2. 383). That 
poem there claims to be artha-sastra, dharma-sSstra, andkama- 



D. ii. 266. THE QUESTIONS OF SAKKA. 3OI 



5. ' Lady, thy father Timbaru I greet 
With honour due, O Glory-of-the-Sun ! ^ 
In that he wrought a thing so nobly fair 
As thou, O fount divine of all my joy ! 

Sweet as the breeze to one foredone with sweat, 
Sweet as a cooling drink to one athirst, 
So dear art thou, O presence radiant ! 
To me, dear as to Arahants the Truth. 

[266] As medicine bringing ease to one that's 

sick. 
As food to starving man, so, lady, quench, 
As with cool waters, me who am all a-flame. 

E'en as an elephant with heat oppressed. 
Hies him to some still pool, upon whose face 
Petals and pollen of the lotus float, 
So would 1 sink within thy bosom sweet. 

E'en as an elephant fretted by hook, 
Dashes unheeding curb and goad aside. 
So I, crazed by the beauty of thy form, 
Know not the why and wherefore of my acts. 

By thee my heart is held in bonds, and all 
Bent out of course ; nor can I turn me back. 
No more than fish, once he hath ta'en the bait. 

Within thine arm embrace me, lady, me 
With thy soft languid eyne embrace and hold, 
O nobly fair ! This I entreat of thee. 

Scanty in sooth, O maid of waving locks. 
Was my desire, but now it swelleth aye. 
Indefinitely great, e'en as the gifts 
Made by the faithful to the Arahants. 

sastra. So Windisch ('Buddha's Geburt,' 82) speaks of a group of 
ideas, recurrent in Indian literature, which very happily sums up and 
exhausts the matter — the Useful, the True, and the Agreeable — to 
which Emancipation is sometimes added as a fourth. Our passage 
here is the earliest in which such a group appears. 

^ Suriya-vaccase, the young lady's name; sunshine in prose. 
See § 10 of the Maha-samaya. 



502 XXI. SAKKA-PAf^HA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 267. 



[267] Whate'er of merit to such holy ones 
I've wrought, be thou, O altogether fair, 
The ripened fruit to fall therefrom to me. 

Whate'er of other merit I have wrought 
In the wide world, O altogether fair, 
Be thou the fruit thereof to fall to me. 

As the great Sakyan Seer, through ecstasy 
Rapt and intent and self-possessed, doth brood 
Seeking ambrosia, even so do I 
Pursue the quest of thee, O Glory-of-the-Sun ! 

As would that Seer rejoice, were he to win 

Ineffable Enlightenment, so I 

With thee made one, O fairest, were in bliss. 

And if perchance a boon were granted me 
By Sakka, lord of Three-and-Thirty gods, 
'Tis thee I'd ask of him, lady, so strong 
My love. And for thy father, wisest maid — 
Him as a sal-tree freshly burgeoning 
I worship for such peerless offspring giv'n.' 

6. When Five-crest had finished the Exalted One 
said to him : — ' The sound of your strings. Five-crest, 
so harmonizes with that of your song, and the sound 
of your voice with that of the strings, that your lyre 
does not too much colour your song, nor your song 
too much colour your play. Where, Five-crest, did 
you learn these verses "concerning the Awakened 
One and the Truth, the Arahants, and Love ? " ' 

' The Exalted One, lord, was once staying at 
Uruveld, on the bank of the Nerafijara river, at the 
foot of the Goatherd's Banyan tree [268] before he 
attained to Enlightenment. Now at that time, lord, 
the lady called Bhaddd, in appearance as Sunshine, 
daughter of Timbaru, king of the Gandhabbas, was 
beloved by me. But that lady, lord, was in love with 
another — Sikhaddi, son of Mitali the charioteer. And 
since I could not get the lady by any method whatever, 
I took my lyre of yellow Beluva wood, and going to 
the abode of Timbaru, king of the Gandhabbas, I 



D. u. 268. THE QUESTIONS OF SAKKA. 303 

played my lyre and recited these verses concerning 
the Awakened One, the Truth, the Arahants and 
Love : — 

7. ' Lady, thy father Timbaru I greet 
With honour due, O Glory-of-the-Sun, 
In that he wrought a thing so nobly fair 
As thou, O fount divine of all ijiy joy ! 

Sweet as the breeze to one foredone with sweat, 
Sweet as a cooling drink to one athirst, 
So dear art thou, O presence radiant ! 
To me, dear as to Arahants the Truth. 

As medicine bringing ease to one that's sick, 

As food to 
Starving man, so, lady, quench, 
As with cool waters, me who am a-flame. 

E'en as an elephant with heat oppressed, 
Hies him to some still pool, upon whose face 
Petals and pollen of the lotus float, 
So would I sink within thy bosom sweet. 

E'en as an elephant fretted by hook, 
Dashes unheeding curb and goad aside, 
So I, crazed by the beauty of thy form, 
Know not the why and wherefore of my acts. 

By thee my heart is held in bonds, and all 
Bent out of course ; nor can I turn me back, 
No more than fish, once he hath ta'en the bait. 

Within thine arm embrace me, lady, me 
With thy soft languid eyne embrace and hold, 
O nobly fair ! This I entreat of thee. 

Scanty in sooth, O maid of waving locks, 
Was my desire, but now it swelleth aye. 
Indefinitely great, een as the gifts 
Made by the faithful to the Arahants. 

Whate'er of merit to such holy ones 
I've wTought, be thou, O altogether fair, 
The ripened fruit to fall therefrom to me. 



304 XXI. sakka-pa5Jha SUTTANTA. D. ii. 268. 

Whate'er of other merit I have wrought 
In the wide world, O altogether fair, 
Be thou the fruit thereof to fall to me. 

As the great Sikyan Seer, through ecstasy 
Rapt and intent and self-possessed, doth brood 
Seeking ambrosia, even so do I 
Pursue the quest of thee, O Glory-of-the-Sun ! 

As would that Seer rejoice, were he to win 

Ineffable Enlightenment, so I 

With thee made one, O fairest, were in bliss. 

And if perchance a boon were granted me 

By Sakka, lord of Three-and-Thirty gods, 

'Tis thee I'd ask of him, lady, so strong 

My love. And for thy father, wisest maid — 

Him as a sal-tree freshly burgeoning 

I worship for such peerless offspring giv'n. 

* And when I had finished, lord, the Lady Suriya- 
vaccasa said to me : — 

" That Blessed One, sir, I have not seen face to face, 
and yet I heard of him when I went to dance at the 
Sudhamma Hall of the Three-and-Thirty gods ^. Since 
you so extol the Blessed One, let there be a meeting 
between thee and me to-day. [269] So, lord, I met 
that lady, not on that day but afterwards." ' 

8. Now Sakka, the king of the gods, thought : — 
' Five-crest and the Exalted One are in friendly con- 
verse.' And he called to Five-crest and said : — ' Salute 
the Exalted One for me, dear Five-crest, and tell him : — 
" Sakka, lord, the ruler of the gods, with his ministers 
and suite, does homage at the foot of the Exalted One." 
[And Five-crest did so.] 

' May good fortune. Five-crest, attend Sakka, ruler of 
gods, and his ministers and suite. For they desire hap- 
piness — those gods and men, Asuras, Nagas, Gandhab- 
bas, and whatever other numerous hosts there be ! ' 

* When Sakka pronounced his eulogy in the Maha-govinda, says 
Buddhag-hosa. 



D. ii. 271. THE QUESTIONS OF SAKKA. 305 

On this wise do the Tathagatas salute these dignitaries. 
And so saluted by the Exalted One, Sakka, the king 
of the gods, entered the cave of Indra's Sil-tree, and 
saluting the Exalted One stood on one side. Thus 
did also the Three-and-Thirty gods and Five-crest the 
Gandhabba. 

9. Now at that time in the cave the rough passages 
were made smooth, the narrow spaces were made wide, 
and in the dark cavern it became bright, such was the 
potency of the celestials [270]. Then said the Exalted 
One to Sakka : — ' Wonderful is this ! marvellous is 
this, that the venerable Kosiya, with so much to do, 
so much to perform, should come hither ! ' 

' For a long time, lord, have I been desirous of 
coming to see the Exalted One, but I was hindered 
by one task and another that I had to perform for the 
Three-and-Thirty gods, and was not able to come. 
On one occasion the Exalted One was staying at 
Savatthi, in the Sa/ala cottage. So I went to Savatthi 
to see the Exalted One. 

10. ' Now at that time, lord, the Exalted One was 
seated, rapt in some stage of meditation, and Bhufijati, 
wife of Vessavawa \ was waiting on him, worshipping 
with clasped hands. Then I said to Bhunjati : — 
" Madam, do you salute the Exalted One for me, and 
say : — ' Sakka, lord, ruler of gods, with ministers and 
suite, does homage at the feet of the Exalted One,' " 
And Bhunjati replied : — " 'Tis not the right time, 
sir, for seeing the Exalted One ; he is in retreat." 
[271] " Well then, madam, when the Exalted One rouses 
himself from his meditation, salute him for me and 
say what I have told you." Did the lady so salute the 
Exalted One, lord, for me ? And does the Exalted 
One remem.ber what she said ? ' 

' She did salute me, ruler of gods. I remember her 
words. And this too — that it was the noise of your 



^ That is, Kuvera, king of the North Quarter, ruler over Yakkhas. 
See previous Suttanta, § 9. 

III. X 



306 XXI. SAKKA-PANHA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 271. 

excellency's chariot wheels that aroused me from that 
meditation.' 

II. 'Lord, I have heard and understood when in 
the presence of those gods who were reborn into the 
heaven of the Three-and-Thirty before Us, that when 
a Tathagata, an Arahant Buddha supreme, arises in 
the world, the celestial hosts wax in numbers, and 
the Asura hosts wane. And I myself, lord, have 
seen and can witness that this is so. Take, lord, 
this case. There was, at Kapilavatthu, a daughter of 
the Sakyans named Gopika, who trusted in the 
Buddha, the Dhamma and the Order, and who fulfilled 
the precepts. She, having abandoned a woman's 
thoughts and cultivated the thoughts of a man, was, 
at the dissolution of the body after her death, re- 
born to a pleasant life, into the communion of the 
Three-and-Thirty gods, into sonship with us. And 
there they knew her as " Gopaka of the sons of the 
gods, Gopaka of the sons of the gods." Moreover, 
lord, there were three bhikkhus who, having followed 
the religious life prescribed by the Exalted One, were 
reborn into a lower state among the Gandhabbas, 
Surrounded by and enjoying the pleasures of the five 
senses, they used to wait upon and minister to us. 
Things being so, Gopaka upbraided [272]them saying : — 
" Where were your ears, sirs, that ye hearkened not 
to the Dhamma of the Exalted One ? Here am I who 
being but a maiden, trusting in the Buddha, the 
Dhamma and the Order, and fulfilling the precepts, 
abandoned all my woman's thoughts and, cultivating 
a man's thoughts, was reborn after my death into a 
pleasant life, into communion with the Three-and- 
Thirty gods, into the sonship of Sakka, the lord of the 
gods, and am known as Gopaka, son of the gods. But 
ye, sirs, following the religious life of the Exalted One, 
have only been reborn into the lower state of Gan- 
dhabbas. A sad thing, indeed, is this to see, when we 
behold our co-religionists reborn into the inferior con- 
dition of Gandhabbas." Of those fairies, lord, thus 
rebuked by Gopaka, two acquired in that same lifetime 



D. ii. 273. THE QUESTIONS OF SAKKA. 307 

mindfulness, and therewith the heaven of the ministers 
of Brahma. But the third fairy clave to sensuous 
enjoyment. 

12. Gopaka's Verses. 

" Disciple once of Him-Who-Sees, — 

By name they called me : — Gopika, — 
In Buddha, Dhamma, firm my trust, 

I served the Order glad of heart. 
Through this good service paid to Him 

Behold me son of Sakka, born 
All glorious in the Deva-world, 

Of mighty power, and known henceforth 
As Gopaka. Now saw I men 

Who, bhikkhus in a former birth, 
Had won to mere Gandhabba rank. 

What ! persons erst of human kind, 
And followers of Gotama, — 

Supplied by us with food and drink 
And tended in our own abode, — [273] 

Where were their ears that they, so blest, 
Yet failed to grasp the Buddha's Law ? 

The Gospel well proclaimed to all 
And understood by Him-Who-Sees, 

Each for himself must comprehend. 
I, serving only you, have heard 

The good words of the Noble Ones — 
And now behold me reborn here, 

All glorious and powerful. 
As Sakka's son in Deva-world, 

But you who served the Best of men, 
And by the Highest shaped your lives. 

Have re-appeared in lowly rank. 
Degraded from your due advance. 

An evil sight is this, to see 
One's co-religionists sunk low, 

Where, as Gandhabba spirits, sirs, 
Ye come to wait upon the gods. 

For me see ! what a change is here ! 
X 2 



JoS XXI. SAKKA-PANHA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 273. 

From house-life as a woman, I, 
A male to-day, a god reborn, 
In joys celestial take my share." 

Upbraided thus by Gopaka, 
Disciple erst of Gotama, 

They in sore anguish made response : — r 
" Yea verily ! let us go hence 

And strive our utmost, lest we live 
The slaves of others ! " Of the three [274] 

Two bent their will unto the work, 
Mindful of Gotama's behests. 

The perils in the life of sense 
They saw, e'en here cleansing their hearts ; 

And like an elephant that bursts 
Each strap and rope, so they o'ercame 

The fetters and the bonds of sense, 
Ties of the Evil One, so hard 

To get beyond — yea, e'en the gods, 
The Three-and-Thirty, seated round 

With Indra, with Paj&pati, 
Enthroned in Sudhamma's Hall, 

The heroes twain left far behind. 
Purging all passion, ousting lust. 

At sight of them distress arose 
In Vasava, ruler of gods. 

In midst of all his retinue : — 
" Lo now ! these, born to lower rank, 

Outstrip the Three-and-Thirty gods ! " 
His sovereign's apprehension heard, 

Gopaka spake to Vasava : — 
" O Indra ! in the world of men 

A Buddha, called the Sakya Sage, 
Is conqueror o'er the world of sense. 

And these his children, who had lost 
All conscience when they left the world. 

Through me their conscience have regained. 
[275] One of the three yet dwelleth here, 

Reborn among Gandhabba folk ; 
And two, on highest Wisdom bent. 

In deepest rapture scorn the gods. 



D. ii. 275. THE QUESTIONS OF SAKKA. 309 

Let no disciple ever doubt 

That by the kind who here abide 

The Truth may yet be realized. 

All hail to Buddha who hath crossed 

The flood and put an end to doubt, 
Great Conqueror and Lord of all ! " 



t5 



They recognized thy Truth e'en here ; and they 
Have onward passed and won to eminence. 
'Mong Brahmd's ministers they twain have won 
A higher place than this. And we are come, 
O master, here that we too may attain 
That Truth \ If the Exalted One should grant 
Us leave, Master, we fain would question him.' 

13. Then the Exalted One thought: 'For a Ion 
time now this Sakka has lived a pure life. Whatever 
question he may ask of me will be to good purpose, 
and not frivolous. And what I shall answer, that will 
he quickly understand.' Then did the Exalted One 
address these verses to Sakka, lord of gods : — 

' Question me, Vasava, whate'er thy mind desires. 
And on each problem put I'll end thy doubts ! ' 

End of the First Portion for Recitation. 



^ We follow the printed text. It is more probable that pattiya is 
the gloss. In that case the version would be : ' For that Truth's sake, 
O master, have we come.' The full stop after visesagii is a misprint. 



CHAPTER II. 

1. [276] Thus invited, Sakka, the ruler of the gods, 
asked this first question of the Exalted One : — ' By 
what fetters, sir, are they bound — gods, men, Asuras, 
Nagas, Gandhabbas, and whatever other great classes 
of beings there be — in that they, wishing thus : — 
" Would that, without hatred, injury, enmity, or 
malignity, we might live in amity ! " — do nevertheless 
live in enmity, hating, injuring, hostile, malign ? ' 

Such was the fashion of Sakka's first question to the 
Exalted One. To him the Exalted One so asked 
made answer : — 

' By the fetters of envy and selfishness, ruler of gods, 
are they bound — gods, men, Asuras, Nagas, Gan- 
dhabbas and whatever other great classes of beings 
there be — in that they wishing thus : — " Would that, 
without hatred, injury, enmity, or malignity, we might 
live in amity ! " — do nevertheless live in enmity, hating, 
injuring, hostile, malign.' 

Such was the fashion of the Exalted One's answer 
to Sakka's question. And Sakka, delighted with the 
Exalted One's utterance, expressed his pleasure and 
appreciation saying : — ' That is so, Exalted One, that 
is so. Welcome One ! I have got rid of doubt and am 
no longer puzzled, through hearing the answer of the 
Exalted One.' 

2. [277] So Sakka, expressing pleasure and appre- 
ciation, asked a further question of the Exalted One : — 
' But envy and selfishness, sir, — what is the source 
thereof, the cause thereof ? what gives birth to them ? 
how do they come to be ? What being present, are 
envy and selfishness also present ? What being absent, 
are they also absent ? ' 

' Things as dear and not dear to us, ruler of gods, — 
this is the source and cause of envy and selfishness, this 



D. ii. 277. THE QUESTIONS OF SAKKA. 3 I I 

is what gives birth to them, this is how they come to 
be. In the presence of what is dear or not dear, envy 
and selfishness come about, and in the absence of such 
feelings, they do not come about.' 

' But what, sir, is the source, what the cause of things 
being dear and not dear, what gives birth to these 
feelings, how do they come to be ? What being pre- 
sent, do we so feel, and what being absent, do we not 
so feel ? ' 

' Desire \ ruler of gods, is the source and cause of 
things being dear or not dear, this is what gives birth 
to such feelings, this is how they come to be. If desire 
be present, things become dear and not dear to us ; if 
it be absent, things are no more felt as such.' 

' But desire, sir, — what is the source and cause of 
that ."* What gives birth to it, how does it come to be ? 
What being present, is desire present, and what being 
absent, is desire also absent ? ' 

' Mental pre-occupation -, ruler of gods, — this is the 
source, this is the cause of desire, this is what gives 
birth to desire, this is how desire comes to be. Where- 
with our mind is pre-occupied, for that desire arises ; if 
our mind is not so pre-occupied, desire is absent.' 

' But what, sir, is the source and what is the cause of 
our mind being pre-occupied ? What gives birth to 
such a state, how does it come to be ? What being 
present, does our mind become pre-occupied, and what 
being absent, does it not ? ' 



^ Chan da. The Cy. distinguishes exegetically five kinds of 
chanda: — desire to seek, to gain, to enjoy, to hoard, to spend, and 
includes all in the present connexion with the words : ' here it is used 
in a sense tantamount to craving (ta«ha).' 

^ Vitakka. The Cy. does not give the Abhidhamma definition of 
this term (see Dh. S., § 7 ; ' Bud. Psy.,' p. 10 : 'the disposing, fixating, 
focusing, applying the mind.' Cf. also ' Compendium of Buddhist 
Philosophy,' Appendix: vitakka, P.T.S,, 1910), but gives as a 
parallel term vinicchaya (see above, p. 55 'labha/w pa/icca vinic- 
chayo' — ' deciding respecting gain '). The word is used, according 
to Suttanta method, not with any fine shade of psychological meaning, 
but in its popular sense of /tcpi/xvaw, ' taking thought for ' (Matt. vi. 25), 
' being pre-occupied about.' 



312 XXI. SAKKA-PANHA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 277. 

' The source, ruler of gods, the cause of our becoming 
pre-occupied is what we may call obsession \ This is 
what gives birth to pre-occupation of mind, this is how 
that comes about. If that obsession is present, our 
mind is pre-occupied [by the idea by which we are 
obsessed] ; if it is absent, it is not' 

3. * But how, sir, has that bhikkhu gone about who 
has reached the path suitable for and leading to the 
cessation of obsession ? ' 

'[278] Happiness, ruler of gods, I declare to be two- 
fold, according as it is to be followed after, or avoided. 
Sorrow too I declare to be twofold, according as it is to 
be followed or avoided. Equanimity too I declare to 
be twofold, according as it is to be followed or avoided. 

' And the distinction I have affirmed in happiness, 
was drawn on these grounds : — When in following after 
happiness I have perceived that bad qualities developed 
and good qualities were diminished, then that kind of 
happiness was to be avoided. And when, following 
after happiness, I have perceived that bad qualities 
were diminished and good qualities developed, then 
such happiness was to be followed. Now of such happi- 
ness as is accompanied by pre-occupation and travail 
of mind, and of such as is not so accompanied, the 
latter is the more excellent. 

' Thus, ruler of gods, when I declare happiness to be 



^ Papafica-safifia (idde fixe). An exactly similar sequence of 
ethical states is put elsewhere (M. I, in, 112) into the mouth of 
Maha Kaccana. Buddhaghosa glosses papafia here bymattappa- 
mattakara-papana, where pa pan a is etymological word-play, and 
mattappamatla may be rendered 'infatuation.' The infatuation is 
either craving (ta«ha) in one or other of its 108 forms, or self-conceit 
(man a) in one or other of its nine forms, or speculation (di/Mi) in 
one or other of its sixty-two forms. 

This is one of the most recurrent conceptions of the higher Buddhism, 
the system of the Aryan Path (see above, Vol. I, p. 188), and is one of 
the many ways in which the early Buddhists struggled to give more 
precise and ethical an implication to the Indian conception of Avijja. 
It is also one of the technical terms most frequently misunderstood. 
Neumann all through the Majjhima renders it Vielheit, plurality, and 
X)ahlke follows him. 



D. ii. 279- THE QUESTIONS OF SAKKA. 313 

twofold, according as it is to be followed after, or 
avoided, I say so for that reason. 

* Again, ruler of gods, when I declare sorrow to be 
twofold, according as it is to be followed after, or 
avoided, for what reason do I say so ? When, in 
following after sorrow ^ I have perceived that bad 
qualities developed and good qualities were diminished, 
then that kind of sorrow was to be avoided. And 
when, following after sorrow, I have perceived that bad 
qualities were diminished and good qualities were 
developed, then such sorrow was to be followed after. 
Now of such sorrow as is accompanied by pre-occupa- 
tion and travail of mind, and of such as is not so 
accompanied, the latter - is the more excellent. Thus, 
ruler of gods, when I declare sorrow to be twofold, 
according as it is to be followed after, or avoided, I say 
so for that reason. 

' [279] Again, ruler of gods, when I declare 
equanimity to be twofold, according as it is to be 
followed after, or avoided, for what reason do I say 
so ? When, in following after equanimity, I have per- 
ceived that bad qualities developed and good qualities 
were diminished, then that kind of equanimity was to 
be avoided. And when, following after equanimity, 
I perceived that bad qualities were diminished and good 
qualities were developed, then that kind of equanimity 
was to be followed after ^ Now of such equanimity 

* The two sortsof sorrower grief are geha-sita and nekkhamma- 
sita, and are well paralleled by St. Paul's ror koV/xov Xvttt; and Kara 
6ebv Xvirq (2 Cor. vii. 10). And the working of the latter: ' for that 
ye sorrowed after a godly sort . . . wrought in you . . . what vehement 
desire, yea, what zeal' — has its counterpart in Buddhaghosa's exposi- 
tion, namely, that through insight into the impermanence of all sensuous 
satisfaction ' arouses yearning for deliverances even without beyond 
(anuttaresu), and that yearning leads to sorrow, when one thinks, 
O that I might reach that state wherein the elect (Ariyas) do dwell 
even now.' 

- According to the Cy., 'the latter' in this and the foregoing para- 
g^ph refers especially to the state of mind reached in the second and 
higher stages of Jhana, as compared with the first, which is savitakkaw 
savicaraw/. 

' For equanimity thus ethically distinguished, see M. I, 364. The 



314 XXI. SAKKA-PANHA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 279. 

as is accompanied by pre-occupation and travail of 
mind and of such as is not so accompanied, the latter 
is the more excellent. Thus, ruler of gods, when I 
declare equanimity to be twofold, according as it is to 
be followed after, or avoided, I say so for that reason. 

' And it is on this wise that a bhikkhu, ruler of gods, 
must have gone about, who has reached the path 
suitable for, and leading to, the cessation of perceiving 
and taking account of distractions.' 

Such was the fashion of the Exalted One's answer 
to Sakka's question. And Sakka, delighted with the 
Exalted One's utterances, expressed his pleasure and 
appreciation saying : — ' That is so. Exalted One, that 
is so, O Welcome One ! I have got rid of doubt and 
am no longer puzzled, through hearing the answer of 
the Exalted One.' 

4. So Sakka, expressing his pleasure and appre- 
ciation, asked a further question of the Exalted One : — 
* But how, sir, has that bhikkhu gone about who has 
acquired the self-restraint enjoined by the Patimokkha?' 

' I say, ruler of gods, that behaviour in act and in 
speech, as well as those things we seek after are two- 
fold, according as they are to be followed after or 
avoided. [28o] And for what reason do I say so ? 
When, in following some mode of behaviour in act or 
speech or in pursuing some quest, I have perceived that 
bad qualities developed and good qualities diminished, 
then such behaviour or such pursuits were to be 
avoided. And when, again, I perceived as the con- 
sequence of some other mode of behaviour in act or 
speech, or of some other pursuit that bad qualities were 
diminished and good qualities were developed, then 
that behaviour, or that pursuit, was to be followed after. 
Thus when I, ruler of gods, declare that behaviour in 
act, behaviour in speech, and the things we seek after 
are twofold, I say so for those reasons. 

Commentator (who repeats his comment in Asl. 194) describes the 
former ethical indiflference (upekha) as that of the foolish average 
person, confused in mind, who has not overcome limitations or results 
(of Karma), but is bound by his world of objects of sense. 



> 



D. ii. 282. THE QUESTIONS OF SAKKA. 3I5 

[28l] ' And it is on this wise, ruler of gods, that a 
bhikkhu must have gone about to have acquired the 
self-restraint enjoined by the Patimokkha.' 

Such was the fashion of the Exalted One's answer 
to Sakka's question.- And Sakka, delighted with the 
Exalted One's utterance, expressed his pleasure and 
appreciation saying : — ' That is so, Exalted One, that 
is so, O Welcome One ! I have got rid of doubt and 
am no longer puzzled, through hearing the answer of 
the Exalted One.' 

5. So Sakka, expressing his pleasure and appre- 
ciation, asked a further question of the Exalted One : — 
' But how, sir, has that bhikkhu gone about who has 
acquired control of his faculties ? ' 

' I say, ruler of gods, that the objects of the senses — 
visible, audible, odorous, sapid, tangible and mental 
objects^ — are twofold, according as they are to be 
followed after or avoided.' 

Then said Sakka to the Exalted One : — ' I, sir, 
understand the details of that which you have told me 
in outline. [282] Those sense-objects which are not to 
be followed are such as cause bad qualities to develop 
and good qualities to diminish ; and those sense-objects 
which have the opposite effect are to be followed after. 
And because I can thus understand in detail the mean- 
ing of that which the Exalted One has told me in 
outline, I have got rid of doubt and am no longer 
puzzled, now that I have heard the Exalted One's 
answer to my question.' 

6. So Sakka, expressing his pleasure and appreciation, 
asked a farther question of the Exalted One : — ' Are 
all recluses and brahmins, sir, wholly of one creed, one 
practice, one persuasion -, one aim ? ' 

^ According to Buddhist psychology, these are not ideas as distinct 
from impressions, but are ariy presentations or objects of conscious- 
ness, whether on occasion of sense or of reflexion, a/ that stage when 
mind 'turns toward' the object and 'receives' it (ivajjana, sampa- 
/icchana). 

- Ekant ace ban da, lit. of one desire, will or purpose; but equated 
by the Cy. with ekaladdhika, of one heresy. 



3l6 XXI. SAKKA-PANHA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 282. 



* No, ruler of gods, they are not.' 

* But why, sir, are they not ? ' 

' Of many and divers elements, ruler of gods, is this 
world composed. And that being so, people naturally 
incline to adhere to one or another of those elements ; 
and to whichsoever it be they, being so inclined, become 
strongly and tenaciously addicted, holding that "just 
this is true, the rest is foolish." And therefore it is 
that recluses and brahmins are not all wholly of one 
creed, one practice, one persuasion, one aim.' 

[283] 'Are all recluses and brahmins, sir, perfectly 
proficient, perfectly saved, living perfectly the best life^ 
have they attained the right ideal ^ .? ' 

' No, ruler of gods, they are not all so.' 

' Why, sir, are they not all so ? ' 

' Those recluses and brahmins, ruler of gods, who 
are set free through the entire destruction of craving, 
only they are perfectly proficient, only they are per- 
fectly saved, only they are living perfectly the best life 
and have attained the ideal. Therefore is it that not 
all recluses and brahmins are perfectly proficient, per- 
fectly saved, living perfectly the best life, and have 
attained the ideal ^' 

Such was the fashion of the Exalted One's answer 
to Sakka's question. And Sakka, delighted with the 
Exalted One's utterances, expressed his pleasure and 
appreciation saying : — * That is so, Exalted One, that is 
so, O Welcome One ! I have got rid of doubt and am 
no longer puzzled, through hearing the answer of the 
Exalted One.' 

7. So Sakka, expressing his pleasure at, and appre- 

' Accanta-brahmacari = ' se//^a//^ena brahmam ariya- 
maggaw caratiti.' Cy. 'Walking in the highest, Aryan Path.' 

'^ Accanta-pariyosana = ' pariyosanan ti nibbanaw,' Cy. 
' The ideal ' is a free rendering, the term meaning the end, goal or 
climax. 

^ This* paragraph is quoted as from the Sakka-pa«ha at Sawzyutta 
III, 13, Two unnecessary words are there added at the end of it. 
Buddhaghosa does not say anything on the discrepancy. The two 
words are either there added by mistake from Majjhima I, 251, where 
the phrase recurs, or stood originally in our text here. 



D. ii. 284. THE QUESTIONS OF SAKKA. 317 

ciation of the Exalted One's utterance, spoke thus : — 
' Passion \ lord, is disease, passion is a cancer, passion 
is a dart, passion drags a man about by one rebirth and 
then another, so that he finds himself now up above 
now down below. Whereas other recluses and brahmins 
not of your followers, lord, gave me no opportunity to 
ask these questions, the Exalted One has answered for 
me, instructing me at length, so that the dart of doubt 
and perplexity has by the Exalted One been extracted.' 

[284] ' Do you admit to us, ruler of gods, that you 
have put the same questions to other recluses or 
brahmins ? ' 

' I do, lord.' 

' Then tell me, if it be not inconvenient to you, how 
they answered you.' 

* It is not inconvenient to me when the Exalted One 
is seated to hear, or others like him/ 

* Then tell, ruler of gods.' 

* I went to those, lord, whom I deemed to be recluses 
and brahmins, because they were dwelling in secluded 
forest abodes, and I asked them those questions. Being 
asked, they did not withdraw themselves, but put a 
counter-question to me : — "Who is the venerable one ? " 
I replied, " I, sir, am Sakka, ruler of gods." They asked 
me further : — "What business has brought the venerable 
ruler of gods to this place ? " Whereupon I taught 
them the Dharma as I had heard and learnt it. And 
they with only so much were well pleased saying : — 
" We have seen Sakka, ruler of gods, and he has 
answered that which we asked of him ! " And actually, 
instead of me becoming their disciple, they became 
mine. But I, lord, am a disciple of the Exalted One, 
a Stream-winner, who cannot be reborn in any state of 
woe, and who has the assurance of attaining to en- 
lightenment -.' 

^ Eja = calana/Z^ena tawha. Cy., i.e. 'Craving, with respect to 
the thrill' (e-motion, corn-motion) caused by it. 'Passion' lacks 
etymological coincidence with the implication of ' movement ' in e j a, but 
no other term is forceful enough. 

^ Cf. Vol. I, pp. 190-2. 



3l8 XXI. SAKKA-PANHA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 284. 

* Do you admit to us, ruler of gods, that you have 
ever before experienced such satisfaction and such 
happiness as you now feel ? ' 

[285] ' Yes, lord, I do admit it' 
' And what do you admit, ruler of gods, with regard 
to that previous occasion ? ' 

* In former times, lord, war had broken out between 
gods and asuras. Now in that fight the gods won and 
the asuras were defeated. Then when the battle was 
over, to me the conqueror the thought occurred : " The 
gods will henceforth enjoy not only celestial nectar but 
also asura-nectar." But, lord, the experiencing satis- 
faction and happiness such as this, which was wrought 
by blows and by wounds, does not conduce to detach- 
ment, nor to disinterestedness, nor to cessation, nor to 
peace, nor to the higher spiritual knowledge \ nor to 
enlightenment, nor to Nirvana. But this satisfaction, 
lord, this happiness that I have experienced in hearing 
the Dhamma of the Exalted One, this which is not 
wrought by blows and by wounds does conduce to 
detachment, to disinterestedness, to cessation, to peace, 
to spiritual knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nirvana.' 

8. * What are the things present to your mind, ruler 
of gods, when you confess to experiencing such satis- 
faction and such happiness ? ' 

' Six are the things present to my mind, lord, that 
I feel such satisfaction and happiness : — 

* I who here merely as a god exist 
Have [by my acts]^ incurred the destiny 
To live again once more. Hear, sir, and know ! 

'This, lord, is the first meaning implied in what 
I said. [286] 

' Deceasing from the gods I shall forsake 
The life that 's not of men, and straight shall go 
Unerring to that womb I fain would choose. 

^ Abhififia, i.e. knowledge of that advanced (abhi-) nature, which 
is neither conveyed by the channels of sense, nor is occupied with 
sense-experience as such. 

^ Cy. afifiena kammavipakena, by another result of action. 



D. ii. 287. THE QUESTIONS OF SAKKA. 3I9 

* This, lord, is the second meaning implied in what 
I said. 

' I who have had my problems rendered clear 
And live delighting in His Word, shall then 
Live righteously, mindful and self-possessed. 

'This, lord, is the third meaning implied in what 
I said. 

' And if into my life thus rightly led 
Enlightenment should come, then shall I dwell 
As one who Knows, and this shall be the end. 

' This, lord, is the fourth meaning implied in what 
I said. 

' Deceasing from the human sphere, I then 
Forsake the life of men, and lo ! once more 
A god I'll be, best in the Deva-world. 

' This, lord, is the fifth meaning implied in what 
I said. 

* Finer than Devas are the Peerless Gods ^ 
All glorious, while my last span of life 
Shall come and go 'tis there my home will be. 

[287] ' This, lord, is the sixth meaning implied in my 
confession of experiencing such satisfaction and such 
happiness. 

' These, lord, are the six things present to my mind 
that I feel such satisfaction and such happiness.' 

9. ' With aspirations unfulfilled, perplexed 

And doubting, long I wandered seeking him 
Who-had-on-That -wise-Thither-Come. Me- 

thought. 
Hermits who dwell secluded and austere 
Must sure enlightened be ! To them I'll fare. 
" What must I do to win, what doing fail ? " 
Thus asked they rede me naught in Path or Ways. 

* Those called Akani///^a. 



320 XXI. SAKKA-PANHA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 287. 

But me, forsooth, whereas they know that I 
Who come, am Sakka of the gods, 'tis me 
They ask, " What would'st thou that thou comest 

here?" 
Thereat to them I teach, as I have heard, 
As all may hear, the Dhamma ; whereat they 
Rejoicing cry, forsooth, " Vasava have we seen ! " 

But since I've seen the Buddha, seen my doubts 
Dispelled, now would I, all my fears allayed, 
On him, the Enlightened One, adoring wait. 
Him do I worship who hath drawn the dart 
Of craving, him the Buddha, peerless Lord. 
Hail, mighty hero ! hail, kin to the sun ! 
[288] E'en as by gods is Brahmd reverenced, 
Lo ! even thus to-day we worship thee. 
Thou art the Enlightened One, Teacher 

Supreme 
Art thou, nor in the world, with all its heav'ns 
Of gods, is any found like unto thee ! ' 

10. Then spake Sakka, ruler of gods, to Five-crest of 
the Gandhabbas : — * Great has been your help to me, 
dear Five-crest, in that you first placated the Exalted 
One. For it was after you had first placated him, that 
we were admitted to his presence to see the Exalted 
One, the Arahant, Buddha Supreme. I will take the 
place of father to you, and you shall be king of the 
Gandhabbas, and I will give to you Bhadda, the Sun- 
maiden, whom you have longed for.' 

Then Sakka, touching the earth with his hand to 
call it to witness, called aloud thrice : — 

' Honour to the Exalted One, to the Arahant, to 
the Buddha Supreme ! ' 

Now while he was speaking in this dialogue, the 
stainless spotless Eye for the Truth arose in Sakka, the 
ruler of the gods, to wit : * Whatsoever thing can come 
to be, that must also cease to be \' And this happened 
also to eighty thousand of devas besides. 

^ See Vol. I, p. 184. 



D. ii. 289. THE QUESTIONS OF SAKKA. 32 1 

[239] Such were the questions which Sakka was 
invited to ask, and which were explained by the 
Exalted One \ Therefore has this dialogue the name 
of ' The Questions of Sakka.' 



* 'Was invited' is doubtful. Sakka had not been invited to put 
any particular questions. Leave had been granted him generally to 
put any question he liked. Yet the editions printed in Siam and 
Ceylon read ' the imited questions put.' Buddhaghosa reads ajjhitta. 
It is doubtful whether the other reading (ajji//^a) could be properly 
applied to a question. In Vin. I, 113 it is applied to a person who 
is invited to speak. It looks here like a conjectural emendation of 
a lectio difficilior. 



I 



III. 



INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

MAHA SATIPArr^ANA suttanta. 

The doctrine here expounded is perhaps the most im- 
portant, after that of the Aryan Path, in early Buddhism ; 
and this tract, the oldest authoritative statement of the 
doctrine, is still in frequent and popular use among those 
Buddhists who have adhered to the ancient faith. 

The two doctrines are closely connected. The exposition 
here of mindfulness (Sati) includes that of the Path, and no 
exposition of the Path is complete without the inclusion of 
mindfulness. Whosoever neglects the fourfold practice of 
mindfulness he misses the Path, whosoever practises mindful- 
ness has found the Path (Sa/wyutta V, 179, 180, 294). The 
right way to the practice of mindfulness is precisely the 
Aryan Path {ibid. 183). And that practice is in turn, in one 
passage, called the Path to the Unconditioned (Asawkhata, 
that is, Arahantship, Nirvana, the goal of the Aryan Path).^ 

What then is this Mindfulness? This Suttanta will show. 
But a few observations may help the student of it. Etymo- 
logically Sati is Memory. But as happened at the rise of 
Buddhism to so many other expressions in common use, 
a new connotation was then attached to the word, a connota- 
tion that gave a new meaning to it, and renders ' memory ' 
a most inadequate and misleading translation. It became the 
memory, recollection, calling-to-mind, being-aware-of, certain 
specified facts. Of these the most important was the im- 
permanence (the coming to be as the result of a cause, and the 
passing away again) of all phenomena, bodily and mental. 
And it included the repeated application of this awareness, to 
each experience of life, from the ethical point of view. ' Thus 
does he cultivate those qualities which ought to be practised, 
and not those which ought not. That is how repetition is the 
mark of Mindfulness,' says Nagasena^, in complete accord 
with our Suttanta. 

* Saz«yutta IV, 363. "^ Questions of King Milinda, I, 59. 



INTRODUCTION. 



O^O 



When Christians are told : ' Whether therefore ye eat or 
drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God,' a way 
is shown by which any act, however lowly, can, by the 
addition of a remembrance (a Sati), be surrounded by the 
halo of a high moral enthusicism ; and how, by the continual 
practice of this remembrance, a permanent improvement in 
character can be obtained. The Buddhist idea is similar. 
But the remembrance is of what we should now call natural 
law, not of a deity. This has been made a corner-stone of 
the system of ethical self-training. The corresponding corner- 
stone in the W^est is conscience ; and indeed, so close is the 
resemblance in their effects that one scholar has chosen ' con- 
science' as a rendering of Sati; — wrongly, we think, as this 
introduces a Western idea into Buddhism. The curious 
notion of an internal monitor, distinct from the soul, yet 
speaking independently of the will of the man himself, is 
confined to animistic modes of thought. Buddhaghosa uses 
it, indeed, as a simile, to explain the connotations of Sati; 
but he expressly pours scorn on any idea of a separate 
entity.^ 

On the other hand though Sati (Smrti) does not occur in 
any ethical sense in pre-Buddhistic literature, it is possible 
that the Buddhist conception was, in one way, influenced by 
previous thought. Stress is laid in the Upanishad ideal on 
Intuition, especially as regards the relation between the soul, 
supposed to exist inside each human body, and the Great 
Soul. In the Buddhist protest against this, the doctrine of 
Sati, dependent not on intuition, but on grasp of actual fact, 
plays an important part. This opposition may have been 
intentional. On the other hand, the ethical value of Mindful- 
ness (in its technical sense) would be sufficient, without any 
such intention, to explain the great stress laid upon it. 

The following are some of the proposed translations of 
Sati:- 

Conscience, Spence Hardy, 'Manual,' 412. 

Attention, Spence Hardy, ' Manual,' 497. 

Meditation, Gogerly, * Ceylon Buddhism,' 584. 

„ Childers, ' Dictionary.' ^ 

Memory, Oldenberg, ' Vinaya Texts,' I, 96. 

„ E. Hardy, ' Buddha,' 40. 

* See Mrs. Rhys Davids's 'Buddhist Psychology,' p. 16, note i ; 
and note i above on Vol. I, p. 81. 

' He renders kayagata sati, where the word occurs in its technical 
sense, as 'meditation on the body.' He has other renderings for 
popular usage. 

Y 2 



324 INTRODUCTION. 



Contemplation, Warren, ' Buddhism in Translations,' 353. 
Insight, Neumann, ' Majjhima,' I, 85. 

Thought, Pischel, ' Buddha,' 28. 

„ Oldenberg, ' Buddha ' (English translation), 

128. 

The other word in the compound that gives the title to this 
Suttanta is Pa/Mana — which would mean etymologically 
' putting forward, setting forth.' It does not occur in pre- 
Buddhistic literature. It has not been yet found in the 
Nikayas in its concrete, primary, sense ; or in any connexion 
except this. Buddhaghosa here paraphrases it, exegetically 
only, by gocara, which is the feeding- ground, resort, of an 
animal. The mediaeval use of the word (in its Sanskrit form) 
was in the sense of starting off, going away, departure. It is 
the title of the most often quoted book in the Abhidhamma, 
and there means probably Origins, Starting-points, as it gives 
under twenty-four categories the paccayas (causes) of pheno- 
mena. In one passage of a fifth-century commentator 
(Jat. I, 78.^) the Abhidhamma Pi/aka as a whole is said to be 
samantapa/Z^ana, ' having (or giving) the settings-on-foot, 
the points of departure, of all things.' Childers gives the 
word as a neuter. It is masculine throughout our Suttanta. 
But he analyses the compound {sub voce upa.ff/iana.m), not 
into Sati-f-pa//^ana, but into Sati + upa^/^ana. This is 
a possible contraction, and Buddhaghosa gives it as an alter- 
native explanation which he does not adopt. Had we adopted 
it, the rendering of the title would have been ' The getting- 
ready of Mindfulness.' Neumann renders it ' Pillars of In- 
sight,' and Warren ' Intent Contemplations.' Neither of these 
is much more than a distant cousin of the Pali. 

It is not easy at first sight to understand the choice of just 
those four fields or areas (comp. pa//^ana = thana = gocar^), 
to which, in this Suttanta, ' mindfulness ' is to be applied, or in 
respect to which it is to be set up. We need ourselves to be 
mindful, lest, in interpreting them, we follow too closely 
European points of view. In trying to avoid this danger, we 
do not consider our choice of terms leaves nothing to be 
desired, or to be explained. 

The ethical desirableness of Sati, as the instrument most 
efficacious in self-mastery, lay in the steady alertness of 
inward vision which it connoted, whether past or present 
experience was contemplated. In discussing it, the Buddhist 
was concerned, not with the outer world as such, but with the 
microcosm of his subjective experience, and with the vehicles 
thereof — sense and mind. These he is here represented as 
considering under the fourfold aspect of — 



INTRODLXTIOX. 325 



I 



(i) kaya, physical structure and activities. 

(2) vedana, the emotional nature, first as bare feeling, then 

as having ethical implications. 

(3) citta, conscious life, consciousness or intelligence, con- 

sidered under ethical aspects. 

(4) d ha mm a, with its subdivisions — 

(a) the Five Hindrances. 
(d) the Five Groups. 

(c) the Six Spheres of Sense. 

(d) the seven Factors of Enlightenment. 

(e) the four Aryan Truths. 

Now it is always difficult to make any English term co- 
incide with either dhamma or dhamma. Here, as else- 
where in Buddhist diction, it is chiefly the context that must 
be the guide to meaning. The Suttanta is a discipline — the 
supreme discipline — in ethical introspection. And in Buddhist 
introspective analysis, dhamma (elsewhere translatable now 
by ' things,' now by ' qualities ') are, more especially, ' cog- 
noscible objects.' These are related to ma no (consciousness 
as apprehending), just as each kind of sense-object is related 
to one kind of sense-organ ; thing-seen, for example, to sight. 
A cognoscible object is any presentation (German, Vorstellung), 
that has got beyond the stage of mere sensory re-action. It 
is an idea or perception in the wider sense used by Locke : — 
' Whatsoever is the immediate object of perception, thought, or 
understanding.' But neither cognoscible object, nor presen- 
tation, is a term which lends itself with sufficient simplicity 
and impressiveness to ethical homily. We have therefore 
decided to perpetuate the Lockean ' idea.' 

For the same reason we use 'thought ' for citta, in prefer- 
ence to a term of more psychological precision ; and we 
understand by ' thought ', thinking, or knowing, or being 
intelligently conscious, and do not restrict the word to any 
special mode of cognition. 

Hence we get this distinction of aspects in (3) and (4) : 
under citta, the ever- changing ever-active continuance of 
consciousness, or re-acting intelligence; under dhamma, 
those same activities considered objectively, as concrete states, 
procedure, ' content of consciousness,' as the psychologists 
phrase it. Under (3) we watch the agency as a whole, in its 
chameleon-like phases. Under (4) we take transverse cuttings, 
so to speak, of our subjective experience. 

It is interesting to note that Buddhaghosa, explaining the 
inclusion, under No. 4, of the Six Senses and the fivefold 
Khandha doctrine, says : — ' in contemplation of the body the 
Exalted One taught only the grasp of matter, in contemplation 



326 INTRODUCTION. 



of feeling and consciousness, only the grasp of the immaterial. 
Now in order to teach grasp of matter and the immate- 
rial mixed (ruparupamissakapariggaho), he' spoke of 
dhamma. And again: 'grasp of the rupa-khanda being 
taught by contemplation of body, and grasp of the khandhas 
of feeling and viiiilawa (cognition or consciousness) by con- 
templation of feeling and citta, He now, to teach grasp of 
the khandhas of perception and sankhara (let us say, volition 
and other mental factors) went on' to speak of dhamma. 



[XXII. MAHASATIPArr/M^NASUTTANTA. 

SETTING-UP OF MINDFULNESS.] 

[290] Thus have I heard. 

I. The Exalted One was once staying among the 
Kurus. Kammassadhamma is a city of the Kuru 
country. There the Exalted One addressed the 
brethren, saying. ' Bhikkhus ! ' * Reverend sir ! ' re- 
sponded the brethren. And the Exalted One said : 

The one and only path, Bhikkhus leading to the 
purification of beings, to passing far beyond grief and 
lamentation, to the dying-out of ill and misery, to the 
attainment of right method \ to the realization of Nir- 
vana, is that of the Fourfold Setting up of Mindfulness.- 

Which are the Four ? Herein ^ O bhikkhus, let 
a brother, as to the body, continue so to look upon the 
body that he remains ardent, self-possessed, and mindful, 
having overcome both the hankering and the dejection 
common in the world. And in the same way as to 
feelings, thoughts, and ideas, let him so look upon 
each, that he remains ardent, self-possessed, and mind- 
ful, having overcome both the hankering and the 
dejection common in the world. 



' Naya. Practical Buddhism is summed up (Majjhima I, 181, 
197) as exertion in fiaya,^dhamma, and kusala (the Method, the 
Norm, and the Good). Naya is defined at Sa^/)-utta V, 388 as 
what comes pretty much to our method in philosophy. Above (p. 167) 
it is rendered System. There, in a very old verse, the Buddha says 
that seeking after Good he had been a pilgrim through the realm of 
System and Law, outside of which no victory can be won. 

* See Introduction. 

^ The commentarial tradition sees in this word id ha, the implica- 
tion of 'belonging to this order or doctrine or school' (imasmirh 
sasane), and thus an antithesis to 'ito bah iddha,' outside this [order] 
— an expression which occurs immediately after the verse mentioned 
in the last note. 



328 XXII. MAHA SATIPArr/fANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 291. 

2. [291] And how, bhikkhus, does a brother so con- 
tinue to consider the body ? 

^ Herein, O bhikkhus, let a brother, going into the 
forest, or to the roots of a tree, or to an empty chamber, 
sit down cross-legged, holding the body erect, and set 
his mindfulness alert ^. 

Mindful let him inhale, mindful let him exhale. 
Whether he inhale a long breath, let him be conscious 
thereof; or whether he exhale a long breath, let him 
be conscious thereof. Whether he inhale a short 
breath, or exhale a short breath, let him be conscious 
thereof. Let him practise with the thought * Conscious 
of my whole body will I inhale ' ; let him practise with 
the thought 'Conscious of my whole body will I exhale,' 
Let him practise with the thought ' I will inhale tran- 
quillizing my bodily organism ' ; let him practise with 
the thought ' I will exhale tranquillizing my bodily 
organism.' 

Even as a skilful turner, or turner's apprentice, 
drawing (his string) out at length, or drawing it out 
short, is conscious that he is doing one or the other, 
so let a brother practise inhaling and exhaling. 

[292] So does he, as to the body, continue to con- 
sider the body, either internally or externally, or both 
internally and externally. He keeps on considering 
how the body is something that comes to be, or again 
he keeps on considering how the body is something 
that passes away ; or again he keeps on considering 
the coming to be with the passing away ; or again, 
conscious that ' There is the body,' mindfulness hereof 
becomes thereby established, far enough for the pur- 
poses of knowledge and of self-coUectedness. And he 
abides independent, grasping after nothing in the world 

^ Quoted Pa/isambhida I, 175, and 'Yogavacara Manual.' p. i. 
Each quotation gives a word for word commentary ; and so does 
Sum, I, 210. 

^ Parimukha/w satiz« upa/Mapati, literally, ' set up his memory 
in face of (the object of his thought). The ultimate object is through- 
out, as the ' Yogavacara Manual ' says. Nirvana. Examples of the 
subsidiary, changing, objects of thought are given in what follows. 



D. ii. 293. SETTING-UP OF MINDFULNESS. 329 

whatever. Thus, bhikkhus, does a brother continue to 
regard the body. 

3. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother, when he is 
walking, is aware of it thus : — * I walk ' : or when he 
is standing, or sitting, or lying down, he is aware of it. 
However he is disposing the body, he is aware thereof. 

So does he, as to the body, continue to consider the 
body, either internally or externally, or both internally 
and externall}'. He keeps on considering how the 
body is something that comes to be. or again he keeps 
on considering how the body is something that passes 
away ; or again he keeps on considering the coming 
to be with the passing away ; or again, conscious that 
* There is the body,' mindfulness hereof becomes thereby 
established, far enough for the purposes of knowledge 
and of self-collectedness. And he abides independent, 
grasping after nothing in the world whatever. Thus, 
bhikkhus, does a brother continue to regard the body. 

4. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother — whether he 
departs or returns, whether he looks at or looks away 
from, whether he has drawn in or stretched out [his 
limbs], whether he has donned under-robe, over-robe, 
or bowl, whether he is eating, drinking, chewing, 
reposing, or whether he is obeying the calls of nature 
— is aware of what he is about. In going, standing, 
sitting, sleeping, watching, talking, or keeping silence, 
he knows what he is doing. 

[293] So does he, as to the body, continue to con- 
sider the body, either internally or externally, or both 
internally and externally. He keeps on considering 
how the body is something that comes to be, or again 
he keeps on considering how the body is something 
that passes away ; or again he keeps on considering 
the coming to be with the passing away ; or again, 
conscious that ' There is the body,' mindfulness hereof 
becomes thereby established, far enough for the pur- 
poses of knowledge and of self-collectedness. And he 
abides independent, grasping after nothing in the world 
whatever. Thus, bhikkhus, does a brother continue to 
consider the body. 



330 XXII. MAHA SATIPArrHANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 293. 

5. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother reflects upon 
this very body, from the soles of his feet below upward 
to the crown of his head, as something enclosed in skin 
and full of divers impurities : — * Here is in this body 
hair and down, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, 
marrow, kidney, heart, liver, membranes, spleen, lungs, 
stomach, bowels, intestines ; excrement, bile, phlegm, 
pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, serum, saliva, mucus, 
synovic fluid, urine.' 

Just as if there were a double-mouthed sample-bag \ 
bhikkhus, full of various sorts of grain, such as rice, 
paddy, beans, vetches, sesamum or rice husked for 
boiling ; and a keen-eyed man were to reflect as he 
poured them out : — ' That 's rice, that 's paddy, those 
are beans,' and so forth. Even so, bhikkhus, does 
a brother reflect upon the body, from the soles of the 
feet below upward to the crown of the head, as some- 
thing enclosed in skin and full of divers impurities. 

So does he, as to the body, continue to consider the 
body, either internally or externally, or both internally 
and externally. He keeps on considering how the 
body is something that comes to be, or again he keeps 
on considering how the body is something that passes 
away; or again he keeps on considering the coming 
to be with the passing away ; or again, conscious that 
' There is the body,' mindfulness hereof becomes thereby 
established, far enough for the purposes of knowledge 
and of self-collectedness. And he abides independent, 
grasping after nothing in the world whatever. Thus 
bhikkhus, does a brother continue to regard the body. 

6. [294] And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother reflects 
upon this very body, however it be placed or disposed, 
with respect to its fundamentals : — ' There are in this 
body the four primary elements of earth, water, heat, 

' Mutoli. Buddhaghosa has no explanation. But Darami/ipola 
says mallak pasumbiyak, that is, a small bag, such as is used by 
grain merchants for keeping samples in. The particular kind meant 
is kept tied up with string at both ends, and either end can be opened. 
The word only occurs in this connexion (here, and at M. I, 57; HI, 
90). The spelling of the word is uncertain. 



D. ii. 295- SETTING-UP OF MINDFULNESS. 33 1 

and air.' Just as a cattle-butcher, or his apprentice, 
when he has slain an ox, displays the carcase piece- 
meal at the crossways as he sits, even so, bhikkhus, 
does a brother reflect upon this very body . . . with 
respect to its fundamental constituents . . . 

So does he, as to the body, continue to consider the 
body, either internally or externally, or both internally 
and externally. He keeps on considering how the 
body is something that comes to be, or again he keeps 
on considering how the body is something that passes 
away ; or again he keeps on considering the coming 
to be with the passing away ; or again, conscious that 
' There is the body,' mindfulness hereof becomes thereby 
established, far enough for the purposes of knowledge 
and of self-collectedness. And he abides independent, 
grasping after nothing in the world whatever. Thus 
bhikkhus, does a brother continue to regard the body. 

7. [295] And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother, just as 
if he had seen a body abandoned in the charnel-field, 
dead for one, two, or three days, swollen, turning black 
and blue, and decomposed, applies that perception to 
this very body (of his own), reflecting : ' This body, 
too, is even so constituted, is of even such a nature, 
has not got beyond that (fate).' 

So does he, as to the body, continue to consider the 
body, either internally or externally, or both internally 
and externally. He keeps on considering how the 
body is something that comes to be, or again he keeps 
on considering how the body is something that passes 
away ; or again he keeps on considering the coming 
to be with the passing away ; or again, conscious that 
' There is the body,' mindfulness hereof becomes thereby 
established, far enough for the purposes of knowledge 
and of self-collectedness. And he abides independent, 
grasping after nothing in the world whatever. Thus 
bhikkhus, does a brother continue to regard the body. 

8. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother, just as if he 
had seen a body abandoned in the charnel-field pecked 
by crows, ravens, or vultures, gnawn by dogs or jackals 
or by various small creatures, applies that perception 



332 XXII. MAHA SATIPArr^ANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 295. 

to this very body (of his own), reflecting : ' This body, 
too, is even so constituted, is of such a nature, has not 
got beyond that (fate).' 

[206] So does he, as to the body, continue to con- 
sider the body, either internally or externally, or both 
internally and externally. He keeps on considering 
how the body is something that comes to be, or again 
he keeps on considering how the body is something 
that passes away ; or again he keeps on considering 
the coming to be with the passing away ; or again, 
conscious that ' There is the body,' mindfulness hereof 
becomes thereby established, far enough for the pur- 
poses of knowledge and of self-collectedness. And he 
abides independent, grasping after nothing in the world 
whatever. Thus, bhikkhus, does a brother continue to 
regard the body. 

9. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother, just as if he 
had seen a body abandoned in the charnel-fleld [reduced 
to] a chain of bones hanging together by tendons, with 
flesh and blood yet about it, or stripped of flesh but yet 
spotted with blood ; or cleaned of both flesh and blood ; 
or reduced to bare bones, loosed from tendons, scattered 
here and there, so that the bones of a hand lie in one 
direction, in another the bones of a foot, in another 
those of a leg, in another a thigh bone, in another the 
pelvis, in another [297] the spinal vertebrae, in another 
the skull, applies that perception to this very body 
(of his own) reflecting : ' This body, too, is even so 
constituted, is of such a nature, has not got beyond 
that (fate).' 

So does he, as to the body, continue to consider the 
body, either internally or externally, or both internally 
and externally. He keeps on considering how the 
body is something that comes to be, or again he keeps 
on considering how the body is something that passes 
away ; or again he keeps on considering the coming 
to be with the passing away ; or again, conscious that 
' There is the body,' mindfulness hereof becomes thereby 
established, far enough for the purposes of knowledge 
and of self-collectedness. And he abides independent, 



D. ii. 299- SETTING-UP OF MINDFULNESS. 333 

grasping after nothing in the world whatever. Thus, 
bhikkhus, does a brother continue to regard the body. 

10. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother, just as if 
he had seen a body abandoned in the charnel-field, 
[reduced to] white bones the colour of a sea-shell . . . 
or to a mere heap of bones a year old ... or to rotten 
powder, this perception does he apply to this very 
body (of his own) reflecting : — ' This body too is even 
so constituted, is of such a nature, has not got beyond 
that (fate).' 

So does he, as to the body, continue to consider the 
body, either internally or externally, or both internally 
and externally. He keeps on considering how the 
body is something that comes to be, or again he keeps 
on considering how the body is something that passes 
away ; or again he keeps on considering the coming 
to be with the passing away ; or again, conscious that 
' There is the body.' [298] and mindfulness hereof be- 
comes thereby established, far enough for the purposes 
of knowledge and of self-collectedness. And he abides 
independent, grasping after nothing in the world what- 
ever. Thus, bhikkhus, does a brother, as to the body, 
continue to consider the body. 

11. And how, bhikkhus, does a brother, as to the 
feelings, continue to consider the feelings ? 

Herein, O bhikkhus, is a brother when affected by 
a feeling of pleasure, aware of it, reflecting : ' I feel a 
pleasurable feeling.' So, too, is he aware when affected 
by a painful feeling, or by a neutral feeling, or by 
a pleasant or painful or neutral feeling concerning 
material things, or by a pleasant or painful or neutral 
feeling concerning spiritual things. 

So does he, as to the feelings, continue to consider 
feeling, both internally and externally, or internally 
and externally together. He keeps on considering 
how the feelings are something that comes to be, or 
again he keeps on considering how the feelings are 
something that passes away, or he [299] keeps on con- 
sidering their coming to be with their passing away. 
Or again, with the consciousness : ' There is feeling,' 



334 XXII. MAHA SATIPArrHANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 299. 

mindfulness thereof becomes thereby established far 
enough for the purposes of knowledge and of self- 
collectedness. And he abides independent, grasping 
after nothing in the world whatever. Thus, bhikkhus, 
does a brother, with respect to the feelings, continue 
to consider feelingf. 

1 2. And how, bhikkhus, does a brother, as to thought, 
continue to consider tl!?yagh^ ^ ? 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother, if his thought be 
lustful, is aware that it is so, or if his thought be free 
from lust, is aware that it is so ; or if his thought be 
full of hate, or free from hate, or dull, or intelligent, 
or attentive, or distrait, or exalted, or not exalted, or 
mediocre, or ideal, or composed, or discomposed, or 
liberated, or bound, he is aware in each case that his 
thought is so, reflecting : ' My thought is lustful,' and 
so on. 

So does he, as to thought, continue to consider 
thought, internally or externally, or internally and 
externally together. He keeps on considering how 
thought is something that comes to be, or again he 
keeps on considering how a thought is something that 
passes away, or again he ever considers its coming to 
be and passing away together. Or again, with the 
consciousness : ' There is a thought,' mindfulness 
thereof becomes thereby established, [300] far enough 
for the purposes of knowledge and of self-possession. 
And he abides independent, grasping after nothing in 
the world whatever. Thus, bhikkhus, does a brother, 
with respect to thought, continue to consider thought. 

13. And how, bhikkhus, does a brother, as tolTfeas^', 
continue to consider ideas ? 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother, as to ideas, continues 



'ONCE,- . 

^ Citta. The reader is reminded that 'thought' is used here for 
citta in the widest sense possible to that term, such as is intended 
when, in the Christian tradition, it is made to complement the ' word 
and deed ' of the Epistles. And as such it is ' thinking ' rather than 
' what is thought,' that should be understood. 

' Dhamma. See Introduction. 



D. ii. 302. SETTING-UP OF MINDFULNESS. 235 

to consider ideas from the point of view of the Five 
Hindrances \ 

And how, bhikkhus, does a brother, as to ideas, 
continue to consider ideas relating to the Five 
Hindrances^ ? 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother, when within him is 
sensuous desire, is aware of it, reflecting : ' I have 
within me sensuous desire.' Or a^ain, when within 

o - 

him is no sensuous desire, he is aware of this. And 
he knows of the uprising of such desire unfelt before, 
knows too of his putting aside that uprisen sensuous 
desire, knows too of the non-arising- in future of that 
banished sensuous desire. 

[The paragraph is repeated [30l] of ill-will, sloth 
and torpor, flurry and worry, and doubt.] 

So does he, as to ideas, continue to consider them, 
both internally or externally, or internally and externally 
together. He ever considers how an idea is a thing 
that comes to be, again he ever considers how an idea 
is a thing that passes away, or he ever considers their 
coming to be with their passing away ; or again, with 
the consciousness : ' There is such and such an idea,' 
mindfulness thereof is thereby established, far enough 
for purposes of knowledge and of self-possession. And 
he abides independent, grasping after nothing in the 
world whatever. Thus, bhikkhus, does a brother, with 
respect to dispositions, continue to consider dispositions 
in the case of the Five Hindrances. 

14. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother, as to ideas, 
continues to consider these from the point of view of 
the Five Skandhas of Grasping. And how, bhikkhus, 
does he so consider them ? 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother reflects : ' Such is 
material form, such is its genesis, such its passing 
away ; such is feeling — perception — the mental activi- 
ties — such is cognition, its genesis, its passing away. 

So does he, as to dispositions, continue to consider 
them, .... [302] . . . 

^ Literally, ' in the Five Hindrances.' 



336 XXII. MAHA SATIPArrHANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 302. 

1 5. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother, as to ideas, 
continues to consider ideas from the point of view of 
the Six Internal and External Spheres of Sense. And 
how does he do this ? 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother is aware of the organ 
of sight, is aware of the objects of sight, and any Fetter 
which arises on account of them both — of that, too, is 
he aware ; and how there comes an uprising of a Fetter 
not arisen before — of that, too, is he aware ; and how 
there comes a putting-aside of a Fetter that has arisen 
— of that, too, is he aware ; and how in the future there 
shall arise no Fetter that has been put aside — of that, 
too, is he aware. 

And so, too, with respect to the organ of hearing and 
sounds, to the organ of smell and odours, to the organ 
of taste and tastes, to the organ of touch and tangibles, 
to the sensorium and images, he is aware of the sense 
and of the object, of any Fetter which arises on account 
of both, of how there comes an uprising of a Fetter 
not arisen before, of how there comes a putting-aside 
of a Fetter that has arisen, and of how in the future 
there shall arise no Fetter that has been put aside. 

So does he, as to ideas, continue to consider ideas, 
from the point of view of the Six Internal and External 
Spheres of Sense. [303] 

1 6. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother, as to ideas, 
continues to consider ideas, with respect to the Seven 
Factors of Enlightenment. And how does he do this ? 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother, if there be present 
to him subjectively mindfulness as a factor of enlighten- 
ment, is aware that it is present. Or if it be absent, 
he is subjectively aware of its absence. And how 
there comes an uprising of such mindfulness not 
hitherto uprisen — of that, too, is he aware ; and how 
there comes a full development of such mindfulness 
when it has arisen — of that too is he aware. And 
so too with respect to the other subjective factors of 
enlightenment : — search the truth, energy, joy, serenity, 
rapture, equanimity — he is aware if they are subjec- 
tively present, or absent, and he is aware of how there 



D. ii. 305. SETTING-UP OF MINDFULNESS. 337 

comes an uprising of any factor not hitherto uprisen, 
and of how there comes a full development of such 
factors when it has arisen. 

So does he, as to ideas, continue to consider ideas 
from the point of view of the Seven Factors of 
Enlightenment. [304] 

1 7. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother, as to ideas, 
continues to consider ideas from the point of view of 
the Four Aryan Truths. And how does he do this ? 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother at the thought : 
'This is 111!' is aware of it as it really is; — at the 
thought : ' This is the coming to be of 111 ! ' is aware 
of it as it really is ; — at the thought : ' This is the 
cessation of 111 ! ' is aware of it as it really is ; — at 
the thought : ' This is the way leading to the cessation 
of 111 ! ' is aware of it as it really is. 



18 \ [305] And what, bhikkhus, is the Aryan truth 
[regarding] 111 ? 

Birth is painful, old age is painful ^, death is painful, 
grief, lamentation, suffering, misery and despair are 
painful, painful is it not to get what is wished for, in 



^ What follows (down to the line and space on p. 345) is not found 
in the Majjhima recension of the Satipa/Mana (M. 1, 55 ff.). Except 
for this the two recensions agree, and ours here is doubtless called 
the Maha-satipa//>5ana, precisely becaaoc, to that extent, it is longer. 
That would show that when that title was first used the Majjhima 
recension was already known. It would not follow that the Digha is 
younger than the Majjhima ; they may have been edited at the same 
time from older material. 

The Digha addition is interesting as containing a fragment of Old 
Commentary (as old as the texts) of which other fragments are found 
in the Nikayas, and also in the Vinaya. 

The Vibhanga (99-106) quotes this Digha addition verbatim. 

' Many MSS. and the Colombo edition of 1876 add 'disease is 
painful.' But this is not mentioned in the word-for-word com- 
mentary that follows. It is probably transferred as a gloss from the 
Sawyutta recension of the Four Truths (S. V, 421) which differs 
slightly from that of the repeaters of the Digha (the Digha- 
bhawaka). 

III. Z 



33^ XXII. MAHA SATIPArrHANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 305. 

a word, the Five Groups that arise from Grasping are 
connected with pain ^ 

And what, bhikkhus, is birth ? Birth is the produc- 
tion, the outcome ^, the rising up in a new form, the 
appearance of the Groups, the acquisition of sense- 
spheres, by this or that being in this or that class of 
beings. This is what is called birth. 

And what, bhikkhus, is growing old ^ ? Growing 
old is the decay, the decrepitude, the breaking-up, the 
hoariness, the wrinkled state, the shrinkage of life's 
span, the collapse * of the sense-faculties of this or that 
being in this or that class of beings. This is what is 
called growing old. 

And what, bhikkhus, is dying ? 

Dying is the fall (out of any state), the dropping 
out of it, the dissolution, the disappearance, the death, 
the dying, the accomplishment of the life-term, the 
breaking up of the Groups, the laying down of the 
body of this or that being in this or that class of 
beings. This is called dying. 

And what, bhikkhus, is grief? 

Grieving is the state of woe, heart ache, and afflic- 
tion. The inward grief, the hidden wretchedness, of 
one who is visited by some calamity or other, of one 
who is smitten by some kind of ill. [306] This is 
what is called grief. 

And what, bhikkhus, is lamenting ? 



^ Pafic' upadanakkhandha. The Groups are the five groups 
of material and mental qualities that form, in combination brought 
about by grasping, an individual. One might, therefore, express this 
central thought of the first Aryan truth in modern Western language 
by saying that pain is involved in individuality — a most pregnant and 
far reaching suggestion. The rest of the Truth is merely a statement 
of facts universally admitted. 

^ Safijati only found elsewhere as yet Digha I, 227, where it 
means the produce arising out of an estate and accruing to the 
landlord. 

^ Cf. Dh. S. and Bud. Psy. on rQpassa jarata (§ 644). 

* Paripaka, which in all other passages means maturity, must here 
mean over-ripeness, loss of power through having reached their full 
vigour and begun to give out. 



D. ii. 308. SETTING-UP OF MINDFULNESS. 339 

Lamenting is the act and the state of mourning, 
lamentation, deploring, of one who is visited by some 
calamity or other, of one who is smitten by some kind 
of ill. This is what is called lamentino-. 

And what, bhikkhus. is suffering ? 

Suffering is bodily ill, bodily pain, ill that is born of 
bodily contact, the being bodily affected by what is 
painful. This is what is called suffering. 

And what, bhikkhus, is misery ? 

Misery is mental ill, mental pain, ill that is born of 
mental contact, the being mentally affected by what is 
painful. This is what is called misery. 

And what, bhikkhus, is despair ? 

Despair is the act and state of dejection, of despon- 
dency, of one who is visited by some calamity or other, 
of one who is smitten by some kind of ill. This is 
what is called despair. 

[307] And what, bhikkhus, is the ill of not getting 
what is wished for ? 

In beings subject to birth the wish arises : — * Ah ! 
if only we were not subject to birth, if only we could avoid 
being born ! ' But this is not to be got by wishing. 
This is the ill of not getting what is wished for. So too 
in the case of growing old, falling ill, dying, grieving, 
lamenting, suffering, being in misery and in despair, in 
being subject to these the wish arises : — 'Ah ! if only we 
were not subject to this one or that one of those things ! 
If only we could avoid them ! ' But this cannot be had 
for the wishing. This again is the ill of not getting 
what is wished for. 

And what, bhikkhus, is * in a word the Five Groups 
that arise from Grasping' ? These are the Groups of 
material form, of feeling, of perception, of dispositions, 
and of cognition that arise from grasping. This is 
what is called ' in a word the Five Groups that arise 
from Grasping are associated with 111.' 

This, bhikkhus, is the Aryan Truth regarding 111. 

19. [308] And what, bhikkhus, is the Aryan Truth 
concerning the coming to be of 111 ? 

Even this Craving, potent for rebirth, that is accom- 

z 2 



340 XXII. MAHA SATIVATTHANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 308. 

panied by lust and self-indulgence, seeking satisfaction 
now here now there, to wit, the craving for the life of 
sense, the craving for becoming (renewed life), and the 
craving for not becoming (for no rebirth) ^ 

Now this Craving, bhikkhus, where does it take its 
rise, where does it have its dwelline ? In those 
material things of this world which are dear to us, 
which are pleasant. There does Craving take its rise, 
there does it dwell. 

What things in this world are dear, what things are 
pleasant ? The sense of sight, the sense of hearing, the 
senses of smell, taste, touch and imagination — these are 
the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. 
There does Craving take its rise, there does it dwell. 

Things seen, things heard, things smelt, tasted, 
tangible, things in memory recalled — these are the 
things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. 
There does Craving take its rise, there does it dwell. 

The thoughts that arise through sight, the thoughts 
that arise through hearing, the thoughts that arise 
through smell, taste, touch and imagination — these are 
the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. 
There does Craving take its rise, there does it dwell. 

The stimulus of visual sense, the stimulus of auditory 
sense, the stimulus of the senses of smell, taste, touch 
and imagination — these are the things in this world 
that are dear, that are pleasant. [309] There does 
Craving take its rise, there does it dwell. 

Feeling that is born of the stimulus of the visual 
sense, feeling that is born of the stimulus of the 



^ Vibhava. This word usually means power, prosperity, success — 
the prefix vi being used as an intensitive particle. In this particular 
connexion the traditional interpretation takes the prefix in a negative 
sense, and paraphrases the word by ' the absence of becoming 
(bhava).' This view is apparently supported by some Nikaya 
passages (S. Ill, 57 ; It. no. 49), and by the Dhamma Sa»/ga«i 1314. 
But it may be derived from them ; and it is odd that the word should 
have been found nowhere else in that sense. It is quite possible that 
the original sense was the usual one. At Dhp. 282 it seems to mean 
decline in wisdom. 



I 



I 
L 



D. ii. 310. SETTING-UP OF MINDFULNESS. 34! 

auditory sense, feeling that is born of the stimulus of 
the senses of smell, taste, touch and feeling born of 
imagination — these are the things in this world that 
are dear, that are pleasant. There does Craving take 
its rise, there does it dwell. 

The perceiving of things visible, the perceiving of 
things audible, the perceiving of things odorous, sapid, 
tangible, of things in memory recalled — these are the 
things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. 
There does Craving take its rise, there does it dwell. 

Intentions concerned with things visible, intentions 
concerned with things audible, intentions concerned 
with things odorous, sapid, that may be smelt, tasted, 
touched, tangible, with things in memory recalled — these 
are the things in this world that are dear, that are 
pleasant. There does Craving take its rise, there does 
it dwell. 

Craving for things visible, craving for things audible, 
craving for things that may be smelt, tasted, touched, 
for things in memory recalled — these are the things in 
this world that are dear, that are pleasant. There 
does Craving take its rise, there does it dwell. 

Pre-occupation about things seen, pre-occupation 
about things heard, pre-occupation about things smelt, 
tasted, tangible, about things in memory recalled — 
these are the things in this world that are dear, that 
are pleasant. There does Craving take its rise, there 
does it dwell. 

Deliberating about things seen, deliberating about 
things heard, deliberating about things smelt, tasted, 
tangible, about things in memory recalled — these are 
the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. 
And there does Craving take its rise, there does it dwell. 

[310] This, bhikkhus, is what is called the Aryan 
Truth concerning the coming to be of 111. 

20. And what, bhikkhus, is the Arj^an Truth con- 
cerning the cessation of 111 ? 

The utter cessation of and disenchantment about 
that very Craving, giving it up, renouncing it, emanci- 
pation from it, detachment from it. 



342 XXII. MAHA SATIPATTiTANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 310. 

But now this Craving, bhikkhus, where, in being 
put away, is it put away ; where, in ceasing, does it 
cease ? In those material things of this world which 
are dear to us, which are pleasant — there may this 
Craving be put away, there does it cease. 

What things in this world are dear, what things are 
pleasant ? The sense of sight, the sense of hearing, 
the senses of smell, taste, touch and imagination — these 
are the things in this world that are dear, that are 
pleasant. Here may this Craving be put away, here 
does it cease. 

Things seen, things heard, things smelt, tasted, 
tangible, things in memory recalled — these are the 
things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. 
Here may this Craving be put away, here does it cease. 

The thoughts that arise through sight, the thoughts 
that arise through hearing, the thoughts that arise 
through smell, taste, touch and imagination — these are 
the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. 
Here may this Craving be put away, here does it cease. 

The stimulus of visual sense, the stimulus of auditory 
sense, the stimulus of the senses of smell, taste, touch 
and imagination — these are the things in this world 
that are dear, that are pleasant. [3ll] Here may this 
Craving be put away, here does it cease. 

Feeling that is born of the stimulus of the visual 
sense, feeling that is born of the stimulus of the 
auditory sense, feeling that is born of the stimulus of 
the senses of smell, taste, touch and feeling born of 
imagination — these are the things in this world that 
are dear, that are pleasant. Here may this Craving 
be put away, here does it cease. 

The perceiving of things visible, the perceiving of 
things audible, the perceiving of things odorous, sapid, 
tangible, of things in memory recalled — these are the 
things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. 
Here may this Craving be put away, here does it cease. 

Intentions concerned with things visible, intentions 
concerned with things audible, intentions concerned 
with things odorous, sapid, that may be smelt, tasted, 



D. ii. 312. SETTING-UP OF MINDFULNESS. 



O^o 



touched, tangible, with things in memory recalled — these 
are the things in this world that are dear, that are 
pleasant. Here may this Craving be put away, here 
does it cease. 

Craving for things visible, craving for things audible, 
craving for things that may be smelt, tasted, touched, 
for things in memory recalled — these are the things in 
this world that are dear, that are pleasant. Here 
may this Craving be put away, here does it cease. 

Pre-occupation about things seen, pre-occupation 
about things heard, pre-occupation about things smelt, 
tasted, tangible, about things in memory recalled — 
these are the things in this world that are dear, that 
are pleasant. Here may this Craving be put away, 
here does it cease. 

Deliberating about things seen, deliberating about 
things heard, deliberating about things smelt, tasted, 
tangible, about things in memory recalled — these are 
the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. 
Here may Craving be put away, here does it cease. 

This, bhikkhus, is what is called the Aryan Truth 
concerning the cessation of 111. 

21. And what, bhikkhus, is the Aryan Truth con- 
cerning the Way that leads to the Cessation of 111 } 

This is that Aryan Eightfold Path, to wdt, right 
view, right aspiration, right speech, right doing, right 
livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right rapture. 

And what, bhikkhus, is right view ? [312] 

Knowledge, bhikkhus, about 111, knowledge about 
the coming to be of 111, knowledge about the cessation 
of 111, knowledge about the Way that leads to the 
cessation of 111. This is what is called right view. 

And what, bhikkhus, is right aspiration ? 

The aspiration towards renunciation^, the aspiration 

^ Nekkhamma. Bumouf (' Lotus,' 334) derives this word from 
nis + karma; Oldenberg ('Vinaya Texts,' I, 104) from nis + kama, 
and Childers {sub voce) from nis + kramya. These three deri- 
vations would give the meaning respectively as having no Karma, 
being devoid of lust, and going forth from home. Darami/ipola 
explains it here as meaning either the second or the third. No doubt 



344 XXII. MAHA SATIPATTfl-ANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 312. 

towards benevolence, the aspiration towards kindness. 
This is what is called right aspiration. 

And what, bhikkhus, is right speech ? 

Abstaining from lying, slander, abuse and idle talk. 
This is what is called right speech. 

And what, bhikkhus, is right doing ? 

Abstaining from taking life, from taking what is not 
given, from carnal indulgence. This is what is called 
right doing. 

And what, bhikkhus, is right livelihood ? 

Herein, O bhikkhus, the Aryan disciple having put 
away wrong livelihood, supports himself by right 
livelihood. 

And what, bhikkhus, is right effort ? 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother makes effort in bring- 
ing forth will that evil and bad states that have not 
arisen within him may not arise, to that end he stirs 
up energy, he grips and forces his mind. That he may 
put away evil and bad states that have arisen within 
him he puts forth will, he makes effort, he stirs up 
energy, he grips and forces his mind. That good 
states which have not arisen may arise he puts forth 
will, he makes effort, he stirs up energy, he grips and 
forces his mind. That good states which have arisen 
may persist, may not grow blurred, may multiply, grow 
abundant, develop and come to perfection, he puts 
forth will, he makes effort, he stirs up energy, he grips 
and forces his mind. This is what is called right effort. 

And what, bhikkhus, is right mindfulness ? [313] 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother, as to the body, con- 
tinues so to look upon the body, that he remains ardent. 



Oldenberg is right as to the derivation. But Daranii/ipola is also 
right if we take his note as exegetical, not philological. The fact is 
that the derivation had been, from very early times, forgotten or 
confused ; and the connotation of the word was renunciation 
generally, with special reference to these two kinds. It never had 
anything to do with Karma. 

The three aspirations of our paragraph here recur at Sa/«yutta 
II, 152, and on p. 151 nekkhamma is replaced by kama. See also 
It. no. 72, and M. I, 114. 



D. ii. 314- SETTING-UP OF MINDFULNESS. 345 

self-possessed and mindful, having overcome both the 
hankering and the dejection common in the world. 
And in the same way as to feelings, thoughts and ideas, 
he so looks upon each, that he remains ardent, self- 
possessed and mindful, having overcome the hankering 
and the dejection that is common in the world. This 
is what is called right mindfulness. 

And what, bhikkhus, is right rapture ? 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother, aloof from sensuous 
appetites, aloof from evil ideas, enters into and abides 
in the First Jhana, wherein there is cogitation and 
deliberation, which is born of solitude and is full of 
joy and ease. Suppressing cogitation and deliberation, 
he enters into and abides in the Second Jhana, which 
is self-evoked, born of concentration, full of joy and 
ease, in that, set free from cogitation and deliberation, 
the mind grows calm and sure, dwelling on high. And 
further, disenchanted with joy, he abides calmly con- 
templative while, mindful and self-possessed, he feels in 
his body that ease whereof Aryans declare ' He that 
is calmly contemplative and aware, he dwelleth at 
ease.' So does he enter into and abide in the Third 
Jhana. And further, by putting aside ease and by 
putting aside mal-aise, by the passing away of the 
happiness and of the melancholy he used to feel, he 
enters into and abides in the Fourth Jhana, rapture of 
utter purity of mindfulness and equanimity, wherein 
neither ease is felt nor any ill. This is what is called 
right rapture. 

This, bhikkhus, is the Aryan Truth concerning the 
Way leading to the cessation of 111. [314] 



So does he, with respect to ideas continue to con- 
sider ideas, both internally, or externally, or internally 
and externally together. He ever considers how ideas 
are something that comes to be, again he ever con- 
siders how they are something that passes away, or 
again he ever considers their coming to be with their 
passing away ; or again with the consciousness ' There 
are ideas,' mindfulness thereof is thereby established, 



34^ XXII. MAHA SATIPArrifANA SUTTANTA. D. ii. 314. 

far enough for purposes of knowledge and of self- 
possession. And he abides independent, grasping 
after nothing in the world whatever. Thus, bhikkhus, 
does a brother, with respect to ideas, continue to con- 
sider ideas with respect to the Four Aryan Truths. 

22. Bhikkhus! whoso shall thus practise these Four 
Applications of Mindfulness for seven years, in him 
one or two kinds of fruition may be looked for : — 
either in this present life The Knowledge ^ or, if there 
be yet residuum for rebirth, the state of him who 
returns no more. Or, not to speak of seven years, 
bhikkhus, whoso shall thus practise these Four for 
six years, for five only, for four only, for three only, 
for two only, for one year only, in him one or two kinds 
of fruition may be looked for : either in this present 
life The Knowledge, or, if there be yet residuum for 
rebirth, the state of him who returns no more. Or not 
to speak of one year, bhikkhus, whoso shall thus prac- 
tise these Four for six months, or for five months, for four 
only, or three, or two, or one month only, [3i5] or half 
a month onh^, in him one or two kinds of fruition may 
be looked for : either in this present life The Know- 
ledge, or, if there be yet residuum for rebirth, the state 
of him who returns no more. Or not to speak of half 
a month, bhikkhus, whoso shall thus practise these Four 
for seven days, in him one of two kinds of fruition may 
be looked for : either in this present life The Know- 
ledge, or if there be yet residuum for rebirth, the state 
of him who returns no more. It was on account of 
this that that was said which was said (at the beginning) 
' The one and only path, bhikkhus, leading to the puri- 
fication of beings, to passing far beyond grief and 
lamentation, to the dying out of ill and misery, to the 
attainment of right method, to the realization of Nir- 
vana, is that of the Four-fold Setting-up of Starting. 

Thus spake the Exalted One. Pleased were the 
brethren, delighting in that which was spoken by the 
Exalted One. 

^ Anfia; one of the many epithets of Arahantship. 



I 



INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

pAyAsi suttanta. 

This Dialogue is one of the few which refer to events 
that took place in the Community after the Buddha's death. 
We hear from Dhammapala (in his commentary on the 
' Vimana Vatthu,' p. 297) that the Dialogue was believed, 
when he wrote (that is, at Kailcipura in South India in the 
fifth century) to have taken place after the erection of the 
cairns (thupas) over the ashes of the Teacher. He does not 
say how long after : and the length of the interval is not very 
important, for all the Dialogues were put together more than 
fifty years at least after the Buddha's death ^ The difference 
is only this, that whereas the Dialogues in which the principal 
part is ascribed to the Buddha himself may well, and very 
often undoubtedly do, contain material much older than the 
date of the redaction of the Digha, this Suttanta (and that 
is also true of the few others that fall into the same category) 
may not. The difference is not great. 

In this particular case we find nothing fresh in the Suttanta. 
The climax, led up to at the end, shows us a messenger from the 
gods coming down from heaven to teach the doctrine of gene- 
rosity (dan a) by laymen. We have discussed above in the 
Introduction to the ' IMaha-govinda Suttanta ' (p. 254) the 
reasons which induced ancient authors to bring down a divinity 
from heaven to support any particular opinion. Why was it 
done here? It seems scarcely necessary. 

True, the doctrine does not occupy a very high position in 
the earliest documents. It does not appear at all in the 
thirty-seven points (after\vards called the Bodhi-pakkhiya- 
dhamma) in which the Buddha, just before his death, summed 
up his teaching ^. 

^ See the general Introduction to the 'Dialogues,' I, 19. 

' See above, pp. 128-30. The Wings of Wisdom are really only 
thirty, not thirty-seven, as seven of them are repeated. So there was 
plenty of room, had it been wanted, for charity. The Aryan Path is 
in the list. But the Path, though open to laymen and lay-women, 
contains no mention of dana. 



34^ INTRODUCTION. 



It does not appear in the Dhammapada, an anthology of 
verses current in the Community on twenty-six subjects which 
the makers of the anthology held of most importance. There 
is a miscellaneous section into which verses on charity might 
well have been introduced, had it been considered a point of 
equal value with the rest ; but it is not there. It is the first 
and lowest in the list of the ten Paramitas, the virtues 
necessary to the attainment of Buddhahood ^. But this list is 
a late one, and is not found in the Four Nikayas, or even in 
the Vinaya. 

On the other hand there are several incidental references 
to giving in charity, and always by way of approval, in the 
Dialogues and the Sawzyutta. And in the Anguttara (which 
contains a good deal more of the milk for babes than the 
other three of the great Nikayas) '^ there is a special Dana 
Vagga with seven short Suttas on the subject, and six or 
seven more are scattered through the work ^ 

It is clear therefore, though this particular virtue is ranked 
after the thirty Wings of Wisdom, that it is accorded, in the 
earliest Buddhism, a very respectable place. Nevertheless at 
this particular juncture, when the death of their Master had 
weakened the prestige of the Order, it is quite possible that 
the brethren, finding their numbers in excess of the sources of 
income and support, should have found it advisable to invoke 
the help of a deus ex machina to set the discrepancy right. 

The rest of the Suttanta throws some light on the reputation 
in which Kassapa, the Boy- Wanderer, was held by his fellows. 
As becomes a flowery speaker (citra-kathi) he is lavish in 
illustration, and tells a number of stories, some of them quite 
good, and all of them bearing more or less relation (usually 
less) to the particular point in dispute. They are sufficient, 
however, to throw dust into the eyes of Payasi, whose argu- 
ments, futile as they are, do not depend so exclusively on 
analogy, that most misleading of guides. 

* The scholastics, by dividing each of the ten into three (see 
Childers, sub voce), have brought the number up to thirty, the same as 
the real number of the more ancient Wings of Wisdom, to which this 
later list is meant as a counterblast or rival. 

^ Compare Mrs. Rhys Davids's remarks in the Introduction to 
vol. VI. 

^ See Miss Hunt's 'Indexes,' under Dana. 



[XXIII. pAyAsi suttanta. 

REBIRTH AND KARMA.] 

[316] Thus have I heard. 

1. The venerable Kumara Kassapa * was once walk- 
ing on tour in Kosala together with a great company 
of bhikkhus, to the number of about five hundred, and 
coming to the Kosalese city named Setavya, he there 
abode. And there the venerable Kumara Kassapa 
dwelt to the north of Setavya, in the Siwsapa-tree 
Grove. Now at that time the chieftain Paydsi was 
residing at Setavya, a spot teeming with life, with much 
grass-land and wood-land, with water and corn, on a 
royal domain granted him by King Pasenadi of Kosala, 
as a royal gift, with power over it as if he were the 
king: ^- 

2. Now at that time there came over Payasi an evil 
view of things to this effect : — ' Neither is there any 
other world, nor are there beings reborn otherwise 
than from parents, nor is there fruit or result of deeds 
well done or ill done.' 

[317] Now the brahmins and householders of Setavya 
heard the news : — ' They say that the wanderer Master 
Kassapa, disciple of the wanderer Gotama, walking 
on tour with a great company of bhikkhus, to the 
number of about five hundred, has arrived at Setavya 
and is staying there to the north of the town, in the 



* The touching story of his birth is told in the Introductory Story 
to the twelfth Jataka, translated in Rhys Davids's * Buddhist Birth 
Stories,' pp. 199 fF. He was declared by the Buddha to be the best 
of the preachers in the Order (A. I, 24). Kumara was a nickname, 
* The Boy ' (because he was ordained so young), which distinguished 
him from the other Kassapas in the Order, and clung to him even in 
advanced years. It was the more appropriate, as kumara means 
a boy of good family, a young gentleman, a master ; and Kassapa, 
the son of a clansman, had been brought up at Pasenadi's court. 

' See Vol. I, p. 108, note i. 



350 XXIII. PAYASI SUTTANTA. D. ii. 317. 

Si»«sapa-tree Grove. Now regarding that Master 
Kassapa, such is the excellent reputation that has been 
raised abroad : — * Wise and expert is he, abounding in 
knowledge and learning, eloquent and excellent in 
discourse, venerable too and an Arahant. And good is 
it to interview Arahants like him.' Then the brahmins 
and householders of Setavya, coming out from the town 
in companies and bands from each district so that they 
could be counted^, went by the north gate, to the 
Si;;2sapa-tree Grove. 

3. Now at that time Pdyasi, the chieftain, had gone 
apart to the upper terrace of his house for siesta. And 
seeing the people thus go by he said to his doorkeeper : — 
' Why are the people of Setavya going forth like this 
towards the Si;;2sapa-tree Grove ? ' [318] Then the 
doorkeeper told him the news. And he said : — ' Then, 
good doorkeeper, go to the brahmins and householders 
of Setavya and say to them : — " Payasi, sirs, bids you 
wait ; he will come himself to see the Wanderer 
Master Kassapa." That Boy Kassapa will be win- 
ning over at the outset those foolish and inexpert 
brahmins and householders of Setavya to think : — 
*' There is both another world and there are beings 
who are born not of parents, and there is fruit, and 
result of deeds well done and ill done." But, my good 
doorkeeper, these three things do not exist.' 

' Even so, sir,' said the doorkeeper, and carried out 
his master's biddinor. 

4. So Payasi, the chieftain, surrounded by the brah- 
mins and householders of Setavya, came to the Simsa-pa- 
tree Grove, and finding the venerable Kassapa, 
exchanged with him the greetings and compliments of 
politeness and courtesy, and took his seat on one side. 
[319] And as to the brahmins and householders of 
Setavya, some of them bowed before the venerable 
Kassapa and took their seats on one side ; some of 
them exchanged with him the greetings and compli- 
ments of politeness and courtesy and then took their 

* The expression is somewhat ambiguous. See the note on 1, 145. 



\ 



D. ii. 320. REBIRTH AND KARMA. 35 I 

seats on one side ; some of them saluted him with 
joined hands and took their seats on one side ; some 
of them called out their name and family and did 
likewise, some of them took their seats on one side in 
silence. 

5. And when he was seated Payasi spoke thus to 
the venerable Master Kassapa : — 

' I, Master Kassapa, am of this opinion, of these 
views : — Neither is there another world, nor are there 
beings reborn not of parents, nor is there fruit or result 
of deeds well done or ill done.' 

' I, Prince, have neither seen or heard of any one 
holding such a view, such an opinion. How then can 
you declare, as you do, that " there neither is another 
world, nor rebirth as inheritor of the highest heavens, 
nor fruit or result of deeds well-done or ill-done ' ? 
Wherefore, Prince, I will cross-question you herein, 
and do you reply in what way you may approve. What 
think you, yon moon and sun, are they in this world or 
in another world, are they divine or human ? ' 

' This moon and sun, Master Kassapa, are in another 
world, not in this, they are gods, not human.' 

* Then, Prince, let this be taken as evidence that 
there is both another world, and rebirth as inheritor of 
the highest heavens, and fruit and result of deeds done 
well or ill.' 

6. ' Even though Master Kassapa says thus, it still 
appears to me that not one of these things exists.' 

' Have you, Prince, any proof to establish that they 
do not exist ? ' 

[320] ' I have, Master Kassapa.' 

' As how ? ' 

' Here it is. Master Kassapa. I have had friends, com- 
panions, relatives, men of the same blood as myself, who 
have taken life, committed thefts, or fornication, have 
uttered lying, slanderous, abusive, gossiping speech, 
have been covetous, of malign thoughts, of evil opinions. 
They anon have fallen ill of mortal suffering and 
disease. When I had understood that they would not 
recover from that illness, I have gone to them and 



352 XXIII. PAYASI SUTTANTA. D. ii. 320. 

said : — " According to the views and opinion held, sirs, 
by certain wanderers and brahmins, they who break 
the precepts of moraHty, when the body breaks up 
after death, are reborn into the Waste, the Woeful Way, 
the Fallen Place, the Pit. Now you, sirs, have broken 
those precepts. If what those reverent wanderers and 
brahmins say is true, this, sirs, will be your fate. If 
these things should befall you, sirs, come to me and 
tell me, saying : — ' There is another world, there is 
rebirth not of parents, there is fruit and result of deeds 
well-done and ill-done.' You, sirs, are for me trust- 
worthy and reliable, and what you say you have seen, 
will be even so, just as if I myself had seen it." They 
have consented to do this, saying, " Very good," 
[321] but they have neither come themselves, nor 
dispatched a messenger. Now this, Master Kassapa, 
is evidence for me that there is neither another world, 
nor rebirth not by human parents, nor fruit or result 
of deeds well done and ill.' 

7. ' Well then, prince, I will yet ask you this, and do 
you answer even as you think fit. What think you ? 
Take the case of men who have taken a felon red- 
handed and bring him up saying : — " My lord, this felon 
was caught in the act ; inflict what penalty you wish." 
He replies : — " Well then, sirs, bind this man securely, 
his arms behind him, with a strong cord ; shave his 
head ; lead him around, to the sound of a sharp drum, 
from street to street, from cross-road to cross-road, and 
out at the southern gate ; there, south of the town in 
the place of execution, cut off his head." They, assent- 
ing with " Very good," proceed to carry out these 
orders, and, in the place of execution, make him sit 
down. Now would the felon gain permission of this 
sort from his executioners : " Let my masters, the 
executioners, wait till I have visited my friends and 
advisers, my kinsmen by blood, in this or that village 
or town, and come back" ? [322] Or would the 
executioners cut off the head of this vain talker ? ' 

' They would not grant the permission. Master 
Kassapa ; they would cut off his head.' 



D.ii. 323. REBIRTH AND KARMA. 353 

* But this felon, prince, is human and cannot get 
leave from human executioners. How much less then 
would your friends and relatives, after death, in the Pit, 
gain permission from the keepers of the Pit, saying: — 
" Let my masters, the Pit-keepers, wait till we have 
gone and told the chieftain Payasi, that there is both 
another world and rebirth other than of parents, and 
fruit and result of deeds well-done and ill ? " Be this 
exposition a proof to you. Prince, that these things 
exist.' 

8. * Even though Master Kassapa says thus, it still 
appears to me that not one of these things exists.' 

' Have you, prince, any further proof to establish 
that they do not exist ? ' 

' I have, Master Kassapa.* 

' As how ? ' 

[323] ' Here it is, Master Kassapa. I have had 
friends and companions, kinsmen, men of the same 
blood as myself, who have abstained from taking life, 
from committing thefts, or fornication, from lying, 
slandering, rude, or frivolous speech, who have not 
coveted, or had malign thoughts or evil opinions. They 
anon have fallen ill of mortal suffering and disease. 
When I had understood that they would not recover 
from that illness, I have gone to them and said : 
" According, sirs, to the views and opinions held by 
some Wanderers and Brahmins, they who keep the 
precepts of morality, when the body breaks up, are 
after death reborn into the bright and happy world. 
Now you, sirs, have kept those precepts. If what 
those reverend sama;^as and brahmins say is true, this, 
sirs, will be your fate. If these things should befall 
you, sirs, when you have been there reborn, come to 
me and let me know that there is both another world, 
rebirth other than of parents, and fruit and result of 
deeds well-done and ill-done. You, sirs, are for me 
trustworthy and reliable, and what you say you have 
seen, will be even so, just as if I myself had seen it." 
They have consented to do this, saying " Very good " ; 
but they have not come and let me know, nor have 
Jii, A a. 



354 XXIII. PAYASI SUTTANTA. D. ii. 323. 

they dispatched a messenger. Now this again, 
Master Kassapa, is evidence to me that [324] there 
is neither another world, nor rebirth other than of 
parentage, nor fruit and result of deeds well-done and 
ill-done.' 

9. * Well then, Prince, I will make you a simile, for 
by a simile some intelligent persons will recognize the 
meaning of what is said. Just as if a man were plunged 
head-under in a pit of mire. And you were to order 
men saying : — " Well now, masters, pull the man out of 
that pit." They, saying *' Very good/' were to comply 
and pull him out. You were then to say to them : — 
" Well now, masters, brush the mire smearing him 
from off his body with split bamboo \" And they 
were to obey you. And you were to say to them : — 
" Well now, masters, shampoo this man's body a treble 
massage with yellow shampoo powder." And they 
were to do so. And you were to say to them : — " Now, 
masters, rub him with oil, and bathe him three times 
using fine chunam." And they were to do so. And 
you were to say to them : — " Well, masters, now dress 
his hair ^." And they were to do so. [325] And you 
were to say to them : — " Now, masters, deck him with 
a costly garland and costly unguent and costly gar- 
ments." And they were to do so. And you were to 
say to them : — " Well, masters, take him up on to the 
palace and amuse him with the pleasures of the five 
senses." And they were to do so. Now what think 
you, O chieftain ? Would this man, well bathed, well 
anointed, shaved and combed, dressed, wreathed and 
adorned, clad in clean raiment, taken to the upper 
palace, and indulging in, surrounded by, treated to, the 
five pleasures of sense, be desirous of being plunged 
once more into that pit of mire ? ' 

' No indeed. Master Kassapa.' 



.r * No doubt a sort of brush made of split bamboo. 

' How elaborate were the coiffures used by men at this date may 
be seen from the illustration in Rhys Davids's ' Buddhist India,' 



D. ii. 327- REBIRTH AND KARMA. 355 

* And why ? ' 

* Foul, Master Kassapa, is a pit of mire, foul and 
counted as such, stinking, disgusting, repulsive, and 
counted as such.* 

' Even so, Prince, are human beings in the eyes of 
the gods, foul and counted as such, stinking, disgust- 
ing, repulsive, and counted as such. The smell of man 
offends the gods a hundred leagues away. What then ? 
Shall your friends and companions, your kinsmen and 
connexions who, having kept the precepts, are reborn 
into the bright and happy place, come and bring you 
word that there is another world, that there is rebirth 
other than by parentage, [326] that there is fruit and 
result of deeds well-done and ill-done ? Let this 
exposition, chieftain, be evidence to you that these 
thinofs exist.' 

10. ' Even though Master Kassapa says so, it still 
appears to me that not one of these things exists.' 

* Have you any further evidence, prince ? ' . . . 
' I have. Master Kassapa.' 

*As how?' 

* Here it is. Master Kassapa. I have had friends, 
companions, kinsmen, men of the same blood as myself, 
who kept the precepts, abstaining from taking life ; 
from taking what was not given, from inchastity, lying 
speech and strong intoxicating liquors. They anon 
have fallen mortally ill ; and I, having told them how 
some samawas and brahmins say that, after such a life, 
one would be reborn in the communion of the Three- 
and-Thirty Gods, have asked them, if they were so 
reborn, to come and let me know that there was 
another world, birth other than of parents, and fruit 
and result of deeds well-done and ill-done. [327] 
They have promised to do so, but they have neither 
come and told me, nor sent a messenger. This, Master 
Kassapa, is evidence to me that not one of those things 
exists.' 

11. 'Well then. Prince. I will reply by asking you 
something, and do you answer as you think fit. That 
which, humanly speaking, is a century, this to ,the 

A a 2 



356 XXIII. pAyasi suttanta. 0.11.327. 

Three-and-Thirty Gods is one night and day. Of 
such a night thirty nights are the month — of such a 
month twelve months are the year — of such a year 
the celestial thousand years are the life-span of the 
Three-and-Thirty Gods. Those of whom you now 
speak will have attained rebirth into the communion 
of these Gods. If it should occur to them thus : — 
'' Let us for two or three days indulge ourselves, sur- 
rounded by and steeped in the five pleasures of sense, 
and thereafter let us go and tell the chieftain Payasi 
that there is another world, rebirth other than of 
parents, and fruit and result of deeds well-done and 
ill-done" — would ',hey then have come to you, and 
told you so ? ' 

* Certainly not, Master Kassapa ; for we should have 
been dead long before. But who lets Master Kassapa 
know all these things : — that there are Three-and- 
Thirty Gods, or that the Three-and-Thirty Gods live 
so many years ? We do not believe him when he says 
these things.' [328] 

' That, Prince, is just as if there were a man born 
blind who could not see objects as dark or bright, as 
blue, yellow, red or brown ; who could not see things 
as smooth or rough, nor the stars, nor moon, nor sun. 
And he were to say : — " There are none of these things, 
nor any one capable of seeing them. I don't know 
them, I don't see them ; therefore they don't exist." 
Would one so speaking, speak rightly. Prince ? ' 

* Not so, Master Kassapa. The visual objects of 
which you speak do exist, and so does the faculty of 
seeing them. [329] To say '* I don't know them, I 
don't see them ; therefore they don't exist" : that would 
not be speaking rightly.' 

* But even so, methinks, do you. Prince, talk like 
the blind man in my parable when you say : — " But 
who lets Master Kassapa know that there are Three- 
and-Thirty Gods, or that the Three-and-Thirty Gods 
live so many years ? We do not believe him when he 
says these things." For, Prince, the other world is not, 
as you imagine, to be regarded with this fleshly eye. 



D. ii. 330* REBIRTH AND KARMA. 357 



Those Wanderers and Brahmins who haunt the lonely 
and remote recesses of the forest, where noise, where 
sound there hardly is, they there abiding strenuous, 
ardent, aloof, purify the eye divine ; they by that puri- 
fied eye divine, passing the vision of men, see both 
this world and that other world, and beings reborn not 
of parents. In this way. Prince, is the other world to 
be seen, and not, even as you imagine, by this fleshly 
eye. Let this be a proof to you that there is another 
world, that there are beings reborn not of parents, 
that there is fruit and result of deeds well-done and 
ill-done.' 

12. 'Even though Master Kassapa says so, [330] 
yet it still appears to me that not one of these things 
exists.' 

' Have you any further evidence, Prince ? ' 

* I have. Master Kassapa.' 

* As how?' 

* Here it is, Master Kassapa. I see Wanderers and 
Brahmins moral and of virtuous dispositions, fond of 
life, averse from dying, fond of happiness, shrinking 
from sorrow. Then I think, Master Kassapa : — " If 
these good Wanderers and Brahmins were to know 
this — 'When once we are dead we shall be better off' 
— then these good men would take poison, or stab 
themselves, or put an end to themselves by hanging, 
or throw themselves from precipices. And it is because 
they do not know that, once dead, they will be better 
off, that they are fond of life, averse from dying, fond 
of happiness, disinclined for sorrow. This, Master 
Kassapa, is for me evidence that there is no other 
world, no beings reborn otherwise than of parents, no 
fruit and no result of deeds well and ill-done.' 

13. 'Well then, Prince, I will make you a simile, 
for by way of a simile some wise men discern the 
meaning of what is spoken. Once upon a time. Prince, 
there was a brahmin who had two wives. By one he 
had a son, ten or twelve years of age ; the other was 
pregnant and near her time. Then the brahmin 
died. Now the boy said to his mother's co-wife: — 



358 XXIII. PAYASI SUTTANTA. D. ii. 330. 

*' Whatever treasure there is, lady, or grain, or silver, 
or gold, all that is mine. [33l] There is nothing here 
for you whatever ; make over to me, lady, the heritage 
of my father ! " Then the brahminee made answer to 
him : — " Wait, my lad, till my child is born. If 'twill 
be a boy, one portion shall be his ; if a girl, she shall 
wait on you." 

'But the boy reiterated his claim again and yet again. 
Then the brahminee, taking a sword, entered an inner 
room and ripped up her belly, saying : — " If I can only 
find out whether 'tis a boy or a girl." Thus did she 
destroy both her own life and her unborn infant, and 
her wealth also, through the foolish and thoughtless 
way in which, seeking a heritage, she met with ruin 
and disaster. Even so you. Prince, foolish and thought- 
less that you are, will meet with ruin and disaster by 
seeking without wisdom for another world. [332] Moral 
and virtuous Wanderers and Brahmins do not force 
maturity on that which is unripe ; they, being wise, 
wait for that maturity. The virtuous have need of 
their life. In proportion to the length of time such 
men abide here, is the abundant merit that they pro- 
duce and accomplish for the welfare of many, for the 
happiness of many, out of compassion for the world, 
for the advantage, the welfare, the happiness of gods 
and men. Let this then be a proof to you, Prince, that 
there is another world, that there is rebirth other than 
of parentage, that there is fruit and result of deeds 
well and ill-done.' 

14. 'Even though Master Kassapa says so, it still 
appears to me that not one of these things exists.* 

* Have you further evidence, Prince ? ' 
' I have. Master Kassapa.' 

* As how. Prince ? ' 

* Here it is, Master Kassapa. Take the case of 
men who having taken a felon red-handed bring him 
up, saying : — " This felon, my lord, was caught in the 
act. Inflict on him what penalty you wish." And I 
should say : — " Well then, my masters, throw this man 
alive into a jar ; close the mouth of it and cover it 



D. ii. 334« SEARCH FOR THE SOUL. 359 



over with wet leather, put over that a thick cement 
of moist clay, put it on to a furnace and kindle a fire." 
[333] They saying " Very good " would obey me and . . . 
kindle a fire. When we knew that the man was dead, 
we should take down the jar, unbind and open the 
mouth, and quickly observe it, with the idea : — " Per- 
haps we may see the soul of him coming out ! " We 
don't see the soul of him coming out ! This, master 
Kassapa, is for me evidence that there neither is 
another world, nor rebirth other than by parentage, 
nor fruit or result of deeds well or ill-done.' 

1 5. ' Well then, Prince, I will in reply ask you some- 
thing, and do you answer as you may please. Do you 
not admit. Prince, that, when you are taking siesta, 
you see dreams of enjoyment in garden, grove, country, 
or lake side } ' 

* I do admit it, Master Kassapa.' 

'Are you at that time watched over by attendant 
women — hunchbacks and dwarfs, and maidens^ and 
girls ? ' 

' That is so. Master Kassapa.' 

' Do they see your soul entering or leaving you ? * 

[334] ' Not so, Master Kassapa.' 

' So they who are living do not see the soul of you 
who are living entering or leaving you (when you 
dream). How then will you see the soul of a dead 
person entering or leaving him ? Let this be a proof 
to you, Prince, that those things do exist.' 

16. 'Even though Master Kassapa says so, it still 
appears to me that not one of those things exists.' 

' Have you any further evidence, Prince ? ' 

* I have, Master Kassapa.' 
' As how ? ' 

' Take the case. Master Kassapa, of men taking a felon 
red-handed, and bringing him up saying : — " My lord, 
we caught this felon in the act. Inflict what penalty 



^ Velamika, 'very young and childish,' says Buddhaghosa here. 
Above, p. 231, it seems to be a clan name, but used in a similar 
connexion. 



560 XXIII. PAYASI SUTTANTA. D. ii. 334. 

you wish." And I say: — *' Well then, my masters, 
take this man and weigh him alive ; then strangle him 
with a bowstring and weigh him again." And they do 
so. While he lives, he is more buoyant, supple, wieldy. 
When he is dead, he is weightier, stiffer, unwieldier. 
This, Master Kassapa, is evidence for me that there is 
■neither another world, nor rebirth other than by human 
parentage, nor fruit nor result of deeds well-done or 
ill-done.' 

1 7. * Well now. Prince, I will give you a simile [335], 
for by way of a simile some wise men discern the mean- 
ing of what is said. It is just as if, Prince, a man 
were to weigh in a balance a ball of iron that had been 
heated all day, and was burning and glowing with heat ; 
and were to weigh it later on in a balance when it was 
cool and quenched. When would that ball of iron be 
lighter, softer and more plastic ? When it was burn- 
ing and glowing with heat, or when it was cool and 
quenched ? ' 

* When, Master Kassapa, that ball of iron, with its 
lambent and gaseous concomitants, is burning and 
glowing with heat, then it is lighter, softer, more plastic, 
but when, without those lambent and gaseous concomi- 
tants, it is cool and quenched, it is then heavier, more 
rigid, less plastic' 

* Even so. Prince, when this body has its concomitants 
of life, heat and intelligence, then it is lighter, softer 
and more plastic. But when it lacks those three 
concomitants, then it is heavier, more rigid, less plastic. 

' Let this. Prince, be a proof to you that there is both 
another world, rebirth other than of parents, and fruit 
and result of deeds well and ill-done.' 

1 8. ' Even though Master Kassapa says this, it still 
appears to me that not one of those things exists.' 

' Have you any further evidence. Prince ? ' 

' I have. Master Kassapa.' 

' What might that be like ? ' 

' Take the case, Master Kassapa, of the men taking 
a felon red-handed and bringing him up, saying : — " My 
lord, this felon was caught in the act. [336] Inflict on 



\ 



D. ii. 337* REBIRTH AND KARMA. 361 

him what penalty you wish." And I say: — " Well, my 
masters, kill this man by stripping off cuticle and skin 
and flesh and sinews and bones and marrow." They 
do so. And when he is half dead, I say : — " Lay him 
on his back, and perhaps we may see the soul of him 
pass out." And they do so, but we see the passing of 
no soul. Then I say: — "Well then, lay him bent 
over ... on his side ... on the other side . . . stand 
him up . . . stand him on his head . . . smite him with 
your hand . . . with clods ... on this side ... on that 
side ... all over ; perhaps we may see the soul of him 
pass out." And they do so, but we see the passing of 
no soul. He has sight and there are forms, but the 
organ -does not perceive them ; he has hearing and 
there are sounds, but the organ does not perceive 
them ; he has smell and there are odours, [337] but the 
organ -does not perceive them, he has a tongue and 
there are tastes, but the organ does not perceive them ; 
he has a body and there are tangibles, but the organ 
does not perceive them. This, Master Kassapa, is for 
me evidence that there is neither another world, nor re- 
birth other than of parents, nor fruit or result of deeds 
well or ill-done.' 

19. ' Well then, Prince, I will give you a simile, for 
by way of a simile some wise men discern the meaning 
of what is said. Once upon a time, Prince, a certain 
trumpeter, taking his trumpet of chank-shell, travelled 
to the folk on the border. When he came to a certain 
village, he stood in its midst and blew thrice on his 
trumpet, then laying it on the ground sat down beside 
it. Now, Prince, those border folk thought: — "Whose 
is this sound so charming, so lovely, so sweet, so con- 
straining, so enervating ? " Coming together they 
asked the trumpeter. " This, my masters, is what men 
call a trumpet, the sound whereof is so charming, so 
lovely, so sweet, so constraining, so enervating." They 
laid the trumpet on its back and said : — " Speak, master 
trumpet ! speak, master trumpet ! " No sound did the 
trumpet make. They laid the trumpet curving down- 
ward, on this side, on that side, they stood it upright, 



362 XXIII. PAYASI SUTTANTA. D. ii, 337. 

they stood it topsy turvy, they struck it with their hands, 
with a clod, with a stick, with a sword, on one side, on 
the other, on every side, saying : — " Speak, master 
trumpet ! speak, master trumpet ! " [338] Then, Prince, 
the trumpeter thought : — " How silly are these border 
born men ! Why will they seek so senselessly for the 
trumpet's sound ? " And while they looked on, he 
took his trumpet, blew thrice upon it and, taking it 
with him, went away. Then, Prince, those border born 
men thought thus : — " When forsooth there was with 
that trumpet a man, and an effort, and air, that same 
trumpet made sounds. But when there was with it 
neither man, nor effort, nor air, that same trumpet 
made no sounds." Even so. Prince, when this body 
has its concomitants of life, heat and intelligence, then 
it goes about and comes back, it stands and sits and 
lies down, it sees forms with the eye, hears sounds with 
the ear, smells odours with the smell, tastes tastes with 
the tongue, touches the tangible with the body, cognizes 
things with the mind. But when it lacks those three 
concomitants, it can do none of these things. Let this, 
Prince, be to you a proof that there both is another 
world, rebirth other than of parents, and fruit and result 
of deeds well and ill-done.' 

20. ' Even though Master Kassapa says this, [339] it 
still appears to me that there is neither another world, 
nor rebirth other than of parents, nor fruit or result of 
deeds well or ill-done.' 

* Have you any further evidence, Prince ? ' 
. * I have. Master Kassapa.' 

' What may that be like ? ' 

' Take the case, Master Kassapa, of men who have 
taken a felon red-handed and bring him up, saying : — 
" My lord, we caught this felon in the act ; inflict on 
him what penalty you wish." And I say : — " Well, my 
masters, flay this man alive, perchance we may see the 
soul of him passing out." They do so, but no passing 
of the soul of him do we see. And in cutting out his 
integument, and his flesh, and his nerves, and breaking 
his bones and extracting the marrow thereof, still no 



p. ii, 341- REBIRTH AND KARMA. 363 

soul of him do we see. This, Master Kassapa, is for me 
evidence that there is neither another world, nor rebirth 
other than of parents, nor fruit or result of deeds well 
or ill-done.' 

21. ' Well now, Prince, I will give you a simile, for 
it is by way of a simile that some intelligent men discern 
the meaning of what is spoken. Once upon a time. 
Prince, a fire- worshipping Ja/ila was dwelling in a leaf* 
hut in a woodland spot. Now the people of a certain 
country-side migrated. And their leader, after spend- 
ing one night near the Ja/ila's hermitage, went away. 
[340] Then the Ja/ila thought : — " If I were to go to 
that leader's camp, I might perhaps get something 
useful." And rising up betimes he came to the leader's 
camp, and there he saw, abandoned and lying on its 
back a little baby. And when he saw it he thought : — 
" It is not fit that I should let a human being die while 
I look on. What if I were to carry this baby to my 
hermitage, and foster, tend, and rear it ? " So he 
carried the baby to his hermitage, and fostered, tended, 
and reared it. When the boy had attained the age of 
ten or twelve years, it happened that the Ja/ila had 
something or other to do in the country-side. So he 
said to the boy : — " I want to go to the countr}'-side, my 
lad ; keep up the fire ; do not let it go out. If it should 
go out, here is a hatchet, here are sticks, here is the fire 
drill, so that if you do let the fire out, you can rekindle 
it again." And having thus instructed the boy, the 
Ja/ila went off to the country-side. Intent upon his 
play, the boy let the fire out. Then he thought : — 
" Father told me, ' Tend the fire, my lad ; let it not go 
out. If it should go out, here is a hatchet, here are 
sticks, here is the fire drill, so that if you do let the fire 
out, you can rekindle it again.' What if I were now 
to do so ? " [341] Then the boy chopped the fire drill 
with the hatchet, thinking : — " Perhaps that's how I 
shall get fire." No fire got he. He split the fire drill 
in twain, in three, four, five, ten, a hundred pieces, he 
made it into piecemeal, he then pounded it in a mortar, 
and winnowed it in the wind, thinking that so he might 



364 XXIII. PAYASI SUTTANTA. D- ii. 341. 

perhaps get fire. No fire got he. Then the Ja/ila, 
having accomphshed his business, came back to his 
own hermitage and said to the boy : — " Why, child, 
you have let the fire out ! " " Father, the fire went 
out because I was busy at my game. Then I thought 
of what you had told me, and I set about rekindling 
it. And I chopped the fire drill with the hatchet to 
get fire, but no fire came. And I went on till I had 
smashed the fire drill into atoms, pounded it in a mortar 
and winnowed it in the wind, but I never got any fire ! " 
Then the Ja/ila thought : — " How silly, how unin- 
telligent is the lad! Why will he be seeking fire in 
this senseless manner ? " And while the boy looked on, 
he took a fire drill, and making fire said to him : — [342] 
" This is how to make fire, my lad. One doesn't try 
to get it as you, so silly and unintelligent, were trying." 
Even so, Prince, have you, silly and unintelligent, 
sought after another world. Renounce, Prince, this 
evil set of opinions. Let them not involve you for 
long in bale and sorrow ! ' 

22. ' Even though Master Kassapa says this, I still 
cannot bring myself to renounce this evil set of opinions. 
King Pasenadi the Kosalan knows me, and so do 
foreign kings, as holding to the creed and the opinion 
that there is neither another world nor rebirth other than 
of parents, nor fruit or result of deeds well and ill-done. 
If I, Master Kassapa, renounce these opinions, people 
will say of me : — " How silly is Prince Payasi, how 
unintelligent, how badly he grasps anything ! " In wrath 
thereat will I keep to it. In guile will I keep to it. 
In self-respect will I keep to it ! ' 

23. ' Well then. Prince, I will give you a simile ; 
for it is by way of a simile that some intelligent men 
discern the meaning of what has been said. Once 
upon a time, Prince, a great caravan of a thousand 
carts was going from the East country into the West 
country. Wherever it went, it consumed swiftly straw, 
wood, water and verdure. Now in that caravan were 
two caravan leaders, each commanding one half of the 
carts. [343] And this occurred to them : — 



D. ii. 345- REBIRTH AND KARMA. 365 

* " This is a gfreat caravan, one of a thousand carts. 
Wherever we go, we consume everything. What if 
we were to divide this caravan into two, five hundred 
carts in each." 

' So they divided that caravan into t^vo equal 
portions. Then one of the leaders collected large 
quantities of straw, wood and water, and started [his 
carts]. On the second or third march the leader saw 
a swarthy red-eyed man coming from the opposite 
direction, armed with a quiver, wearing a lotus wreath, 
his garments and hair wet, and driving a chariot drawn 
by asses, its wheel splashed with mud. When he saw 
this man he said : — " W^hence come you, Sir } " 

' *' From such and such a district " 

• " Whither go you ? " 

* " To such and such a district." 

* " Has there, Sir, been any great fall of rain recently 
in the jungle ? " 

"* Yes indeed. Sir, there has been a great rain in 
the jungle just in front, the roads are well watered, 
there is much grass and wood and water. [344] Throw 
away the grass and wood and water. Sir, you have 
already got ; with light-laden carts you will go quite 
quickly ; do not tire your teams." 

* Then the leader told his carters what the man had 
said, and bade them throw away their provender and 
wood, that the caravan might travel more quickly. 

' " So be it, sir," the carters replied, and did so. But 
at their first camp they saw no grass or wood or water, 
nor at the second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth or seventh 
camp. So they all met with ruin and disaster. And 
then that fiend, the yakkha, devoured all the men and 
the cattle in that caravan, leaving only the bones 
behind. 

'When the second caravan leader knew that the 
other caravan had got well on its way, he took in large 
supplies of grass and wood and water and set out. 
And he too met a swarthy red-eyed man, [345] and 
exchanged with him the same remarks, and was also 
bidden to throw away his provender. 



366 XXIII. PAYASI SUTTANTA. D. ii. 345. 

' Then that leader said to his carters : " This man, 
sirs, says that there has recently been much rain in 
the jungle, that the roads are watered, and there is 
plenty of grass and wood and water. And he advises 
us to throw away our provender, so that, with lightened 
carts we may travel quicker and not weary our teams. 
But this man, sirs, is not a friend of ours, nor a kins- 
man, nor of our blood. Why should we act as if we 
trusted him ? Our stock of provender is not to be 
thrown away ; let the caravan proceed with the goods 
we brought ; let us not part with what we have." 

' " So be it, sir," agreed the carters, and went on 
with the stock they had loaded. And at seven suc- 
cessive camping places they saw no grass or wood or 
water ; [346] but they saw the other caravan that had 
come to grief. And they saw the skeletons of the men 
and cattle devoured by that yakkha fiend. 

* Then the caravan leader said to the carters : " That 
caravan, my masters, met with ruin and disaster, through 
having that silly caravan leader for its guide. Well 
then, let us leave here such of our wares as are of little 
value, and take from that caravan such wares as are of 
great value. " So be it, master," replied the carters, 
and made the transfer, and passed safely through the 
jungle, through having this wise caravan leader for 
their oruide.^ 

' Even so you. Prince, silly and unintelligent, will 
meet with ruin and disaster in that you seek so sense- 
lessly after another world, even like that former caravan 
leader. They who fancy that they can believe what- 
ever they hear, will meet with ruin and disaster, even 
like those carters. Renounce, Prince, this evil set of 
opinions ; renounce them, I say ! Let them not involve 
you long in bale and sorrow ! ' 

24. ' Even though Master Kassapa says this, I still 

^ This story has been turned into a Jdtaka by identifying the hero 
as the Buddha in a previous birth, and has been made the first story 
in the collection afterwards put together as the Jataka Book. It is 
one of twelve stories in that book found in the older texts. See 
'Buddhist India,' p. 195. . , 



D. ii. 348. REBIRTH AND KARMA. 367 

cannot bring myself to renounce this evil set of opinions. 
King Pasenadi the Kosalan knows me,and so do foreign 
kings, as holding to the creed and the opinion [347] that 
there is neither another world, nor rebirth other than of 
parents by human parentage, nor fruit or result of deeds 
well and ill-done. If I, master Kassapa, renounce these 
opinions people will say of me : " How silly is prince 
Payasi, how unintelligent, how badly he grasps any- 
thing ! "' In wrath thereat will I keep to it. In guile 
will I keep to it. In self-respect will I keep to it ! ' 

25. 'Well then. Prince, I will give you a simile, for 
it is by way of a simile that some intelligent men discern 
the meaning of what has been said. Once upon a time. 
Prince, a certain swineherd was going from his own 
village to another village. There he saw a heap of 
dry dung thrown away. Seeing it he thought : — " That's 
a lot of dry dung thrown away which will feed my pigs. 
What if I were to carry it away ? " So he spread out 
his cloak and collecting the dr}'' dung tied it into a 
bundle and liftinp- it on to his head went on. In the 
after-part of his journey there fell a heavy shower of 
rain out of season. He, splashed with muck to his nail- 
tips, bearing his oozing, dripping dung-burden, went on 
his way. And men seeing him said : — " Gramercy, you 
must be mad, you must be out of your senses ! How- 
can you tote along that oozing, dripping load of dung, 
splashed with muck to your nail-tips ? " " It's you that 
are mad, you that are out of your senses ; by this my pigs 
will get food." [348] Even so, methinks, Prince, do you 
talk, like this dung-carrying simile. Renounce, Prince, 
this evil set of opinions, renounce them, I say ! Let 
them not be long a cause of bale and sorrow to you.' 

26. * Even though Master Kassapa says this, I cannot 
bring myself to renounce this evil set of opinions. King 
Pasenadi the Kosalan knows me, and so do foreign kings, 
as holding to the creed and the opinion that there is 
neither another world, nor rebirth other than of parents 
by human parentage, nor fruit or result of deeds well or 
ill-done. If I, Master Kassapa, renounce these opinions, 
people will say of me: — " How silly is Prince Payasi, how 



368 XXIII. PAYASI SUTTANTA. D. ii. 348. 

unintelligent, how bad is his grasp of things ! " In anger 
thereat will I keep to it. In guile will I keep to it. In 
self-respect will I keep to it ! ' 

27. * Well then, Prince, I will give you a simile, for it 
is by way of a simile that some intelligent men discern 
the meaning of what is said. Once upon a time, Prince, 
two gamesters were playing with dice. One gamester 
swallowed as it came each adverse die. The other 
gamester saw him do this and said : — " Look here, friend, 
you've won outright ; give me the dice ; I will make 
a votive offering of them." " Good, friend," said the 
other, and handed over the dice. Then the second 
gamester smeared over the dice with poison, and pro- 
posed to the former : — " Come along, friend, let's play." 
" Good, friend," replied the other. Again, therefore, 
they played, and again that gamester swallowed each 
adverse die. [349] The second gamester saw him doing 
so and said : — 

The man knows not the swallowed die 
With sharpest burning is smeared o'er. 

Swallow, you false cheat, swallow now ! 
Bitter the hour at hand for you ! ^ 

'Even like the simile of the gamester, Prince, methinks 
is what you say. Renounce, Prince, this evil set of 
opinions, renounce them, I say ! Let them not be long 
a source of bale and sorrow to you ! ' 

28. * Even though Master Kassapa says this, I still 
cannot bring myself to renounce this evil set of opinions. 
King Pasenadi the Kosalan knows me, and so do foreign 



^ This story is also in the Jataka Book, I, 380. The modus 
operandi of the cheat is rendered obscure by our ignorance of the 
game played. Liiders in his ' Wiirfelspiel der alten Inder ' has 
shown that the dice were seeds of a tree called the Vibhitaka, and 
that the usual game was probably to throw a number of seeds on 
a board, having previously fixed on a certain number. The seeds 
fell some upright, some on their sides. Only the upright ones 
counted. If they were less than the agreed number it was a draw ; if 
equal the thrower won and threw again ; if more he lost, and lost the 
throw. An extra seed was called the kali, 'the unlucky die.' This 
the cheat seems to have managed to pick up, and swallow. 



D. ii.350- REBIRTH AND KARMA. 369 

kings, as holding to the creed and the opinion that 
there is neither another world, nor rebirth other 
than of parents, nor fruit or result of deeds well or 
ill-done. If I, Master Kassapa, renounce these opinions, 
people will say : " How silly is Prince Payasi, how un- 
intelligent, how bad is his grasp of things ! " In wrath 
thereat will I keep to it. In guile will I keep to it. In 
self-respect will I keep to it.' 

29. ' Well then. Prince, I will give you a simile, for it 
is by way of a simile that some intelligent men discern 
the meaning of what is said. Once upon a time, Prince, 
a certain country-side migrated. And one man said 
to his crony : — " Let's go friend, to that countr}-side ; 
perhaps we may come upon some treasure." " Good, 
friend," assented the other. And they came to where, 
in that country-side, there was a certain village street. 
[350] There they saw a heap of hemp thrown away. 
Then one said to the other : " Here's a heap of hemp: 
do you make some into a bundle, I'll do the same and 
we'll carry it away." The other consented, and they 
did so. 

' Bearing this burden they went on to another village 
street. There they saw a heap of hempen thread 
thrown away, and one said to the other : — " This heap 
of hempen thread thrown away is just the thing we 
want hemp for. Well then, friend, you throw away 
your load of hemp, I'll throw away mine, and we'll take 
away each a load of hempen thread." " I've brought 
this load of hemp a long way, friend, and it's well tied 
up — that's enough for me; you choose for yourself/' 
So th2 former changed his load for one of hempen 
thread. 

' Then they came to another village street. There 
they saw a heap of hempen cloths. And the one 
said to the other : — " This heap of hempen cloths is 
just the thing we want hemp for, or hempen thread 
for. Well then, friend, do you throw away your load 
of hemp. Ill throw away my load of hempen thread, 
and we'll each take a load of hempen cloth." " I've 
brought this load of hemp a long way, friend, and it's 
III. B b 



370 PAYASI SUTTANTA. D. ii. 350. 

well tied up — that's enough for me ; you choose for 
yourself." So the former changed his load for one of 
hempen cloth. 

* Then they came to another village street. There 
they saw a heap of flax ; and to another where they 
saw linen thread ; and to another where they saw linen 
cloth. And at each place the one crony made a change 
for the better, the other retained his hemp. [35l] 
Further they saw cotton-down, cotton thread and 
calico ; and the same thing happened. Further they 
saw iron, copper, tin, lead, silver, gold. So that in the 
end the one crony had a load of gold, the other of hemp. 

' So they came to their own village. There the 
crony who brought a load of hemp pleased neither 
his parents, nor his own family, nor his friends, and 
won neither pleasure or happiness. [352] But the other 
with his load of gold both gave and won pleasure. 

* Even like the simile of the load of hemp, methinks 
Prince, is what you say. Renounce, Prince, this evil 
set of opinions, renounce them, I say ! Let them not 
be long a source of bale and sorrow to you.' 

30. 'With Master Kassapa's first simile I was pleased, 
I was charmed ; moreover I wanted to hear his ready 
wit in questions, for I regarded Master Kassapa as 
one who was to be opposed. It is wonderful, Master 
Kassapa, it is marvellous! just as if one were to set 
up what has been upset, or were to reveal that which 
has been hidden away, or were to point out the road 
to the bewildered, or were to bring a lamp into the 
darkness, so that they that have eyes may see — even 
so has the truth been declared in many a figure by 
Master Kassapa. And I, even I, betake myself for 
refuge to Gotama the Exalted One, to the Doctrine 
and to the Brotherhood. May Master Kassapa accept 
me as a disciple, as one who from this day forth as 
long as life endures, has taken him as his guide. And 
I should like, Master Kassapa, to offer a great sacrifice. 
Let Master Kassapa instruct me herein that it may 
bring me long welfare and happiness.' 

31. 'At the sort of sacrifice, Prince, where oxen are 



D. ii. 354- THE RIGHT SACRIFICE. 37 1 

slain, or goats, or fowls and pigs, or divers creatures 
are put an end to ; [353] and those that take part in 
the sacrifice have wrong views, wrong intention, wrong 
speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong en- 
deavour, wrong mindfulness, wrong rapture, such a 
sacrifice, Prince, is neither of great fruitfulness nor of 
great profit, nor of great renown, nor of widespread 
effect \ It is just as if a farmer. Prince, were to enter 
a wood taking with him plough and seed, and were 
there, in an untilled tract, in unfavourable soil, among 
unuprooted stumps, to plant seeds that were broken, 
rotten, spoilt by wind and heat, out of season, not in 
good condition, and the god were not to give good 
rain in due season. Would those seeds attain to 
growth, increase and expansion, or would the farmer 
Sfet abundant returns ? ' 

' No indeed, Master Kassapa.' 

'So is it. Prince, with that sort of sacrifice. But 
where. Prince, neither oxen are slain, nor goats, nor 
fowls and pigs, nor are divers creatures put an end to, 
and those that partake of the sacrifice have right 
views, right intention, right speech, right action, right 
livelihood, right endeavour, right mindfulness, right 
rapture, such a sacrifice is of great fruitfulness, of great 
profit, of great renown, of widespread effect. It is 
just as if a farmer, Prince, were to enter a wood, 
taking with him plough and seed, and were there, in 
a well-tilled tract, in favourable soil well cleared of 
stumps, [354] to plant seed that was unbroken, free 
from mildew, unspoilt by wind or heat, in season and 
in sfood condition, and the orod were to sfive oood rain 
in due season. Would those seeds grow, increase, ex- 
pand, and would the farmer get abundant returns ? ' 

' He would indeed, Master Kassapa.' 

' So is it. Prince, with that sort of sacrifice, where . . . 
no creatures are put to death, and those that take part 



^ So of the sacrifice intended by the Very Reverend Sir Gold-srick 
Sharp- tooth in the Ku/adanta, See especially above, I, 163. 

£ b 2 



372 PAYASI SUTTANTA. D. ii. 354. 

therein are of high character. Such a sacrifice is of 
great fruitfulness, profit, renown and widespread effect.' 

32. Then Prince Payasi instituted a gift to Wan- 
derers and Brahmins, the poor, wayfarers, beggars and 
petitioners. In that gift such food was given as gruel 
and scraps of food, and coarse robes with ball-fringes \ 
And at that gift a young brahmin named Uttara was 
passed over ^. When the largesse had been distributed 
he mocked, saying : ' By this largesse I have met Prince 
Payasi in this world, but how about the next?^' [355] 
Paydsi heard of this, and sent word to Uttara asking 
him if it was true that he was saying this ? 

' Yes, sir,' replied Uttara. 

* But why have you been saying this, my dear 
Uttara ? Do not we who are seeking merit look for 
result from giving ? ' 

' In your gift, sir, such food as gruel and broken 
meats are given which you, sir, would not touch with 
your foot, much less eat ; also coarse ball-fringed robes 
which you, sir, would not deign to use as carpets, 
much less to wear. You, sir, are pleasant and dear 
to us ; how are we to associate what is pleasant and 
dear with what is unpleasant?' 

'Well then, my dear Uttara, do you arrange that 
such food shall be given as I eat, and such garments 
be given as I wear.' 

'Very good, sir,' replied Uttara, and did so ^. 

^ To keep the robes down. 

'^ Vyava/o. This became almost a technical term in connexion 
with largesse. It is literally ' hindered ' ; but when the things to be 
given were too limited as compared with the number of applicants, 
some had to be passed over. They were dana-vyava/^ 'hindered 
at the largesse ' (Jat. Ill, 129). Compare D. II, 141 ; Sum. I, 296 ; 
Jat. I, 89; VVA. 298. But here perhaps it may simply mean 
' objected to the largesse.' 

' Literally ' do not associate (with him) in the next.' The gibe 
intended must be very nearly as we have rendered. But both the 
reading of the text and the grammatical construction are doubtful. 
The word we have rendered 'mocked' (uddissati) has only been 
found here. Perhaps it means ' showed (the matter) up,' which 
comes to much the same as to point the finger of mockery. 

* Apparently at his own cost. 



D. ii. 357- THE RIGHT WAY TO GIVE. 373 

[356] Now prince Payasi, inasmuch as he had be- 
stowed his gift without thoroughness, not with his own 
hands, without due thought, as something discarded, 
was, after his death, reborn into the communion of the 
Four Great Kings \ in the empty mansion of the 
Acacia. But the youth Uttara, who had objected to 
that gift and had bestowed his gift thoroughly, with 
his own hands, with due thought, not as something 
discarded, was, after his death, reborn in a bright and 
happy world, into the communion of the Three-and- 
Thirty Gods. 

^7,. Now at that time the venerable Gavampati^ 
used frequently to go for siesta to the empty mansion 
of the Acacia. And Payasi, now one of the gods, came 
up to him and, saluting him, stood on one side. To 
him so standing the venerable Gavampati said : — ' Who 
art thou, friend .'* ' 

' I, sir, am prince Payasi.' 

' Wert thou not once of the opinion that there was 
no other world, no rebirth other than of parents, no 
fruit or result of deeds well or ill-done ? ' 

[357] ' I was indeed, sir, but through his reverence 
Kumara Kassapa I detached myself from that evil set 
of opinions.' 

' But the youth Uttara, who objected to thy gift, 
friend, whereunto has he been reborn ? ' 

' He, Sir, having objected to my gift, and having 
himself bestowed a gift thoroughly, with his own hands, 
with due thought, not as something discarded, has, 
since he died, been reborn in the bright and happy 
world, into the communion of the Three-and-Thirty 
Gods. I, sir, inasmuch as I bestowed my gift without 
thoroughness, not with my own hand, without due 
thought, as something discarded, was after my death 

* The guardian spirits of the four quarters. See the Introduction 
to the Maha-samaya Suttanta. 

^ He had been the son of a merchant at Benares ; and had been 
received into the Order by the Buddha at the very beginning of his 
career as a teacher (Vin. I, 19). This legend supposes him, still a 
man, going for meditation to the lower heavens. 



374 XXIII. PAYASI SUTTANTA. D. ii. 357. 

reborn into the communion of the Four Great Kings, 
in the empty mansion of Acacia. Wherefore, Gavam- 
pati, Sir, go thou into the world of men and tell 
them : — " Give ye your gifts with thoroughness, with 
your own hands, with due thought, and give not as if 
ye were discarding somewhat. For so did not prince 
Payasi ; and he after his death was reborn into the 
communion of the Four Great Kings, in the empty 
mansion of the Acacia. But the youth Uttara, who 
bestowed his gifts in the right way, was after his death 
reborn in the bright and happy world, into the com- 
munion of the Three-and-Thirty Gods." ' 

34. So the venerable Gavampati came back to the 
world of men, and there told these things. 



The Payasi Dialogue is ended. 



INDEX I. 

PRINCIPAL SUBJECTS AND 
PROPER NAMES. 



Accuta, a fairy, 290. 

Ajata-sattu, king of Magadha, 7?, 
187 

Akan'Utha, gods, 319. 

Ambapali, courtezan, 102-105. 

Ambasanda, village in Magadha, 299. 

Ananda, 158-160, 177. 

Anejaka, fairies, 290. 

Anuruddlia, 176, 177. 

Arahant, 167; his qualities com- 
pared with those of a Buddha, 
2, 88, 89. 

Architecture, 210-214. 

Aritt/jukas, fairies, 290. 

Aryan, truths, the four, 96, 337- 
345 J merchants, 92. 

Asavas, gods, 291. 
Taints, 28. 

Assakas, a tribe, 270. 

Assatara Nagas, 289. 

Asuras, 289. See Titans. 

Babe, visible in the womb, 10. 

Bandhuman, raja, father of Vipassi 
Buddha, 1 3 if. 

Bali, god, 289. 

Bhadda, name of Suriya-vaccasa, 
302, 320. 

Bharahat Tope, evidence of, 4. 

Bharata, king, 270. 

Bharatas, the seven, kings, 270. 

Bhuiijati, wife of Vessavana, 305, 

Bimbisara, king of Magadha, 238, 
240. 

Birth, results of, 21, 52; definition 
of, 338 ; cause of, 51. 

Bodhisatta, Wisdom-Being, i, 2; 
various changes in the meaning 
of the term, 3 ; sixteen events 
at the birth of a, 8-1 2 ; earth- 
quakes at incarnation of, 1 1 6. 



Brahma, verses by, 32, 175 ; recites 
Patimokkha, 37; portent of, 
243, 264; commune with, 272- 
275. 

Brick Hall, at Nadika, 97, 237, 239. 

Buddha, an Awakened One, at first 
referred to an Arahant, 2 ; after- 
wards acquired its present tech- 
nical sense, 2 ; the Buddha never 
called himself the B., 2 ; how 
far a B, can recollect previous 
births, 4 ; his div'ne hearing, 5 ; 
the seven Buddhas, details as 
to, 6, 7; B.'s last meal, 137; 
modes of addressing a B., 140; 
only one B. at a time, 263. 

Buddhism, the Buddha's last sum- 
mary of, 127-129; description 
of, 250; result of, 280, 281. 

Cairn, burial, four people worthy 
of, 156; over the Buddha's 
ashes, 187-191. 

Candana, a god, 288. 

Channa, not to be spoken to, 171. 

Christianity and Buddhism, 311, 313, 

325. 

Chunda, a bhikkhu, 147; called 
Chundaka, 147. 

Chunda, copper-smith, 137 ff-, 147, 
148. 

Citta-sena, a god, 288. 

Cloth of gold, 145. 

Conversion, two talks leading to, 
34-36. 

Cosmogony, the inter-world space, 
9, 12, 296 ; ten thousand world- 
systems, 9, 1 2 ; three worlds of 
Gods, 9, 12 ; highest heavens, 
39-41, 67. 

Council at Rajagaha, 76, 77, 169. 



176 



DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA. 



Courtezan, the converted, 102 ff. 

Craving, 339-343- 

Cremation, of a king, 155, 182; of 

the Buddha, 180 if. 
Cries, the ten, 152. 

Danaveghasas, gods, 289. 
Danta-pura, in Kalinga, 270. 
Death, with longing in one's heart, 

226; when full of noble though ts, 

229. 
Delight, heaven of, 8, 9, 11 ; eyes 

blink not there, 17. 
Deliverance, from delusion, eight 

stages of, 119. 
Desire, suppression of, not taught in 

Buddhism, 83 ; source of, 311. 
Dhatara/f ^a, god of the East quarter, 

259, 287. 
king, 270; Naga, 289. 
Digestion, ancient theory of, 208, 

209. 
Disam-pati, king, 266. 
Dreams, soul leaves the body during, 

359- 

Ear, heavenly, far reaching, 5. 

Earthquakes, eight causes of, 114; 
at the Buddha's death, 175. 

Economic conditions intheBuddha's 
time, 198. 

Effort, the right, 344. 

Ejama, fairies, 291. 

Elephant, dream of, 116; elephant 
look, 121 ; mystic elephant, 204. 

Enlightenment, seven factors of, 336. 

Equanimity, 313. 

Eravawa, Sakka's elephant, 289. 

Esoteric doctrine, none in the Bud- 
dha's teaching, 107. 

Ethics, see lay ; see faith and works. 

Eye, heavenly, can see a league off, 
17; can perceive the other 
world, 357 ; a Buddha's eye sur- 
veys the world, 31 ; sees fairies 
and gods, 92, 286, 293 ; eye for 
the Truth, 34, 176, 320 ; eye of 
the World, 152; the Devas 
cannot see Brahma, 244. 

Faith, and works, 86 ; in the three 

jewels, 99. 
Five-crest, a fairy, 300 fF., 320. 

Gandhabbas, gods, 288, 308. 
Gavampati, 373. 
Gem, the mystic, 205. 



Gifts, right method of, 374. 

Gods, like men, 103, 117; haunt 
sites, 93 ; receive merit from 
men, 94 ; in perfumes, 50 ; take 
precedence below men, 115; 
death of, 178; list of, 246; 
keep the Feast of Invitations, 
259 ; smell of men offends, 
355 ; length of days and years 
of, 356. 

Gopaka, and Gopika, 306 ff. 

Govinda, 266 ff. 

Grant, perpetual, 211. 

Great-Man, potentate or prophet, 
has thirty-two marks, 13. 

Happiness, when to be sought after, 

^312. 
Haramatta fairies, 291. 
Heart, seat of imagination, 60. 
Hell, wrong rendering, 91. 

Inda-sala-guha, cave, 299. 
Individuality, pain involved in, 338. 
Indra, 297, 308. 
Intoxications, the four, 28, 105. 
Iron, 155. 

Jana-vasabha, 240 ff. 
Janesabha, a god, 288. 
Jeta's Wood, near Savatthi, 4. 
Jotipala, afterwards Maha-Govinda, 
26711. 

Kakusandha, one of the six previous 

Buddhas, 6, 7. 
Kalakaiijas, gods, 289. 
Kambala Nagas, 289. 
Kawha-Mara, 293. 
Kassapa, one of the six previous 

Buddhas, 6, 7. 
Kassapa, the Boy, 349 ff. 
Kassapa, the Great, 75, 183-185. 
Ka«i>aka, fairies, 291. 
Khemiya gods, 291. 
Kinnugha»Ju, a god, 288. 
Koliyas, of Rama-gama, 188. 
Konagamana, one of the six previous 

Buddhas, 6, 7. 
Kosiya, epithet of Sakka, 297, 305. 
Kumbhtra, local god at Rajagaha, 

287. 
Kusinara, where the Buddha died, 

149, 161, 187. 
Ku/eWu, god, 288. 
Kuvera, god of the North, 288. 



PRINCIPAL SUBJECTS AND PROPER NAMES. 



177 



Lama, gods, 291. 

Lambitakas, gods, 291. 

Lao Tsii, i. 

Law, realm of system and, 167. 

Lay ethics, for clansmen, 80 ; for 

householders, 91, 
Licchavis, 103, 187. 
Light, universal, at conception and 

birth of a Bodhisat, 9, 12. 
Lotus ponds, their architecture, 210, 

215. 

Maghava. epithet of Sakka, 297. 

Mahapadana Suttanta, 1 fF.; mean- 
ing of, 3. 

Maha-purisa, see Great Man. 

Maha-sudassana, king, 161, 192 ff. 

iSIahavastu, meaning of, 3 ; contents 
of, 257. 

Mallas, of Kusinara, 149, 162 ff.; 
called Vase///as, 179, 181. 

Maras, a class of gods, 9, 12, 117, 
293. 

Mastery, over delusion, eight posi- 
tions of, 118. 

Matali, a Gandharva, charioteer to 
Sakka, 288. 

Maya, the Buddha's mother, 7, 116. 

Maya, goddess of guile, 288. 

Merit of gifts may be transferred to 
gods, 94, 

Migration, of a community, 369. 

Mind, power over body, 106, 108, 
138 ; mind and matter, 115. 

Mindful and self-possessed, loi, 106, 
109, 530 ff. 

Mirror of truth, 99 ff. 

Missionaries, sending forth of, 36. 

Mnemonic doggrel, 283, 

Moriyas, of Pipphali-vana, 190. 

Mother, of a Bodhisat, character of, 
9, 10. 

Musical instruments, seven, 214. 

Nabhasa, a town, 288. 
Nadika, in Videha, 97, 237. 
Nala, a god, 288. 
Nalanda, in Magadha, 87. 
Namuci, Spirit of evil, 289. 
Needle, angels on the point of a, 

151. 
Nigaw/ia of the Natha clan, 166. 
Nighan^/u, a god, 288. 
Nirvana, entered into, of a living 

man, 132. 

Odata-gayhas, fairies, 291. 



Opamanna, a Gandharva, 288. 
Ordination, was at first without 
ceremony, 170. 

Paharada, god, 289. 

Pajapati, a god, 308. 

Palaces, Vipassi's three, 17. 

Panada, a Gandharva, 288. 

Panca-sikha, heavenly musician, 288. 

Paramatta, a god, 292. 

Pasenadi, king of Kosala, 4. 

Pa/ali-putta, fort on the Ganges, 
prophecy concerning, 92. 

Pa/icca-samuppada, dependent origi- 
nation, doctrine of, older than 
Buddhism, i ; discussed, 42-49. 

Patimokkha, Brahma gods recite, 
37 ; Vipassi's version of the, 38 ; 
Sakka's question about the, 314. 

Payaga Nagas, 289. 

Pilgrimages, 154. 

Potana, in Assaka, 270. 

Pre-existence, 4. 

Probation, of four months, 168. 

Pukkusa, the Mallian, 141 ff. 

Purindada, epithet of Sakka, 297, 

Rahu, demon, 289. 
Rainy season (Fasja), 106. 
Rama-gama, 188-191. 
Rama-se/zifa, a god, 288. 
Rapture, nine stages of, 174 ; the 
four, 215; practice of, 250, 

345- 

Rebirth, 98. 

Reign of Law, the Buddhist doctrine 
of, I. 

Renu, prince and king, 267 ff. 

Rest, at (deceased), 132. 

Retreat, jee Rainy season, 241, 

Righteousness, kingdom of, founda- 
tion of, 116. 

Road, 34. 

Robes, method of wearing, 145, 
186, 202. 

Rojas, fairies, 290. 

Roi-uka, in Sovira, 270. 

Rucira, a fairy, 290. 

Sacred places, four kinds of, 153. 

Sacrifice, the ideal, 371-374. 

Sadamatta, fairies, 291. 

Sahali, gods, 290. 

Sakiyas, the Buddha's clan, 187, 

1 88. 
Sakka, king of the gods, 290, 294- 

298 ; verses by. 175,260; builds 



378 



DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA. 



a palace, 212; his eulogy of the 
Buddha, 261-263. 
Sakya sage, 308. 
Sa/ala, cottage, 305. 
Sanaw-kumara, 245, 264, 292. 
Sanskrit Buddhist literature, 256, 
Sanskrit literature, anachronisms in, 

283. 
Sariputta, his names, 78 ; his death, 

193. 
Sata, a hill, 287. 
Satipa/z^anas, the four, 249. 
Serpent-race, 191. 
Sikaddhi, son of Matali, 302. 
Sikhi, one of the six previous 

Buddhas, 6, 7. 
Similes : 

The threaded jewel, 1 o. 

The jewel laid on muslin, 11. 

The lotus, 16, 32. 

The man on the crag, 32. 

Clean cloth and dye, 34. 

The tangled skein, and matted 
thread, 50. 

Child on his father's hip, 68. 

The brooding hen, 86. 

The city walls and the cat, 88. 

The causeway and the rafts, 95. 

Mirror of Truth, 99. 

Jewels of the Law, loi. 

The lamp, 108. 

The topmost height, 109. 

Golden image, 244. 

The confluence of Ganges and 
Jumna, 261. 

The pure gem, 276. 

The elephant, 301, 308. 

The bag of samples, 330. 

The butcher, 331. 

The man in the pit of mire, 354. 

The blind man and colours, 356. 

The posthumous child, 357. 

The soul of the boiled man, 359. 

The hot iron, 360. 

The country bumpkins and the 
trumpet, 361. 

The forest lad and the fire, 363. 

The caravan leaders and the 
demon, 365. 

The swineherd and the dung, 

367. 
The gambler and the poisoned 

dice, 368. 
The two treasure seekers, 369. 
Sneezing, phrase to counteract evil 

from, 279. 
Soma, 282, 290. 



Soothsayers, 13, 16. 

Sorrow, when to be sought after, 

313. 
Soul, seven theories of, 61 ff.; three 

aspects of, 63 fF.; search for, 

359-361. 
Spirits, 178. See Gods; cloud- 
spirits, five kinds of, 205. 
Subhadda, the last convert, 164- 

169; was a Brahmin, 184. 
Subhadda, the old barber, 184. 
Subhadda, queen, 193 ff., 221. 
Sublime conditions, the Four, 219, 

256, 279. 
Subrahma, a god, 292. 
Sucitti, god, 289. 

Suddhodana, the Buddha's father, 7. 
Sudhamma, council-hall of the gods, 

304, 308. 
Suicide, 357. 
Sukhavati-vyuha, origin of phrases 

in the, 198. 
Suleyya, a fairy, 290. 
Sunetta, a prophet, 73, 294. 
Sun-myths, how far to be accepted, 

197. 
Suriya-vaccasa, goddess, 288. 

Tacchaka, a town, 288. 
Teachers, the six, 166. 
Timbaru, a god, 288, 301. 
Titans, 243. 
Tooth-relics, 191. 
Transfiguration, rise of legend of, 

146, 223. 
Treasurer, the mystic, 207. 
Treasures, the seven, of the Lord of 

the V/heel, 13, 202-208. 
Trees, musical, 201, 214, 217. 
Truffles, 137. 
Tusita, heaven of delight, 8, 9, 11. 

Upavana, 151. 
Uttara, 294, 372. 

Vajjians, Videha clan, 78-81. 
Varuwa, Vedic god, associated after- 
wards with tree-cult, 4, 289. 
Vasava, god, 289, 308, 320. 
Vasavanesi, deities, 290. 
Vasus, gods, 290. 
Vediya, hill, 299. 
Veghanasas, gods, 291. 
Vejayanta, Sakka's palace, 297. 
Vepacitti, god, 289. 
Veroca, god, 289, 
Vessabhu, a king, 270. 



PRI^XIPAL SUBJECTS AND PROPER NAMES. 



179 



Vessabhu, one of the six previous 

Buddhas, 6, 7. 
Vessamitta, god, 287. 
Vessavana, a god, 241, 251, 259, 305. 
\Qtsnd\i, god, 288. 
Ve/i>a-dipa, brahmin of, 1 88. 
Vicakkha«a fairies, 291. 
Vihara, in old texts a room, not a 

monastery, 4, 106, 157. 
Vipassi, a former Buddha, 6 ff. ; 

people's derivation of the name, 

Viru/haka, a guardian spirit, 241, 

259, 287, 
Virupakkha, god of the West quarter, 

259, 288. 
Vishnu, 290. 
Visions, the four; aged, diseased, 

dead man, and a wanderer, 18 fF. 

See Eye. 
Vissakarama, architect to the gods, 

212. 
Vi/u, and Vi/ucca, gods, 288. 



Voice, the ideal kind of, 16. 

Wanderer, described, 22. 

Weighing a dead man, 360. 

Welfare, conditions of, for clans- 
men and Wanderers, 80 S. 

Wheel, the mystic, behaviour of, 
202—204. 

Wheel, Lord of the, king of the 
Golden Age, 13, 155, 157. 

Wings of Wisdom, the thirty-seven, 
128, 129. 

Wisdom Tree, 23, 33, 113. 

Women, 98, 102, 154, 160, 163, 306, 
276, 279, 306. 

World, the next, messenger from. 



Yama, twins, 290. 
Yasa, a god, 290. 



Zarathustra, i. 



INDEX II. 



PALI WORDS DISCUSSED. 



Ajjhitta, 321. 
Anna, 346. 
Advaya, 159. 
Anacchariya, 30. 
Anuttara, 277. 
Apadana, 3. 
Apaya, 51. 
Abhifina, 318. 
Amata, 33. 
Ayasa, 155. 
Araha, 2. 
Avijja, 312. 
Avecca, 251. 

Asava, 28, 291. 

Iddhi, 78, no, 208, 246. 

Eja, 317. 

Unhisa, 210. 
Unhisa-s'so, 16. 
Udaka-sala, 187. 
Uddisati, 372. 
Upadana, 24, 53. 
Upalapana, 81. 
Upekha, 314. 

Okkamati, 60. 
Ottappa, 83. 

Karavika. 16. 
Kenacideva, 235. 

Gahani, 209. 
Gahapati, 206. 
Govindiye, 267. 

Jarata, 338. 

Citta, 325, 334. 
Cetiya, 80, in. 

Chanda, 311, 315. 
Chanda-rago, 55. 



Takka, 29. 
Tawha, 54, 55, 58. 
Tathagata, 65. 
Tamatagge, 109. 
Turiya, 18. 

Thiti, 195. 
Thupa, 156. 

Dana, 347, 348.1 
Devata, 115, 278. 
Dhamma, 325. 
Dhammata, 8. 

Nama-rupa, 59. 
Nippurisa, 18. 
Nekkhamma, 343. 

Pa//sunati, 133. 
Pa//^na, 324. 
Paja, 50. 
Punna, 68. 
Papanca, 312. 
Pamuncantu, 33. 
Parama/Zita, 85. 
Parinayaka, 208. 
Parinibbayati, 65. 
Parinibbuto, 132. 
Paripaka, 338. 
Parimukkha, 329. 
Pariyu/Ziiita, in. 
Pariyosana, 316. 
Pokkharawi, 210. 

Buddha, 2. 
Bodhisatta, 3. 

Brahma-, 316. 

Bhatta, 137, 
Bhavo, 53. 
Bhikkhu, 81. 
Bhujissa, 85. 



382 



PALI WORDS DISCUSSED. 



Maddava, 137. 
Manta, 277, 278. 
Mahavastu, 3. 
Mahasala, 161. 
Ma/o, 4. 
Missaka, 108. 
Mutolij 3 30. 

Yavadeva, 236. 

Vatthu-vijja, 92. 
Vitakka, 311 
Vinicchayo, 55, 311. 
Vipassana, 17. 
Vibhava, 340. 
Visesa, 242, 251. 
Vihara, 4, 106, 157. 



Vegha, io8. 
Vedana, 54. 
Vedika, 210. 
Velamika, 231, 359. 
Vyavam, 372. 
Vyuha, 214. 

Sawvuta, 9. 

Sawkhata, 64. 

Sawkhara, 113, 176, 196, 248. 

Saka/a-mukha, 269. 

Sanjati, 338. 

Sanni, 178. 

Sati, 322-334. 

Samawa, 165. 

Samavatta, 15. 

Samucchati, 60. 

Samphasso, 58-59. 



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